Skip to main content

Full text of "General biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nations ; particularly the British and the Irish, from the earliest accounts to the present time"

See other formats


This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  library  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 

to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 

to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 

are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  maiginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 

publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  tliis  resource,  we  liave  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 
We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  fivm  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attributionTht  GoogXt  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  in  forming  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liabili^  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.   Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 

at|http: //books  .google  .com/I 


1.101    e ,  \b^ 








i      <■■  )"^-w#. 

^   ■         ■  ■^■^^■^nF* 


■•   < 


•      f 

-  V 

,    «■ 


fr\tiiid  hf^'HtrrfioiSi  Son;  and  Bentley^ 
Red  Lion  Passage, 'Fktt  Stfe«t^  .LondMi* 







or  THC 









OGLE  AND  CO.;  J.  DEIGHT9N  AND.  90N,  CAMWMD9|||,,^0NS1(ABjLK  AND  COw 
^INBUEGH 1  AND  WM.90N  AND  mH,  •  YPgK. .         ^    i     ;     ^ .  4  * 




J?  ABER  (Basil],  an  eminent  Lutheran  diving  was  born 
in  1520,  »t  Soraw  in  Lusatia,  on  the  confines  of  Silesia. 
He  Was  bred  to  letters,  and  successively  became  a  teacher 
in  the  schools  at  N&c^  '  -  -  -  ■ 

burg,  and  lastly,  rectO" 
furt.     He  was  a  zeajp 

German,  the  remarks  "T-iuSji 
also  observations  on  C  v'^lry^ 
was  concerned  in  *h'>  !.''->  ^.j- 
chief  foundation  of  i  "  'iftiS  i  '1 
tionis  Scholasticffi,"  an  undertaking  which  required'  the 
labour  of  many  able  men  to  render  it  complete.  Tt  was 
first  published  in  1 57 1.  After  his  death  it  was  augmented 
and  improved  by  Buchner,  Thomaaius,  the  great  Christo- 
pher  Cellarius,  and  the  Gracvius's,  father  and  son.  The 
edition  published  at  the  Hague  in  1735,  in  2  vols,  folio, 
was  lung  esteemed  the  bestj  but  that  by  John  Henry  Leich, 
puhlished  at  Francfort  in  1749,  2  vols.  foL  is  thought 
superior. ' 

FABER  (John],  sirnamed  from  one  of  his  works,  the 
Hammer  of  Heretics,  "  Malleus  Hereticonim,"  was  bom 
in  Soabia  in  1479,  and  distinguished  himself  in  the  uni- 
versities of  Germany  in  the  sixteenth  century.  In  1519 
be  was  appointed  vicar-general  to  the  bishop  of  Constance ; 
in  1526,  Ferdinand  king  of  the  Romans,  afterwards  em- 
peror, uamed  bim  as  his  confessor,  and  in  1531,  advanced 

(  <  M«ttri.— Did.  Hilt— 8>Kii  OnvMub 

V«t.  XIV.  B 

2  F  A  B  E  ft. 

him  to  the  see  of  Vienna.  He  died  in  1542,  at  the  age  of 
sixty-three.  His  works  are  comprised  in  three  volumes 
folio,  printed  at  Cologne  in  1537 — 1541;  but  that  for 
which  he  was  most  celebrated  was  entitled  '^Malleus  Hse* 
reticorum/'  in  which  he  discusses  many  controversial 
points  with  considerable  warmth,  and  was  considered  by 
those  of  his  persuasion  as  a  formidable  enemy  to  the  re- 
formers. Luther  having  been  one  of  his  opponent*,  Eras- 
mus said,  when  he  was  advanced  to  the  episcopacy,  **  that 
LuCberr,  poor  as  he  was,  found  means  to  eni;ich  his  enemies.*' 
He  was  impetuous  in  argument,  and  his  enemies  attributed 
to  him  many  indiscreet  expressions,  the  consequence  of 
the  anger  he  felt  in  being  conquered  in  debate.  There 
was  another  divine  of  the  same  names,  and  who  lived  about 
the  same  time,,  and  distinguished  himself  by  many  contro* 
versial  writings  against  the  reformed  religion^  which  ailL6 
llo  longer  remembered. ' 

FABER  (Jom«),  is  the  name  of  two  engravers  whose 
works  are  held  in  some  estimation  among  portrait-collec- 
tors.  The  elder  was  born  in  Holland,  where  he  learned 
the  art  of  mezzotinto-scraping,  and  also  drew  portraits 
from  the  life,  on  vellum,  with  a  pen.  What  time  he  came 
into  England  does  not  appear,  but  he  resided  here  a  con- 
siderable time,  in  Fountain  court  in  the  Strand,  London. 
He  died  at  Bristol  in  May  1721.  He  drew  many  of  the 
portraits  which  be  engraved  from  nature,  but  they  are  not 
remarkable  either  for  taste  or  execution.  His  most  esteemed 
works  were,  a  collection  of  the  founders  of  the  colleges  of 
Oxford,  half  sheet  prints,  the  beads  of  the  philosophers 
from  Rubens,  and  a  portrait  of  Dr.  Wallis  the  mathema- 
tician, from  Kueller.  The  other  John  Faber,  the  younger, 
was  his  son,  and  lived  in  London,  at  the  Golden  Head  in 
Bloomsbury-square,  where  Strutt  thinks  he  died  in  1756. 
Like  his  father,  he  confined  himself  to  the.  engraving  of 
portraits  in  mezzotinto ;  but  he  excelled  him  in  eveiy 
requisite  of  the  art.  The  most  esteemed  works  are  the 
portraits  of  the  Kit-Cat  club,  and  the  Beauties  of  Hamp-^ 
ton  Court.  Some  of  his  portraits  are  bold,  free,  and 
heautiful.  * 

FABER.     See  FAVRE  and  FEVRE. 

FABERT  (Abraham),  an  eminent  French  ofliicer,.  wits 
the  son  of  a  bookseller  at  Mentz  (author  of  *'  Notes  sur  la 

>  :Jkforeri-i«a£Uiphi.  ?  8tmit'«  Dtot.**;Walpgle't  Anecdotes. 

F  A  B  E  R  T.  S 


CoQtutee  de  Lorraine,''  l&57^  fol.)  He  was  educated  with 
tbe  duke  d^Epernon,  and  saved  the  royal  army  at  the  fa- 
mous retreat  uf  Mehtz ;  which  has  been  compared  by  some 
authors  to  that  of  Xenopbon*s  10,000.  Beiug  wounded  in 
the  thigh  by  a  musket  at  the  siege  of  Turin, ^M.  deTu- 
reane,  and  cardinal  de  la  Valette,  to  whom  he'was  aid  de 
oamp,  intreated  him  to  submit  to  an  amputation,  which 
was  the  advice  of  all  the  surgeons ;  but  he  replied,  **  I 
must  not  die  by  piece-meal ;  death  shall  have  me  intire,  or 
not  at  all/'  Having,  however,  recovered  from  this  wound, 
he  was  afterwards  made  governor  of  Sedan ;  where  h^ 
erected  strong  fortifications,  and  with  so  much  oeconomy, 
that  his  faajesty  never,  had  any  places  better  secured  at 
so  little '  expence.  In  i654hetook  Stehay,  and  was  stp« 
pointed  mariecbal  of  France  in  1658.  His  merit,  integrity^ 
and  modesty,  gained  him  the  esteem  both  of  his  sovereign 
and  the  grandees.  He  refused  the  collar  of  the  king^s 
vrders,  saying  it  should  never  be  worn  but  by  the  ancient 
nobility ;  and  it  happened,  that  though  his  family  had  been 
ennobled  by  Henry  IV.  he  could  not  produce  the  qualifi- 
cations necessary  for  that  dignity,  and  *^  would  not,'*  as 
be  said,  ^^  have  bis  cloke  decorated  with  a  cross,  and  his 
soul  disgraced  by  an  imposture/'  Louis  Xiy.  himself  an« 
swered  his  letter  of  thanks  in  the  following  terms:  <'No^ 
person  to  whom  I  shall  give  this  collar,  will  ever  receive 
inore  -boaoiir  from  it  in  the  world,  than  you  have  gained  in 
my  opinion,  by  your  noble  refusal,  proceeding  from  so 
generous  a  principle.''  Marechal  Fabert  died  at  Sedan, 
May  17,  1662,  aged  sixty-three.  His  Life,  by  father 
3arre,  regular  canofi  of  St.  Genevieve,  was  published  at 
Paris,  1752,  2  vols.  l2tno.  'There  is  one  older,  in  one 
thin  vol.  12mo.  * 


FABIUS  MAXIMUS  (Quintus,  sumamed  Rullianus), 
was  a  celebrated  Roman,  who  was  five  times  consul,  three 
times  dictator,  and  triumphed  twice  or  more,  yet  was  aU 
ways  distinguished  by  his  modesty  and  equanimity.  The 
first  public  ofEce  in  which  we  trace  him,  is  that  of  curule 
sdiie,  which  he  bore  in  the  year  before  Christ  330,  In 
the  year. 324,  he  was  named  master  of  the  horse  by  the 
dictator  L.  Papirius  Cursor,  in  the  war  against  the  Sam* 
nicest    and/ having  given  battle  to  the  enemy  in  tbe 

;      f  Moreri.— Diet,  Hiit, 
ti  2 

4,  F  A  B  I  U  S. 

absene^  of  tbe  dictatoiv  contrary  to  his  express  order,  dioogtr 
cdilipletely  victorious,  was  capitally  condemned;  and 
tbrotigh  the  strictness  of  Roman  discipline,  and  the  in* 
flexible  severity  of  tbe  dictator,  would  have  been  executed 
bad  be  not  been  first  rescued  by  tbe  army,  and  then- 
strongly  interceded  for  by  tbe  senate  and  people  of  Rome; 
His  first  consulship  was  three  years  af^er,  in  the  year  321 
Bw  C.  It  was  not  till  tbe  year  30.^  B.  C.  when  be  bore  tbe 
6ffice  of  censor^  that  be  acquired  the  simame  of  Maximum 
which  afterwards  was  continued  in  bis  family,  and  was 
given  him  in  consequence  of  his  replacing  tbe  low  and  tur« 
bulent'mob  of  Rome  in  tbe  four  urban  tribes^  and  thereby^ 
diminishing  their  authority,  which,  when  they  were  scat- 
tered in  tbe  various  tribes,  bad  been  considerable  on  ac* 
count  of  their  numbers.  His  last  consulship  was  in  the 
year  294  B.  C.  and  it  is  not  likely  that  be  lived  many  years 
after  that  period.  We  find  him,  however,  three  year» 
after,  attending  tbe  triumph  of  bis  son  the  proconsul,  a 
very  old  man,  and  celebrated  by  tbe  historians  for  bis  mo-» 
dest  demeanour,  and  respectful  acknowledgment  of  faia 
son^s  public  dignity. ' 

FABIUS  MAXIMUS  (Quintvs,  sumamed  VEKRtrcosm 
and  Cunctator),  a  noble  Roman^  was  tbe  fourth  in  de- 
scent from  the  preceding,  and  in  a  very  similar  career  of 
honours,  obtained  yet  more  glory  than  his  ancestor.  He 
also  was  consul  fiv^  times,  in  the  years  283  Ant.  Chr.  228, 
£15,  214,  and  210;  and  dictator  in  the  years  221  and  217. 
His  life  is  among  those  written  by  Plutarch.  In  his  first 
consulship,  he  obtained  the  honour  of  a  triumph  for  » 
signal  victory  over  the  Ligurians.  His  second  consulship 
produced  no  remarkable  event)  nor,  indeed,  bis  first  dic- 
tatorship, which  seems  to  have  been  only  a  kind  of  civil 
appointment,  for  the  sake  of  holding  comitia,  and^  was 
frustrated  by  some  defect  in  the  omens.  But  in  tbe  con- 
sternation which  followed  the  defeat  at  Tbrasymene,  bis 
country  had  recourse  to  him  as  the  person  most  able  to' 
retrieve  affairs,  and  be  was  created  dictator  a  second  time« 
In  thU  arduous  Siituation  he  achieved  immortal  fame,  by 
liis  prodence  in  perceiving  that  the  method  of  wearing  out 
au  invader  was  to  protract  the  war,  and  avoid  •a  general 
engagement,  and  his  steady  perseverance  in  preserving 
that  system.     By  this  conduct  he  finally  attained  the  bo^ 

1  livyj'-ilooke*!  Ronmi  Hi^ 

F  A  B  I  U  9.  $ 

noarable  title  of  Cctnctatoii,  or  protector.  But  before 
he  could  obtain  the  praise  he  merited^  be  bad  to  contend 
not  onl^  with  the  wiles  and  abilities  of  Hannibal^  but  with 
che  impatience  and  imprudence  of  his  coufitrymen.  The 
former  he  was  able  to  baffle,  the  latter  nearly  proved  fatri 
to  Rome.  ^^  If  Fabius/*  said  Hannibal,  '*  is  so  great  a 
commander  as  he  is  reported  to  be,  let  him  come  forth 
and  grre  me  battle.'^  **  If  Hannibal/'  said  Fabius  in  re- 
ply, *<  is  so  great  a  commander  as  he  thinks  himself,  let 
him  compel  me  tq  iC^  A  battle  in  Apulia^  however,  was 
brought  on  by  the  rashness  of  his  master  of  the  horse^  Mi- 
nucius,  and  it  required  all  the  ability  of  Fabius  to  prevent 
^n  entire  defeat  His  moderation  towards  Minucius  after- 
^s,  was  equal  to  his  exertions  in  the  contest.  Aftet 
be  iiad  laid  down  his  office,  the  consul  Pauhis  iCmifius 
endeavoured  to  tread  in  his  stepa;  but  rashness  again  pre- 
vailed over  wisdom,  and  the  defeat  at  Cannss  ensued  iik 
the  year  215,  and  then  the  Romans  began  to  do  full  justice 
to  the  prudence  of  Vabius.  He  was  called  the  shield,  as 
Marcellus  the  sword  of  the  republic ;  and,  by  an  honour 
almost  unprecedented,  was  continued  in  the  consulship 
for  two  successive  years.  He  recovered  Tarentum  before 
Hannibal  ^ould  relieve  it,  and  continued  to  oppose  that 
general  with  great  and  successful  skill.  It  has  been  laiti 
to  his  charge  that  when  Scipio  proposed  to  carry  the  war 
into  Africa,  he  opposed  that  measure  through  envy ;  and 
Plutarch  allows  that  though  he  was  probably  led  at  first  to 
disapprove,"  from  the  cautious  nature  of  his  temper,  he 
afterwards  became  envious  of  the  rising  glory  of  Scipio;* 
It  is,  however,  possible,  that  he  might  think  it  more  glo- 
i^Qus  to  drive  the  enemy  by  force  out  of  Italy,  than  to  draw 
hkn  away  by  a  diversion.  Whether  this  were  the  case  or 
not,  he  did  not  live  to  see  the  full  result  of  the  measure, 
for  be  died  in  the  year  2Q3,  at  a  very  advanced  age,  be- 
ing,' according  to  some  authors,  near  a  hundred.  This  was 
nhe  very  year  preceding  the  decisive  battle  of  Zama,  which 
concluded  the  second  Punic  war.  The  highest  encomiums 
are  bestowed  by  Cicero  upon  Fabius,  under  the  person  of 
Cato^  who  just  remembered  him j  and' had  treasured  many 
^f  his^  sayings^^ 

:    FAB4VS  (PicTOtt),  a  Roman  historian,  the  first  prose 
writer  on  the  subject  of  Roman  hbtory,  was  the  spn  of  C. 

1  Plutft«clr.-»£ivy.-^bok(B't  Romav  dist. 

€  F  A  B  I  U  & 

Fabius  Pictor,  who  was  consul  with  Ogulnius  GalUis  in, 
the  year  27 1  B.  C.  and  grandson  of  the  Fabius  who  painted' 
the  temple  of  health,  from  whom  this  branch  of  the  family 
obtained  the  name  of  Pictor.  He  was  nearly  related  to 
the  preceding  Fabius,  and  after  the  battle  of  Canns^  was 
sent  to  the  Delphic  oracle  to  inquire  by  what  supplications 
the  gods  might  be  appeased.  He  wrote  the  history  of  this 
war  with  Hannibal,  and  is  cited  by  Livy  as  authority  in  it. 
The  fragments  of  his  annals  that  remain  in  the  works  of 
the  ancients,  whether  in  Greek  or  Latin,  for  he  wrote  in 
both,  relate  chiefly  to  the  antiquities  of  Italy,  the  begins 
nings  of  Rome,  or  the  acts  of  the  Romans.  He  is  cen* 
sured  .by  Polybius,  as  too  partial  to  the  Romans,  and  not 
even  just  to  the  Carthaginians.  His  style  was  doubtless 
that  of  his  age,  unformed,  and  imperfect.  An  history, 
circulated  as  his,  consisting  of  two  books,  one  on  the 
golden  age,  the  other  on  the  origin  of  Rome,  is  now  known 
to  have  been  a  fqrgery  of  Antiius  of  Viterbo. ' 

FABRA  (Aloysio,  or  Loins  0ella),  an  Italian  phy« 
Mcian,  was  born  at  Ferrara  in  1655.  His  father  was  a 
surgeon  of  much  reputation,  and  recommended  the  me- 
dical profession  to  this  son,  who  after  the  usual  course  of 
studies,  took  his  degree  of  doctor  at  Ferrara,  where  he 
became  afterwards  first  professor  of  medicine.  He  died 
IVIay  5,  1723,  aftet  having  published  various  dissertations 
on  medical  subjects  and  cases,  which  were  collected  in  a 
quarto  volume,  and  published  at  Ferrara  in  1712  under  the 
title  *^  Dissertationes  Physico-medicse.**  Haller  speaks 
rather  slightingly  of  this  author's  works.  * 

FABRE  D'EGLANTINE  (Philip  Francis  Nazaire), 
4>ne  of  the  agents  in  the  French  revolution,  was  born  at 
Carcassane,  Dec.  28,  1755,.  and  was  educated  in  polite 
literature  and  natural  philosophy  by  his  parents,  whom  he 
quitted  in  his  youths  and  becaipe.  by  turns  a  painter,  mu- 
sician, engraver,  poet,  and  actor.  He  performed  on  the 
^stages  of  Versailles,  Brussels,  and  Lyons,  but  with  no 
great  success.  As  a  writer  fpr  the  stage,  however,  he  was 
allowed  considerable  aierit,^  and  obtained,  on  one  occasion,^ 
at  the  Floralia,  the  prize  of  the  Eqlantin^^  the  na^ie  o|^ 
which  he  added  to  his  own.  In  1786  he  published  in,« 
French  periodical  work,  <^  Les  Etrennes  du^  Parnasse,"  a 
little  poem  called  *<  Chalons  sur  Marne,*'  in  which  he 

>  VcMMmt  4e  H\»U  JLat-^^wa  OoonMil,        «  Msnfet  wa^  fiallen-i^-JDict  |litt^ 

F  A  B  R  &  1 


dtew  4'  vtry  charmiirg  picture  of  the  moral  pleasures  that 
«vere  to  be  found  iu  that  place  and  its  neighbourhood. 
This  piece,  however,  fell  very  short  of  the  celebrity  to 
^hich  he  afterwards  atuined.  In.  1789  and  1790  be  pub«> 
lished  two  comedies,  "  Le  Philinte,"  and  "  L'Intrigue 
£pi9tolaire,*'  the  former  of  which  was  reckoned  one  of  the 
best  French  pieces  of  the  last  century. 

He  was  soon,  however,  called  to  perform  a  more  im* 
i>ortant  part  on  the  revolutionary  stage,  being  chosen,  in 
1792,  a  deputy  to  the  national  convention.  For  this  of** 
fice  be  had  ail  the  negative  qualities  that  were  necessary, 
no  regard  for  religion  or  civil  subordination ;  and  accord** 
Jngly  took  a  very  active  part  in  the  insurrection  of  Aug.  10, 
and  the  prison  massacres  of  the  September  following ;  the 
latter  are  called  <^  measures  which  %fould  save  France.^* 
After  this,  it  was  in  character  to  vote  for  the  death  of  th^ 
king.  It  was  generally  supposed  that  he  contributed  with 
Banlon  and  Robespierre  to  the  massacre  of  May  31,  1793^ 
when  the  Girondine  faction  was  overthrown  by. a  popular 
insurrection.  What  gives  the  appearance  of  authenticity 
to  this  supposition  is,  that  Fabre  himself,  some  days  after- 
wards, observed  to  a  friend,  that  the  domineering  spirit  o£ 
the  Girondines,  who  had  engrossed  all  power  and  office, 
had  induced  him  and  his  colleagues,  in  order  to  shake  o^ 
the  yoke,  to  throw  themselves  into  the  hands  of  the  saris'* 
ctdoterie ;  but  that  he  could  not  help,  however,  foreboding 
dangerous  consequences  from  that  day,  May  31st,  as  the 
same  mob  which  they  had  taught  to  despise  the  legislature^ 
might,  at  the  instigation  of  another  faction,  overthrow  him 
in  bis  turn. 

On  the  overthrow  of  the  Girondine  party,  andtheesta* 
blishment  in  .power  of  the  simsculoterie^  Fabre  began  to 
render  himself  more  conspicuous.  As  a  member  of  the 
committee  of  public  safety,  he  demanded  of  the  jacobin/s 
^'  a  manifesto  furnished  with  300,000  signatures,  for  the 
formation  of  a  faction,  *or  holy  league  of  publia  safety,^* 
and  was  one  of  the  uistigators  of  the  decree  that  ordained 
that  all  the  English  and  Hanoverian  prisoners  should  be  • 
shot,,  which,  however,  we  believe,  was  never  carried  into 
execution.  He  was  also  appointed  a  member  of  the  com^  . 
mittee  of  public  instruction,  and  in  August  1793  gave  hit 
vote  for  suppressing  all  academies  and  literary  corporations! 
which,  from  their  privileges  and  aristocratic  spirit,  were 
considered  as  unfriendly  to  a  truly  republicap  goverpmeiit. 

t  F  A  &  R  E, 

la  Oetober  17dS,  he  submitted  to  the^  national  ewveodoii 
the  plan  of  a  new  calendar,  whiQb  wa3  afterwards  adepied^^ 
bat  which,  absurd  as  we  find  it,  is  ss^id  net  to  have .  been 
mi  his  own  composition. 

In  the  winter  of  1793,  the  Sansculoterie  became  divided 
into  two  parts  or  factions^  the  jacobins  and  cordeliers,  e^ 
in  other  words,  the.  Robespierrists,  and  the  Dantonists. 
Fabre  was  of  the  faction  of  Danton,  and  was  confined  with 
Danton^s  adherents,  in  the  prison  of  the  Luxemburgh,  After 
a  month's  imprisonment,  Fabre  was,  with  many  others^ 
dragged  to  the  scaffold  in  April  1794,  where  he  was  exe^ 
euted  in  the  thirty-fifth  year  of  his  age.  Mercier,  who 
^as  bis  colleague,  speaks  of  him  thus  in  his  <^  Tableau  da 
Paris  :^  '^  He  was  a  promoter  and  panegyrist  of  the  revoV 
luttonary  system,  the  friend,  the  companion,  the  adviser  of 
the  pro«-consuls,  who  carried  throughout  France,  fire  and 
sword,  devastation  and  death.^^  In  1802  a  collection  of 
bis  works  was  published  in  2  vols.  Svo,  oontaioiog  somcf 
|>osthumous  pieces.  ^ 

FABRE  (John  Claitbius),  a  voluminous  French  writer, 
or  rather  compiler,  was  born  April  25,  1668,  at  Pari%  the 
sou  of  an  eminent  surgeon.  He  was  subdeacon,  and  ba^ 
cbplor  of  the  Sorbonne,  and  had  been  second  teacher  at 
St.  Quintin,  when  he  entered  the  congregation  of  the  ora- 
tory at  Paris.  He  rose  to  be  successively  professor  of  pbi« 
losophy  at  Rumilly  in, Savoy,  at  Toulon,  Riom^  Mans,  and 
Nantes ;  afterwards  taught  theology^  three  years  at  Riom» 
and  during  three  more  at  the  seminary  of  the  congregat 
tion  at  Lyons.  While  he^lived  in  the  last  named  city,  he 
published  a  small  dictionary,  Latin  and  French^  8^o,  com^ 
piled  from  the  best  classical  authors,  which  bas  passed 
through  several  editions ;  and  he  also  published  at  Lyons^ 
in  I70d,  a  new  edition  of  Richelet's  dictionary,  2  vols.  folio> 
under  the  title  of  Amsterdam,  which  edition  was  suppressed 
on  account  of  several  theological  articlea  respectmg  the 
^i&Ars  of  the  times ;  and  because  in  his  list  of  authors,  be 
bestowed  great  encomiums  on  Messrs.  of;  Port  Royal^  but 
none  on  their  adversaries.  This  obliged  quit  the 
oratory,  and  retire  to  Clermont  in  Auvergne^  wbere,  being 
destitute  of  a  maintenance,  he  undertook  the  education  of 
some  children,  and  had  recourse  to  father  Tellier,  a  Jesuit^ 
ibe  king*s  confessor,  wbp  twice  suppbed  bint  with  money. 

•  *  ♦. 
i  nicU  i2^t.-«3ioa*  Moderiie.«^$u|)pleuieat  to  Uie  £iicyclop«dift  BriUumica.^ 

•    y 

F  A  B  R  IS.  -9 

In  the  btter  erid  of  17 1 5,  Fabre  again  jentered  the  congre- 
gation of  the  oratary»  and  was  sent  to  Douay,  where  he 
.wrote  a  amall  paqaphlet,  entitled  <^  Entretiens  de  Cbrisiine, 
et  de  Pelagie,  sur  la  lecture  de  TEcriture-Saintef*  which 
is  still  in  request.    Having  afterwards  preached  the  Sun* 
day  sermons  of  the  oratory  of  Tragany  with  great  credit  (for 
he  bad  also  talents  for  preaching),  he  went  to  reside  at 
Montmorency,  towards  the  end  of  1723,  and  there  began 
bis  ^^  Continuation  de  PHistoire  Ecclesiastique,  de  feu  M* 
rAbb6  Fleury  ;*'  and  published  16  vols.  4to  or  12aio,  which 
induced  his  superiors  to  invite  him  again  to  their  houses^ 
'-  Rue  St.  Honors,  at  Paris,  where  he  died,  October  92, 1755^ 
^i^d  eightyrfive^   much  lamented  by  bis  brethren  and 
friends,  for  his  mildness,  candour,  modesty,  and  virtue. 
The  discourse  ^^  Sur  le  renouvellement  des  Etudes  eccle** 
siastiques,"  &c.  at  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  volume 
«f  the  Continuation,  is  by  the  abb£  Goujet.     This  Conti* 
Auation  discovers  great  learning,  and  facility  in  writings 
but  has  neither  the  wit,  penetration,  character,,  style,  nor 
accuracy  of  judgment  possessed  by  the  abb€  Fleury.  Fabre 
would  have  carried  it  on  much  faitber>  but  was  forbidden 
lo  print  any  new  voIiMnes.     He  made  the  index  to  M.  de 
Thou's  history  translated  into  French^  4lo^  and  had  begua 
one  to  the  *^  Journal  des'  S^avans,**  but  soon  gave  up  his 
undertaking  to  the  abb6  de  Claustre,  to  whom  the  public 
owes  that  useful  work,  10  vols.  4tOt    Fabre  also  left  a  mo« 
derate  translation  of  Virgil,  4  vols.  12  mo,  and  a  trsmslatioii 
of  the  Fables  of  Phsedrus^  Paris,  1728,  12mo,  with  notes.  ^. 
FABRETTI  (Ri^PfiAEL),    a  very  learned  antiquary  of 
Italy,  was  bom  at  Urbino^  of  a  noble  family,  in  1619.  After 
he  bad  passed  through  his  first  studied  at  Cagli,  he  returned 
to  Urbino  to  finish  himself  in  the  law,  in  wUch  he  was  ad« 
niitted  doctor  at  eighteen.    Having  an  elder  brother  at 
Rome,  who  was  an  eminent  advocate,  he  also  went  thithei!:, 
and  applied  himself  to  the  bar ;  where  he  soon  distingui^ed 
himself  to  such  advantage,  that  he  was  likely  to  advance  fajii 
fortune.   Cardinal  Imperial]  entertained  so  great  an  esteem 
for  him,  that  he  sent  him  into  Spain,  to  negociajte  seversiL 
important  and  difficult  affairs ;  which  he  did  with  such  suc- 
cess that  the  office  of  the  procurator  fiscal  of  that  kingdooa 
laUing  vacant,  the  cardinal  proeured  it  for  him.     Fabretti 
continued  thirteen  jrears  in  Spain^  where  he  was  for  s<me 

1  Moreri.<*-X)ict  Hist,  de  l«*ArocaU 



10  F  A  B  R  E  T  T  I. 

^ime  auditor  general  of  the  Nunciature.    These  employ-* 
inents^  however,  did  not  engage  hiui  so  mucby  but  that  be 
found  time  to  read  the  ancients,  and  apply  himself  to  po« 
lite  literature.     He  returned  to  Rome  with  cardinal  Bo** 
nelli,  who  bad  been  nuncio  in  Spain ;  and  from  his  do- 
mestic  became  bis  most  intimate  friend*  He  was  appointed 
judge  of  the  appeals  to  the  Capitol;  which  post  he  after* 
wards  quitted  for  that  of  auditor  of  the  legation  of  Urbino, 
under  the  cardinal  legate  Cerri.     His  residence  in  his  own 
country  gave  him  an  opportunity  of  settling  his  own  pri- 
vate affairs,  which  had  been  greatly  disordered  during  his 
absence.     He  continued  there  three  years,  which  appeared 
very  long  to  him,  because  his  inclination  to  study  and  an* 
tiquities  made  him  wish  to  settle  at  Rome,  where  he  might 
easily  gratify  those  desires  to  the  utmost.     He  readily  ac« 
cepted,  therefore,  the  invitation  of  cardinal  Corpegna,  the 
pope's  vicar,  who  employed  him  in  drawing  up  the  apos* 
tolical  briefs,  and  other  dispatches  belonging  to  his  office^ 
and  gave  hini  the  inspection  of  the  reliques  found  at  Rome 
and  parts  adjacent.     Alexander  VII I.  whom  Fabretti  had 
served  as  auditor  when  cardinal,  made  him  secretary  of  the 
memorials,  when  he  was  advanced  to  the  pontificate ;  and 
,     bad  so  great  a  value  and  affection  for  htm,  that  he  would 
certainly  haye  raised  him  to  higher  dignities,  if  he  had  lived 
a  little  longen 

Upon  the  death  of  Alexander,  Fabretti  retired  from  bu«. 
ainess,  and  devoted  himself  entirely  to  his  favourite  amuse- 
ment. He  went  to  search  antiquities  in  the  country  about  . 
Rome,  without  any  other  companion  than  his  horse,  and 
without  any  regard  to  the  heat  or  inclemency  of  the  wea- 
ther. ,  As  be  always  made  use  of  the  same  horse,  his  friends 
gave  that  animal,  by  way  of  jest,  the  name  of  Marco  Polo, 
the  famous  traveller ;  and  said>  that  this  horse  used  to  dis- 
cover ancient  monuments  by  the  smell,  and  to  stop  of  him- 
self' immediately  when  he  came  to  any  ruins  of  an  old 
building.  Fabretti  was  so  well  pleased  with  the  name  given 
to  his  horse,  that  he  used  it  to  write  a  letter  to  one  of  hii 
friends  iu  an  ironical  strain,  yet  full  of  learning,  upon  the 
study  of  antiquity :  but  this  letter  was  never  printed.  In« 
iiocent  XII.  obliged  him  to  quit  bis  retirement;  and  made 
faim  keeper  of  the  archives  of  the  castle  of  St.  Angelo  ;^a 
post,  whicb  is  never  given  but  to  men  of  the  most  approved 
integrity,  since  he  who  eiyoys  that  place  is  master  of  all 
the  secrets  of  -the  pope's  temporal  estt^te.    All  these  dif« 

r  A  B  R  E  T  T  L  II 

ftrent  employments  never  interrupted  bis  researches  into 
amiquity  ;  and  he  collected  enough  to  adorn  his  paternal 
house  at  Urbino^  as  well  as  that  which  he  had  built  at  Rome 
after  the  death  of  Alexander  VIII.  Neither  could  old  age 
divert  him  from  his  studies,  nor  hinder  him  from  labouring 
at  the  edition  of  his  works,  which  he  printed  at  his  own 
house.  He  died  Jan.  7,  1700.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
academy  of  the  Assorditi  at  Urbino^  and  the  Arcadi  at 

^    He  was  the  author  of  the  foUowing  works :  1 .  '^  De  Aquis 
&  Aqus-ductibus    Veteris    fiomee   Dissertatiooes   tres,** 
Rom«,  1680,  4to.     This  book  may  serve  to  illustrate  Fron« 
tinus,  who  has  treated  of  the  aqueducts  of  Rome,  as  they 
were  in  his  time  under  the  emperor  Trajan.     It  is  inserted 
in  the^ourth  volume  of  Grtevias^s  *^  Thesaurus  Antiquita- 
torn  Romanarum.^'     2..  '*  De  Columna  Trajana  Syntagma. 
Accesseruntexplicatio  Veteris  TabellsB  Anaglyphae  Homeri 
Iliadem,  atque  ex  Stesichoro,  Arctino,  et  Lesche  Ilii  exci* 
dium  continentis,  et  emissarii   lacus  Fi^cini  description* 
Romas,  1683,  folio.     3.  '' Jasithei  ad  Grunhovitim  ApolOf 
gema,  in  ejusque  Titivilitia,  sive  de  Tito  Livio  somnia, 
animadversionesj"  NeapoL  1686,  4to.     This  work  is  aa 
answer  to  James  Gronovius's  ^^  Responsio  ad  Cavillationes 
R.  Fabretti,"  printed  at  Leyden,  1685.    Fabretti  had  given 
occasion. to  this  dispifte,  by  censuring,  in  bis  book  **  De 
Aquee*ductibus,"  some  corrections  of  Gronovius ;  and  thus 
had  drawn  upon  himself  an  adversary,  who  treated  him  witk 
very  little  ceremony.    Fabretti  replied  to  him  here,  under 
the  name  Jasitheus,  and  treated  him  with  equal  coarseness. 
Gronovius  called  him  Faber  Jtusticus,  which  he  retorted  by 
styling  his  antagonist  Grunrumus*    4.  ^^  Inscriptionum  An* 
tiquarum,  qusB  in  sdibus  paternis  asservantur,  explicatio  et 
additamentum,"  Rome,  1699,  folio.     Fabretti  had  an  ad- 
mirable talent  in  decyphering  the  most  difficult  inscrip* 
tions,  and  discovered  a  method  of  making  something  out 
of  those  which  seemed  entirely  disfigured  through  age,  and 
the  letters  of  which  were  effaced  in  such  a  manner  as  not 
to  be  discernible.     He  cleaned  the  surface  of  the  ston^ 
without  touching  those  places  where  the  letters  had  been 
engraven.    He  then  laid  upon  it  a  piece  of  thick  paper  well 
moistened^ .  and  pressed  it  with  a,  spunge,  or  wocKien  pia 
covered  with  liqen ;  by  which  means  the  paper  entered 
into  die  cavity  of  the  letters,  and,  taking  up  the  dust  tb^ere, 
discovered  the  traces  of  the  letters.    M.  Baudelot^  in  his 

It  r  A  B  R  E  T  T  I. 

book  '^De  rUtiltt6  det  Voyages,**  iiifoniiB  us  of  a  secrM 
very  like  this,  in  order  to  read  upon  medals  those  letters 
which  are  difficult  to  be  decyphered.  5*  <<  A  Letter  to  the 
9bbi  Nicaise,*'  containing  an  inscription  remarkable  for 
the  elegance  of  its  style,  inserted  in  the  **  Journal  des  S$a«- 
vans**  of  Dec.  1691.  He  left  unfinished  ^<  Latium  retus 
iUustratum.*'     Fabretti  discovers  in  his  writings  a  lively 

Srenius,  a  clear  and  easy  conception,  and  a  great  deai  of 
earning.  ^ 

FABHI  (Honore'),  an  industrious  and  learned  Jesuit, 
was  born  in  the  diocese  of  Bellay  in  1606  or  1607.  He 
for  a  long  time  held  the  chair  of  professor  of  philosophy  in 
the  college  de  la  Trinity  at  Lyons;  but  in  consequence  of 
bis  profound  knowledge  of  theology,  he  was  called  to 
Rome,  where  he  was  made  a  penitentiary.  He  died  in 
that  city  on  ^he  9th  of  March,  1688.  He  was  a  man  c^ 
most  extensive  and  universal  knowledge,  and  studied  iiie«' 
cUcine  and  anatomy  with  considerable  ardour.  He  assumed 
the  credit  of  the  discovery  of  the  circulatioo  of  the  hloed^ 
and  father  Reg4iault,  and  other  credulous  persons,  have 
supported  his  assumption,  on  the  grdunds  that  he  had  taaixk^ 
tained  the  fact  of  the  circulation  in  a  discussion  in  1638 : 
but  Harvey  bad  published  his  discovery  in  1638.  The 
medical  works  of  this  Jesuit  consist  of  an  apology  for  the 
Peruvian  bark,  in  answer  to  Plempins,  whicb  he.  Fmhlished 
at  Rome  io  1655,  under  the  title  of  ^^Pulvis  Peruvianui 
Febrifugus  vindicatus  ;"  and  two  other  essays,  one,  *^  De 
Plantis^  et  Generatione  Aaimaliiunv,*'  the  otber,  *^  De  Ho^ 
mine,"'  published  at  Paris  in  1 66i6,  and  at  Nuremberg  in 
1677.  His  theological  works  are  mostly  controversial,  and 
now  held  in  little  estimation.' 

FABRIANO  (Gentile  Da),  a  famous  painter,  in  the 
eayly  stage  of  the  art  after  its  restoration,  was  bom  at  Ve^ 
rona  in.  1332,  and  was  a  disciple  of  Giovanni  da  Fiesole. 
His  most  conspicuous  work  was^  a  picture  in  the  great 
council  chamber  of  the  state  of  Venice,  es^cuted  by  order 
of  the  doge  and  senate,  who  regarded  die  work  in  so  extras 
ordinary  a  degree  of  esteem^  that  they  granted  him  a  pen* 
aion  for  life,  and  conferred  upon  him  the  prinrilege  of  weal^- 
ing  the  habit  of  a  noble  Venetian  ;  tlie  highest  honour  in 
Ibe  power  of  the  state  to  bestow*    Many  of  his  piatuiw 

^  Fabroni  VitsB  Italonim,  vol.  VI.-*Qen.  Diet,— >Mmii*-<^axu  ODSO^t; 
'  Morefi-^Pict  HisU-^-Rees's  CydopadU. 

F  A  B  R  I  A  N  O.  18 

adorn  the  pdpe^s  palsce  o£  St  Giovanni  Lateraho^  and  the 
churches  in  Floreoce,  Urbino,  Perugta>  Sienna,  and  Rome. 
One  of  them  in  the  church  of  Santa  Maria  Nuova,  placed* 
orer  the  tomb  of  cardinal  Adimarii  representing  the  Vir- 
gin and  cbiid,  with  St.  Joseph  and  St.  Benedict,  was  highly 
commended  by  Michael  Angelo ;  whom  Vasari  represents^ 
as  being  accustomed  to  say  that  in  painting  the  hand  of 
Gentile  was  correspondent  with  his  name.  He  died  in 
1412,  80  years  old.  ^ 

FABRICIUS  (Andrew),  a  learned  popish  divine  in  the 
sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  a  village  in  the  country  of 
Liege,  and  studied  philosophy  and  divinity  under  his  bro« 
ther  Geofiry ;  such  was  his  progress  that  he  was  soon  pre* 
ferred  to  teach  those  sciences  at  Louvain.  While  here 
Otho,  cardtfial  of  Augsburgh,  engaged  him  in  bis  service^ 
and  sent  him  to  Rome  where  he  remained  bis  agent  for 
about  six  years  under  the  pontificate  of  Pius  V.  On  his  re- 
turn he  was  promoted  to  be  counsellor  to  the  dukes  of  fia*- 
varia,  and  by  their  interest  was  farther  advanced  to  the 
provostship  of  Ottingen,.  where  probably  he  died^  in  l^SK 
His  principal  work  was  '^  Harmonia  confessionis  Augusti- 
nianae,"  Cologn,  1573  and  1587^  folio.  He  wrote  also  a 
^*  Catechism,''  with  notes  and  illustrations,  Antwerp,  1600, 
ivo;  and  three  ^^  Latin  tragedies,"  which  are  said  to  be 
ivritten  in  elegant  language:  1.  ^^ Jeroboam  rebeliens,^' 
Ingoldstadt,  1585.  2i  ^^  Religio  patiens,''  Cologn,  1566; 
aud  "  Samson,''  ibid.  1569.  The  two  former,  it  must  be 
observed,  are  ingeniously  contrived  to  assimilate  tlie  here-, 
tics,  that  is  those  of  the  reformed  religion,  with  the  rebeU 
lious  Israelites.  * 

FABRICIUS  (Caius),  sirnamed  Luscwus,  an  illustri- 
ODs  Roman,  was  much  and  justly  celebrated  for  his  infleKi- 
ble  ititegrity,  and  contempt  of  riches.  He  was  twice  con- 
sul, first  in  the  year  before  Christ  232,  when  he  obtained 
a  triumph  for  his  victories  over  the  Samnites,  Lucani,  and 
Bruttii.  Two  years  after  this,  Pyrrhus  invaded  Italy ;  and, 
after  the  defeat  of  the  Romans  near  Tarentum,  Fabricius 
was  sent  to  that  monarch  to  treat  of  the  ransom  and  ex* 
change  of  prisoners,  on  which  occasion  he  manifested  a 
noble  contempt  of  every  endeavour  that  could  be  made,  iu 
any  shape,  to  shake  his  fidelity,  and  excited  the  admiration 
•  of  Pyrrhus.     His  second  consulship  was  in  the  year  278, 

»  J*ilkingtoii»— Rees'i  Cyclopadia.  '  Moreri. — Foppeu  Bill.  Belg. 

1*  F  A  B  R  ItJ  I  U  S- 

when  his  mfined  generosity  yet  further  secured  the  esteem 
of  the  royal  enemy,  whom  he  informed  of 'the  treacherous 
design  of  his  physician  to  give  him  poison.  According  to 
some  authors,  he  again  triumphed  this  year  over  the  allies 
of  Pyrrhus.  It  was  remarked^  that  when  the  comitia  were 
held  for  the  ensuing  consuls,  Cornelius  Rufinus,  a  man  of 
notorious  avarice,  and  detested  by  Fabricius  for  that  vice^ 
but  an  excellent  general,  obtained  the  consulship  chiefly 
by  bis  interest.  Being  asked  the  reason  of  this  unexpected 
proceeding,  be  said,  *^  In  times  of  danger  it  is  better  that 
the  public  purse  should  be  plundered,  than  the  state  be* 
trayed  to  the  enemy."  But  when  he  became  censor  in  the 
year  275,  he  proved  his  fixed  dislike  to  that  man's  charac- 
ter, by  removing  him  from  the  senate,  for  possessing  an 
unlawful  amount  of  silver  plate.  The  war  with  Pyrrhus 
was  then  concluded.  St.  Evremond,  with  the  contempti* 
ble  sneer  of  a  man  who  has  no  conception  of  disinterested 
virtue,  insinuates  that  his  poverty  was  ambitious,  arid  his 
severity  envious ;  but  it  is  not  for  a  French  Epicurean  to 
judge  the^  motives  of  a  Fabricius.  His  frugality  and  po-» 
verty  became  almost  proverbial;  and  Virgil  has  charac« 
terized  him  in  very  few  words : 

—    .*-—.«'  jparvoque  potentem 
^' Fabricium. 

The  state  paid  a  glorious  tribute  to  his  memory  by  por- 
tJoning  his  daughters  after  his  death.' 

FABRICIUS  (Franxis),  professor  of  divinity  in  the  uni* 
tersity  of  Ldpsic,  was  born  at  Amsterdam  April  10,  1663. 
His  father  was  a  divine  and  pastor  of  the  church  of  Meurs^. 
but  he  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  both  parents  when  he 
Was  only  five  years  old.  His  education  then  devolved  upon 
his  maternal  grandfather,  Francis  Felbier,  who  appeals  to 
have  done  ample  justice  to  him,  and  particularly  introduced 
him  to  that  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  French  language 
for  which  he  was  afterwards  distinguished.  He  began  to 
be  taught  Latin  in  the  public  school  of  Amsterdam  in  1673  ; 
but  in  less  than  three  months  his  grandfather  died,  and  on 
his  death-bed  advised  him  to  devote  himself  to  the  study 
of  divinity,  which  was  the  wish  and  intention  both  of  him* 
self  and  of  his  parents.  He  accordingly  pursued  his  clas* 
sical  studies  with  great  assiduity;  and  in  1679,  when  in  his 
siixteentb  year,  was  much  applauded  for  a  discourse  be 

f  Pttttarcb  ia  Pyrrbus,«-Oen«  Dict.«-*Koman  Hist 


prbnounced,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  school.  HU 
subject  was  that  *^  justice  elevates  a  nation.''  After  this 
be  remained  two  more  years  at  Amsterdam,  and  studied 
philosophy  and  rhetoric  under  the  ablest  professors ;  and 
at  his  leisure  hours  David  Sarphati  Pina,  a  physician  and 
rabbi,  gave  him  lessons  in  the  Hebrew,  Chaldaic,  and  Sy- 
i:iac  languages,  and  enabled  him  to  read  the  works  of  the 
Jewish  doctors.  In  Sept.  16S1  he  removed  to  Leyden, 
where  for  two  years  he  studied  philosophy,  Greek  and  Ro* 
man  antiquities,  and  ecclesiastical  history  and  geography^ 
under  the  celebrated  masters  of  that  day,  De  Voider,  I'beo* 
dore  Ryckius,  James  Gronovius,  and  Frederic  Spanheim  i 
and  went  on  also  improving  himself  in  the  Oriental  lan- 
guages. Sucli  was  his  proficiency  in  this  last  pursuit,  that 
he  already  was  able  to  carry  on  a  correspondence  with  his 
master  at  Amsterdam,  the  above-mentioned  Pina,  in  the 
Hebrew  language,  and  he  translated  the  gospels  of  St» 
Matthew  and  Mark  into  that  language. 

At  the  age  of  twenty  he  began  his  theological  studies, 
and  in.  1686  returned  to  Amsterdam,  where  he  rem,ained 
for  a  yestr,  during  which  he  had  frequent  disputes  with  bis 
old  Hebrew  master  on  the  subject  of  the  Messiah.  In  1 687* 
he  was  ordained  according  to  the  forms  of  the  Dutch, 
church,  and  preached  first  at  Velzen,  where  he  was  much 
admired,  and  here  he  married  Anne  van  Teylingen^  the 
daughter  of  a  gentleman  high  in  office  in  the  Dutch 
East  Indies.  In  1696,  the  church  of  Leyden  invited  him 
to  become  their  pastor,  which  he  accepted ;  and  in  ]  705, 
on  the  death  of  JaYiies  Trigland,  be  succeeded  to  the  chair 
of  divinity  professor,  of  which  he  took  possession  Dec.  13, 
with  an  oration  on  the  subject  of  '^  Jesus  Christ  the  sole 
and  perpetual  foundation  of  the  church.^'  Besides  his  pro- 
fessorship, he  had,  like  his  predecessor,  the  charge  of  the 
schools  attached  to  the  college.  So  much  employment 
rendered  it  necessary  for  him  to  resign  part  of  hii  pastoral 
dmrge,  but  he  fulfilled  his  share  of  its  duties  until  within 
four  years  of  his  death.  In  1723  the  curators  of  the  tlni- 
versity  of  Leyden  founded  a  professorship  of  sacred  elo- 
quence, and  appointed  him  to  it,  where  his  business  was 
to  teach  the  art  of  preaching.  In  1726  the  London  society 
for  the  propagation  of  the  gospel  elected  him  a  member. 
Ifh  1737  he  suffered  very  much  by  the  consequences  of  a 
repelled  gout,  which  at  length  proved  fatal  on  July  27, 
1738.     Fabricius  Mas  four  times  rector  magnificus  of  the 


UDiversity,  in  1708,  1716/1724,  and  1736.  On  taking^ 
leave  on  this  last  occasion,  be  delivered  a  harangue  very 
suitable  to  hi3  age  and  character,  on  the  duty  of  Cbristiant 
In  general,  and  divines  in  particular  when  they  arrived  at 
old  age.  The  synod  of  South  Holland  had  likewise  chosen 
htm  as  one  of  their  deputies.  His  works  consist  of  five 
Yolumes  of.  dissertations,  the  subjects  of  which  he  had 
treated,  but  not  so  fully,  in  his  academical  orations. — 
1.  *^  Christus  unicum  ac  perpetuum  fundamentutn  ec* 
clesiae,"  Leyden,  1717,  4to.  2.  **  De  Sacerdotio  Christi 
juxta  ordinem  Melchizedeci,"  ibid.  1720,  4to.  ».  "Chris- 
fologia  Noachica  et  Abrahamica,*'  ibid.  1727,  4to.  Thii 
consists  of  twelve  dissertations  on  several  passages  in  the 
Old  and  New  Testament,  calculated  to  prove  tihat  Christ 
was  the  object  of  the  faith  of  Noah  and  Abraham.  At  the 
end  are  some  letters  to  the  author.  4.  "  De  Fide  Cbristi-* 
Ana  Patriarcharum  &  Prophetarum,^'  ibid.  4to*  I.  •"  Ora« 
tor  Sacer,'*  ibid.  1733^  4to.  This  contains  the  substance  of 
bis  lectures  op  preaching,  and  is  a  complete  treatise  on 
the  subject,  although  in  some  respects  peculiarly  adapted 
for  the  church  of  which  he  was  a  member.  His  sentiments^ 
however,  are  so  liberal,  his  view  of  the  subject  so  compre- 
Jiensive,  and  bis  historical  illustrations  so  happy,  that  we 
are  rather  surprized  this  work  has  not  found  its  way  into 
this  country,  oy  translation.  Fabricitts  published  also  six 
sermons  preached  on  public  occasions.  ^ 

FABRICIUS  (G£ORGe),  a  leajrned  German^  and  cele- 
brated for  a  talent  at  Latin  poetry,  was  born  at  Chemnitz 
in  Misnia,  a  province  of  Upper  Saxony^ 45 16.  After  a 
liberal  education,  he  went  to  Italy  and  Rome,  in  quality 
of  tutor  to  a  nobleman  ;  where  he  spent  bis  time  in  a  man- 
ner suitable  to  his  parts  and  learning.  He  did  not  content 
himself  with  barely  looking  on,  and  blindly  admiring ;  but 
be  examined  with  great  accuracy  and  minuteness,  all  the 
remains  ef  antiqui^,  and  compared  them. with  the  descrip-r 
tions  which  the  Datin  writers  have  given  of  them.  The 
lesolt  of  these  observations  was  his  work  entitled  *^  Roma,'* 
published  ih  1550,  containing  a  description  of  that  city. 
From  Rome  he  returned  to  his  native  country,  and  was  ap- 
pointed master  of  the  great  school  at  Meissen,  over  whicti 
he  presided  twenty-»six  years,  and  died  in  that  station,  in 
1571.    He  was  the  author  of  numerous  Latin  poems,  and 

>  Otatio  de  Vita,  &c.  F.  Fabricii.— Chaufepie.— Moreri^ 


bad  the  strongest  passion  for  verse  that  can  be  conceived. 
His  poems  appeared  at  Bale  in  1567^  in  two  volumes  8vo  ; 
and,  besides  this  collection, '  there  are  also  hymns,  odes 

} gainst  the  Turks,  the  Art  of  Poetry,  Comparisons  of  the 
.atin  Poets,  &c.  He  is  said  to  have  received  the  laurel 
from  the  emperor  Maximilian,  a  short  time  before  his 

His  poems  are  written  with  great  purity  and*  elegance. 
He  was  particularly  careful  in  the  choice  of  his  words  ;*  and 
be  carried  his  scruples  in  this  respect  so  far,  that  he  would 
not  on  any  account  make  use  of  a  word  in  his  ^^  Sacred 
Poems*'  which  favoured  the  least  of  Paganism.  He  con* 
demned  some  liberties  of  this  sort,  which  he  had  taken  in 
his  youth;  and  he  exceedingly  blamed  those  Christians 
who  applied  themselves  for  matter  to  the  divinities  of  Par- 
nassus, and  the  fables  of  the  ancients.  He  wrote  also  in 
prose,  the  ^^  Roma,''  already  mentioned ;  the  '^  Annals  of 
Messein,"  in  seven  books ;  **  Origines  Saxonies,"  in  two 
volumes,  folio ;  the  same  quantity  on  the  affairs  of  Ger- 
many and  Saxony,  &c.  His  ^^  Roma"  has  been  greatly 
admired  by  some,  by  Barthius  in  particular:  and  there  is^ 
this  singularity  in  it,  that  he  has  so  adapted  to  his  descrip- 
tions the  language  of  the  Latin  writers  who  have  described 
the  same  things,  as  to  make  some  Germans  fancy  it  an 
ancient  work.  * 

FABRICIUS  (James),  an  eminent  physician,  was  bom 
at  Rostock,-  Aug.  28,  1577.  Following  the  advice  of  Hip- 
pocrates,  he  joined  the  study  of  the  mathematics  with  thai 
of  medicine,  and  was  a  pupil  of  Tycho  Brahe,  as  he  had 
been  before  of  the  learned  Chytrseus.  His  medica.1  studies 
were  not  confined  to  his  own  country ;  for  he  travelled 
through  England,  Germany,  and  the  Low  Countries,  in 
order  to  obtain  the  instructions  of  the  most  celebrated  pro- 
fessors ;  and  afterwards  repaired  to  Jena,  where  he  was 
distinguished  by  the  extent  of  his  acquirements,  4nd  ob- 
tained the  degree  of  doctor  at  the  age  of  twenty-six.  He 
ioon  gained  extensive  employment  in  his  profession,  and' 
at  length  received  several  lucrative  and  honourable  ap- 
pointments. He  filled  the  stations  of  professor  of  medicine  , 
and  of  the  snathematics  at  Rostock  during  forty  years,  was 
first  physician  to  the  duke  of  Mecklenburgh,  and  after- 
wards retired  tp  Copenhagen,  where  he  was  appointed  chief 

1  Moreri. — BaiUet  Jugeaem  dei  SaTgns.— Blount'i  Censura.— 'Saxi^CnoBUWt 

You  XIV.  C 

IS  F  A  B  R  1  C  I  U  S. 

physician  to  the  kings  of  Norway  and  Denmark^  Christian 
IV.  and  Frederick  III.  He  died  at  Copenhagen  on  August 
14,  1652,  in  the  seventy-fifth  year  of  his  age ;  and  his  re- 
mains were  carried  to  Rostock  for  interment,  by  his  sons^ 
in-law  and  daughters,  and  a  monument  was  afterwards 
erected  to  his  memory.  His  works  are  entitled,  1.  "  Peri- 
cuhim  Medicum,  seu  Juvenilium  Faeturae  priores,"  Hals^^ 
1600.  2.  "  Uroscopia,  seu  de  Urinis  Tractatus,"  Ros- 
tochii,  1605.     3.  "  De  Cephalalgia  Autumnal),*'  ibid.  1617. 

4.  "  Institutio  Medici  practicam  aggredientis,"  ibid.  1619. 

5.  "  Oratio  Renunciationi  novi  Medicinse  Doctoris  prae- 
missa,  de  Causis  Cruentantis  cadaveris  praesente  Homi- 
cida,"  ibid.  1620.  6.  "  Dissertatio  de  Novo-antiquo  Ca- 
pitis Morbo  ac  t>olore,  cum  aliis  Disquisitionibus  Medicis 
de  difiic.  nonnul.  Materiis  Practicis,"  ibid.  1640.' 

'  FABRICIUS  (James),  a  Lutheran  divine,  was  born  at 
Coslin,  a  town  of  Pomerania,  in  1593.  In  his  youth,  as 
his  parents  were  poor,  he  contrived  to  defray  the  expences 
of  his  education  by  instructing  a  few  pupils  in  what  he  had 
already  learned,  and  having  the  charge  of  some  of  them 
to  Rostock,  he  soon  distinguished  himself  among  the 
learned  of  that  city.  Having  taken  orders,  he  was  chosen 
preacher  at  Coslin,  and  chaplain  to  the  duke  Bogiislaus  XIV. 
who.  five  years  after  recommended  him  to  a  doctor*s  de- 
gree at  Gripswald.  About  this  time  the  king  of  Sweden, 
Gustavus  Adolphus,  arriving  in  Germany,  made  him  his 
confessor,  and  superintendant  of  his  army ;  and  after  the 
battle  of  Lutzen,  in  which  that  prince  lost  his  life,  the  duke 
Bogislaus  recalled  Fabriqius,  and  made  him  superintendant 
of  Upper  Pomerania,  in  which  office  he  was  afterwards  con- 
tinued by  queen  Christina.  He  was  also  appointed  minis- 
ter of  the  principal  church  of  Stettin,  and  professor  of  di- 
vinity. He  died  suddenly  of  an  apoplectic  stroke,  Aug.- 
11,  1654.  His  principal  writings  are,  I.  "  Disputationes 
in  Genesim,  et  in  Epistolam  ad  Romanos.  2.  ^^  Probatio 
visionum,*'  a  work  which  involved  him  in  disrepute  with 
some  of  his  brethren,  and  obliged  him  to  publish  in  defence 
of  it,  3.  "  Invictae  vision um  probationes."  4.  "JustaGus- 
taviana."  He  published  besides  some  pieces  in  German.' 
FABRICIUS  (Jeuome),  more  generally  known  by  the 
name  of  Hieronymus  Fabricius  ab  Aquapendente,  wag 

>  Moreri. — ^Rees's  CyclopsBdia. — Mangel  Bibl.  Med. — Freberi  Tbeatrun. 
«  Moreri.— Diet.  Hi&t. 

F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  1^ 

born  at  Aquapenclente,  in  the  territory  of  Orvieto,  in  Italy> 
in  1 537.  His  parents,  although  poor,  found  the  means  of  pro- 
curing him  a  good  education  at  Padua,  where  he  acquired 
a  knowledge  of  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages,  and,  after 
having  gone  through  the  usuaV  course  of  philosophy,  he 
began  the  study  of  anatomy  and  surgery  under  Gabriel 
Fallopius,  one  of  the  most  intelligent  professors  of  his  time. 
His  progress  under  this  excellent  tutor  was  such  as  to  ac- 
quire for  him  a  character  not  less  distinguished  than  that 
of  his  master,  whom  he  afterwards  succeeded  in  the  pro- 
fessor's chair,  in  which  he  taught  the  same  sciences^  for 
tesrly  half  a  century,  in  the  university  of  Padua.  During 
the  whole  of  this  long  period  he  maintained  an  uniform 
character  for  eloquence  and  sound  knowledge,  and  conti- 
nued to  excite  great  interest  in  his  lectures.  He  died  uni- 
versally regretted  in  1619,  at  the  age  of  eighty-two  years. 

The  kindness  and  disinterested  generosity  of  Fabricius 
gained  him  the  esteem  of  the  principal  families  of  Padua, 
and  the  republic  of  Venice  built  a  spacious  anatomical 
amphitheatre,  on  the  front  of  which  his  name  was  inscribed ; 
they  also  decreed  him  an  annual  stipend  of  a  thousand 
crowns,  and  the  honour  of  a  statue,  and  created  him  a 
knight  of  St.  Mark.  But  the  celebrity  which  he  obtained 
for  the  university  of  Padua  by  his  talents,  afforded  him  a 
gratification  above  that  which  accrued  from  all  those  flat- 
tering favours. 

His .  attention  was  chiefly  directed  to  anatomy  and  sur- 
gery, both  of  which  his  researches  materially  contributed 
to  elucidate.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  notice 
the  valves  of  the  veins,  having  demonstrated  their  struc- 
ture in  1 574.  The  honour  of  this  discovery  has  also  been 
given  to  Paul  Sarpi;  but  Albinus  and  Morgagni  are  of 
opinion  that  he  was  anticipated  by  Fabricius.  These  ana- 
tomists, however,  were  ignorant  of  the  use  of  this  valvular 
apparatus ;  but  Fabricius  has  given  excellent  views  of  its 
structure  in  his  engravings.  He  was  exceedingly  methodi- 
cal in  his  writings,  first  describing  the  structure  of  each 
part  of  the  body,,  and  then  its  uses.  Valuable  as  his  ana- 
tomical writiugs  were,  however,  his  surgical  works  obtained 
for  him  a  still  higher  reputation.  The  improvements  which 
he  introduced  into  the  practice  of  his  art,  in  consequence 
of  his  accurate  anatomical  knowledge,  and  the  consistent 
form  which  he  gave  to  it,  have,  in  fact,  gained  him  the  ap- 
pellation of  the  father  of  modern  surgery.     His  works  are 

0  2 

to  F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S. 

numerous :  the  first,  eptitled  *^  Pentateuchus  C.hirurgicus,** 
published  at  Francfort  in  1592,  contains  five  dissertations 
on  tumours,  wounds,  ulcers,  fractures,  and  luxations.  2. 
**  De  Visione,  Voce,  et  Auditu,''  Venice,  1600.  3.  *«  Trac- 
tatus  de  Oculo,  visftsque  Organo,**  Padua,  1601.  4,  "  Dii 
Venarum  Ostiolis,*'  ibid.  1603.  5.  "  De  Locutione,  et 
ejus  Instru mentis,"  ibid.  1603.  It  is  said  that,  in  one  day, 
all  the  Germans  deserted  the  school  of  Fabricius,  because, 
in  explaining  the  mechanism  of  the  muscles  of  speech,  he 
had  ridiculed  their  mode  of  pronunciation.  6.  "  Opera 
Anatomica,  qua^  continent  de  formato  Fcetu,  de  formationc 
Ovi  et  PuUi,  de  Locutione  et  ejus  Instrumentis,  de  Bruto- 
rum  loquela,"  Padua,  1604-.  The  essay  on  the  language 
of  brute  animals,  in  this  work,  is  curious,  and  worthy  the 
attention  of  naturalists.  7.  "  De  Musculi  Artificio,  et  Os^- 
•ium  Articulationibus,''  Vicentia,  1614.  8.  "  De  Respira- 
tione  et  ejus  Instrumentis,  libri  duo,"  Padua,  1615.  9.  "  De 
Motu  locali  Animalium,"  Padua,  1618.  10.  "DeGula, 
Ventriciilo,  et  Intestinis,  Tractatus,"  ibid.  1618.  1 1.  "  De 
Integumentis  Corporis,"  ibid.  1618.  12.  *'  Opera  Chirur- 
gica  in  duas  Partes  divisa,"  ibid.  1617.  ^his  work,  in  which 
all  the  diseases  of  the  body,  which  are  curable  by  manual 
operation,  are  treated,  passed  through  seventeen  editions^ 
in  different  languages.  13.  **  Opera' omnia  Physiologica 
et  Anatomica,"  Leipsic,  1687.  14.  The  whole  of  his  worky  ' 
were  also  published  at  Leyden  in  1723,  and  in  1737,  ip 
folio. » 

FABRICIUS  (John  Albert),  one  of  the  ihost  eminent 
and  laborious  scholars  of  his  time  in  Europe,  was  descended 
both  by  the  father's  and  mother's  side  from  a  family  ori- 
ginally of  Holstein.  His  father,  Werner  Fabricius,  a  natirv 
of  Itzhoa,  in  Holstein,  was  director  of  the  music  at  StPauPg 
in  Leipsic,  organist  of  the  church  of  St.  Nicholas  in  that 
city,  and  a  poet  and  a  man  of  letters,  as  appears  by  a  work 
he  published  in  1657,  entitled  "  Deliciae  Harmonicae.** 
His  mother  was  Martha  Corthum,  the  daughter  of  John 
Corthum,  a  clergyman  of  BergedorfF,  and  the  descendant 
of  a  series  of  protestant  clergymen  from  the  time  of  th^ 
reformation.  He  was  born  at  Leipsic  Nov.  11,  1668.  His 
mother  died  in  1674,  and  his  father  in  1679  ;  but  the  lat« 
ter,  while  he  lived,  had  begun  to  instruct  him,  and  on  hit 
death-bed  recomniended  him  to  the  care  of  Valentine  Al« 

f  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  zl 

berty  an  eminent  divine  and  philosopher,  who  employed, 
as  his  first  master,  Wenceslaiv  Buhl,  whom  Mayer  calls 
the  common  Maecenas  of  orphans  ;  and  he  appears  to  hav^ 
been  taught  by  him  for  about  five  years.  He  a]so  received 
instructions  at  the  same  time  under,  Jo.  Goth.  Herrichius, 
rector  of  the  Nicolaitan  school  at  Leipsic,  an  able  Greek 
and  Latin  scholar,  whose  services  Fabricius  amply  acknow- 
ledges in  the  preface  to  Herrichius's  "  Poemata  Graeca  et 
Latina,''  which  he  published  in  1718,  out  of  regard  to  the 
memory  of  this  tutor.  In  1684,  Valentine  Albert  sent  hina 
to  Quedlinburgh  to  a  very  celeb rajted  school,'  of  which  the 
learned  Samuel  Schmidt  was  at  that  time  rector.  It  was 
here  that  he  met  with,  in  the  library,  a  copy  of  Barthius's 
"  Adversaria,"  and  the  first  edition  of  Morboff*s  "  Poly- 
kistor,"  which  he  himself  informs  us,  gave  the  first  direc* 
tion  to  his  mind  as  to  that  species  of  literary  history  and 
research  wbrch  he  afterwards  carried  beyond  all  his  prede- 
cessors, and  in  which,  if  we  regard  the  extent  and  accuracy 
of  his  labours,  he  has  never  had  an  equal.  Schmidt  had 
accidentally  shown  him  Barthius,  and  requested  lym  tq 
look  into  it ;  but  it  seemed  to  open  to  him  such  a  wide 
field  of  instruction  and  pleasure,  that  he  requested  to  take 
it  to  his  room  and  study  it  at  leisure,  and  from  this  he  con- 
ceived the  first  thought,  although,  perhaps,  at  that  timei 
indistinct,  of  his  celebrated  Bibliothecas.  After  his  return 
to  Leipsic  in  1686,  he  met  with  MorhofF,  who,  he  says^ 
gave  bis  new-formed  inclination  an  additional  spur.  He 
n9W  was  matriculated  in  the  college  of  Leipsic,  and  was 
entirely  under  the  care  of  his  guardian  Valentine  Albert, 
one  of  the  professors,  with  whom  he  lodged  for  seven  years. 
During  this  time  he  attended  the  lectures  of  CarpzoviuSj^ 
Olearius,  Feller,  Rechenberg,  Ittigius,  Menckenius,  &c» 
and  other  learned  professors,  and  acknowledges  his  obliga- 
tions in  particular  to  Ittigius,  who  introduced  him  to  a 
knowledge  of  the  Christian  fathers,  and  of  ecclesiastical 
history.  It  is  perhaps  unnecessary  to  add  of  one  who  has 
given  such  striking  proofs  of  the  fact,  that  his  application 
to  his  various  studies  was  incessant 'and  successful.  His 
reading  was  various  and  extensive^  and,  like  most  scholars 
of  his  class,  he  read  with  a  pen  in  his  hand. 

Such  proficiency  Qoulfl  not  escape  the  attention  of  hi^ 
masters,  nor  go  unrewarded,  and  accordingly  we  find  that 
he  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  philosophy, 
^  it  is  styled  in  that  college,  Nov.  27,  16.86,  and  ou  Jan* 


26,  1688,  to  that  of  master.  In  this  last  year,  he  produced 
his  first  publication,  a  dissertation  "  de  numero  septua- 
gen^rio  ;*'  and  in  the  same  year  published  his  "  Scriptorum 
recentiorum  decas,"  a  sort*  of  criticism  on  ten  eminent 
writers,  George  MorhofF,  Christ.  Cellarius,  Henning  Witte, 
Christian  Thomasius,  William  Said  en,  Abraham  Berkelius, 
Servatius  Gallaeus,  James  ToUius,  George  Matthias  Konig, 
and  Christian  William  Eyben.  This  was  published  at 
Hamburgh,  without  his  name,  and  having  been  attacked 
by  an  anonymous  opponent,  he  replied  in  a  **  Defensio 
decadis  adversus  hominis  malevoli  maledicum  judicium, 
justis  de  causis  ab  auctore  suscepta."  He  was  a  young 
man  when  he  assumed  such  a  decisive  and  disrespectful 
tone,  of  which  his  good  sense  soon  made  him  ashamed,  and 
he  afterwards  abstained  from  this  opprobrium  of  contro-. 
versial  writing,  and  received  every  criticism  or  remark  on 
his  works  with  pierfect  submission  and  temper.  '  It  was  pe- 
culiar to  him  that  the  more  he  knew,  the  more  he  learned 
how  to  excuse  the  imperfections  of  others,  and  to  speak 
diffidently  of  his  own  acquisitions. 

In  1689,  he  published  his  "Decas  Decadum,  sive  pla- 
giariorum  et  pseudonymorum  Centuria,**  in  which  he  as- 
sumed the  name  of  Faber.  To  this  was  added  a  disserta- 
tion on  the  Greek  Lexicons,  which  he  enlarged  afterwards, 
and  inserted  in  the  fourth  volume  of  his  "  Bibl.  Graeca.'* 
This  same  year  he  edited  a  corrected  and  enlarged  edition 
of  Weller*s  Greek  grammar.  In  1691  he  published,  in 
Greek  and  Latin,  the  books  of  the  Apocrypha,  with  a  pre- 
face and  new  translation  of  the  book  of  Tobit ;  and  at  the 
same  time,  a  new  edition  of  Lewis  Cappel's  "  Historia  apo- 
stolica."  For  bis  degree  of  doctor  in  philosophy,  he  sup- 
ported two  theses:  one  in  March  1692,  on  the  sophisms  of 
the  ancient  philosophers,  and  particularly  the  stoics;  and' 
the  other  in  1693,  on* the  Platonism  of  Philo. 

Besides  his  studies  in  the  belles  lettres  and  philosophy, 
he  had  much  inclination  to  that  of  medicine,  and  would 
probably  have  pursued  it  as  a  profession ;  but  Berger,  the 
medical  professor,  uncler  whom  he  studied,  being  removed 
from  Leipsic,  he  thenceforth  devoted  himself  entirely  to 
divinity.  In  April  1692  he  had  been  admitted  a  preacher, 
and  his  four  disputations  on  subjects  of  theology  procured 
him  the  highest  praises  from  his  tutors.  In  1693  he  went 
to  Hamburgh,  without  any  immediate  design,  except  that 
of  visiting  some  relatiotis,  particularly  bis  maternal  unclej 


F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  29 

but  intended  afterwards  to  travel,  from  which  he  was  di- 
verted by  an  unexpected  event.  His  guardian  Valentine 
Albert  now  wrote  to  him  that  his  whole  patrimony,  amount- 
ing only  to  1000  German  crowns,  had  been  expended  in 
bis  education,  and  {hat  he  was  indebted  to  him  for  a  con- 
siderable sum  advanced.  Fabricius  returned  an  answer  to 
this  letter,  expressing  his  concern  at  the  news,  but  full  of 
gratitude  to  his  guardian  for  the  care  he  had  taken  of  him 
and  his  property.  He  had,  however,  to  seek  for  the  meant 
of  subsistence,  and  might  have  been  reduced  to  the  greatest 
distress,  had  he  not  found  a  liberal  patron  in  John  Frederick 
Mayer.  This  gentleman  was  minister  of  the  church  of  St. 
James  at  Hamburgh,  ecclesiastic-counsellor  to  the  king  of 
Sweden,  and  honorary  professor  of  divinity  at  Kiel.  Being 
made  acquainted  with  Fabricius^s  situation,  and  probably 
no  stranger  to  the  fame  he  had  acquired  at  Leipsic,  he  gave 
him  an  invitation  to  his  house,  and  engaged  him  as  his 
librarian,  on  which  office  Fabricius  entered  in  June  1694^ 
and  during  his  residence  here,  which  lasted  five  years, 
divided  his  time  betwixt  study  and  preaching,  in  the 
church  of  St.  James,  and  other  churches.  In  the  month  of 
August  1695,  he  sustained  a  disputation  at  Kiel  on  the  ir- 
rational logic  of  the  popes,  in  the  presence  of  the  dukes  of 
Holstein  and  Brunswick.  In  1697  he  published  the  first 
edition  of  his  ^^  Bibliotheca  Latina,^'  in  a  small  volume,  8vo, 
and  appears  to  have  prepared  some  of  his  other  works  for 
the  press ;  but  a  fuller  list  of  these,  with  their  dates,  will 
be  given  at  the  conclusion  of  this  article. 

In  1696  he  went  into  Sweden  with  M.  Mayer,  who  in« 
troduced  him  to  Charles  XL;  and  after  their  return,  Mayer 
endeavoured  to  procure  for  him  the  professorship  of  logic 
and  metaphysics,  vacant  by  the  resignation  of  Gerard  Ma'ier. 
Fabricius  accordingly  became  a  candidate,  and  sustained 
a  public  disputation,  without  a  respondent,  the  subject  of 
which  was  *^  Specimen  elencticmn  historian  logicae,  &c/* 
After  the  other  candidates  Jiad  exhibited  their  talents^  their 
number  was  reduced  to  Fabricius  and  another,  Sebastiaa 
Edzard.  The  votes  on  the  election  happened  to  be  equal, 
and  the  matter  being  therefore  determined  by  casting  lots^ 
Edzard  was  chosen.  Fabricius,  however,  was  not  long 
without  a  situation  befitting  his  talents.  In  the  same  year,: 
1699,  be  was  unanimously  chosen  to  be  professor  of  elo- 
quence, in  the  room  of  Vincent  Placcius,  who  died  in  April ; 
and  on  June  29,  Fabricius  delivered  bis  iaauguiial  speech 

24  r  A  B  R  I  C  I  u  a 

^^  on  the  eloquence  of  Epictetus/'  and  he  now  settled  at 
Hamjiurgh  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  having  a  few 
months  before  taken  his  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity  at 
Kiel.     On  this  occasion  he  supported  a  thesis  ^^  De  recor- 

•  datione  animsB  humanse  post  fata  superstitis."  In  April 
1700  he  married  Margaret  Scqltz,  daughter  of  the  rector 
of  the  lower  school  in  that  city,  to  which  situation  Fabri* 
cius  was  presented  in  1708,  in  order  to  keep  him  at  Ham- 
burgh, for  he  had  many  tempting  invitations  from  other 
universities,  particularly  in  1701,  when  his  friend  and  pa^ 
tron  Mayer  left  Hamburgh  to  settle  at  Grypswald,  and  pro- 
cured Fabricius  the  offer  of  the  divinity-professorship  in 
that  university,  with  a  salary  of  500  crowns.  On  entering 
on  the  duties  of  his  new  situation,  as  rector  of  the  schools^ 
he  began,  as  usual,  with  an  oration,  on  the  causes  of  the 
contempt  of  public  schools;  but  after  the  death  of  M; 
Scuitz,  Fabricius  resigned  this  office  in  1711,  as  interfering 
too  much  with  the  duties  of  his  professorship.  In  1719, 
the  landgrave  of  Hesse  Cassel  offered  him  the.professorship 
of  divinity  at  Giessen,  and  with  it  the  place  of  superintend 
dant  of  the  churches  of  the  confession  of  Augsburgh.  Fa- 
bricius had  some  inclination  to  have  accepted  this  offer ; 
but  the  magistrates  of  Hambuk-gh,  sensible^  of  the  value  of 
his  services,  made  a  very  considerable  increase  of  his  sa- 
lary, the  handsome  manner  of  offering  which,  more  than 
the  value  of  the  money,  induced  him  to  adhere  to  his  res(^• 
lution  of  never  leaving  Hamburgh ;  and  in  this  city  he  died 
April  30,  1736.  His  last  illness  appears  to  have  been  a 
complication  of  asthma  and  fever,  attended  with  great  pain 
and  difficulty  of  breathing,  which  he  bore  with  unexampled 
patience ;  and  employed  his  last  powers  of  speech  in  pious 
reflections  and  exhortations  to  his  family  and  servants. 
His  whole  life  had  been  spent  in  the  practice  of  piety  and 
the  accumulation  of  learning,  and  his  death  was  regretted 
as  an  irreparable  loss  to  the  university  to  which  he  belonged, 
and  to  the  learned  world  at  large.  Few  men,  indeed,  have 
laid  scholars  under  greater  obligations ;  and  he  has  contri- 
buted, perhaps,  more  than  any  maa  ever  did  to  abridge  the 
labours  of  the  student,  and  facilitate  the  researches  of  the 
Qiost  minute  inquirer.  He  had  dr  prodigious  memory,  and 
A'great  facility  in  writing;  and  both  enabled  him  to  accom-^ 
plish  labours,  at  the  thought  of  which  many  a  modern  scho- 
lar would  be  appalled.     Never,  perhaps,  was  there  such  an 

instance  of  literary  and  proi[essioDal  industry.    In  the  first^ 

F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  as 

six  years  of  his  professoi*ship  he  devoted  ten  hours  a  day  to 
his  scholars  ;  and  afterwards  seldom  less  than  eight,  unless 
when  his  last  illness  obliged  him  to  reduce  his  hours  to  four 
or  five.  With  such  employment  in  public,  it  is,  with  all 
the  explanation  his  biographers  have  given,  difficult  to 
comprehend  how  he  could  find  time  and  health,  not  only 
for  his  numerous  printed  undertakings,  but  for  that  vast 
extent  of  correspondence  which  he  carried  on  with  the 
learned  men  of  his  time,  and  for  the  frequent  visits  of  his 
friends,  whom  he  received  with  kindness. 

Besides  many  funeral  orations,  poems,  &c.  in  honour  of 
Fabricius,  Reimar,  his  scholar  and  colleague,  and  afterwards 
his  soQ-in*law,  published  a  ^^  Commentarius.  de  Vita  et 
Scriptis^"  which  contains  many  curious  particulars  of  Fa- 
bricius, and  a  complete  list  of  his  writings ;  extracts  from 
the  correspondence  of  his  friends,  &c.  Of  his  separate 
publications,  although  a  few  have  been  incidentally  men- 
tioned, the  following  chronological  account  cannot  be  un- 
interesting, as  a  stupendous  monument  to  his  industry  and 

1.  "  Scriptorum  reGentiorum  Decas,'*  Hamburgh,  1688, 
4to,  without  his  name.  2.  ^^  Defensio  Decadis,  &c."  4to, 
without  place  or  date.  3,  "  Decas  Decadum,  sive  plagia- 
riorum  et  pseudonymorum  centuria,"  Leipsic,  1639,  4to, 
4.  **  Grammatica  Graeca  Welleri,"  ibid.  1689,  8vo,  often 
Imprinted,  but  Fabricius  never  put  his  name  to  it.  5. 
^'  Bibliotheca  Latina,  sive  notitia  auctorum  veterhm  Latin- 
orum,  quorumcunque  scripta  ad  nos  pervenerunt,"  Ham« 
burgh,  1697,  8vo,  afterwards  enlarged  in  subsequent  edi- 
tions, the  best  of  which  is  that  of  1728,  2  vols.  4to.  An 
edition  of  a  part  of  this  work. has  been  more  recently  pub* 
lished  by  Ernesti,  in  3  vols:  8vo,  which  is  not  free  from 
errors.  6.  *<  Vita  Procli  Philosophi  Piatonici  scriptord 
Marino  Neapolitano,  quam  altera  parte,  de  virtutibus  Procli 
theoreticis  ac  theurgicis  auctiorem  et  nunc  demum  inte- 
gram  primus  edidit,  &c.^*  Hamburgh,  1700,  4to,  dedicated 
to  Dr.  Bentley.  7.  "  Codex  Apocryphus  N.  T.  collectus, 
eastigatus,  &c."  ibid.  1703,  8vo.  8.  **  Bibliotheca  Graeca^ 
sive  Notitia  St:riptorum  Veterum  Graecorum,  quorumcun- 
que Monumenta  integra  aut  fragmenta  edita  extant:  turn 
plerorumque  ex  Manuscriptis  ac  Deperditis.'^  This  con- 
sists of  14  vols,  in  4to,  and  gives  an  exact  account  of  the 
<7reek  authors,  their  different  editions,  and  of  all  those  who 
bavB  commented,  or  written  pgtes  upon  them,  and  witfar 

26  F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S. 

the  "  Bibliotheca  Latina/'  exhibits  a  very  complete  history 
of  Gfeek  and  Latin  learning.     Twelve  volumes  of  a  new 
edition  of  the  **  Bibliotheca  Graeca"  have  been  published 
by  Harles,  with  great  additions,  and  a  new  arrangement  of 
the  original  matter.     9.  ^'  Centuria  Fabriciorum  scriptis 
clarorum,  qui  jam  diem  suum  obierunt,^^  Hamburgh,  1700^ 
8vo,  and  "  Fabriciorum  eenturia  secunda,"  ibid.  1727,  8vp. 
It  was  his  intention  to  have  added  a  third  and  fourth  cen- 
tury,  including  the  Fabri,  Fabretti,  Fabrotti,  Le  Fevre's, 
&c.  but  a  few  names  only  were  found  after  his  death  among 
his  manuscripts.   10.  ^'Memorise  Hamburgenses,  sive  Ham- 
burgi  et  virorum  deecclesia,  requepublica  et  scholastica 
Hamburgeiisi  bene  meritorum,  elogia  et  vitse,^'  Hamburgh, 
1710 — 1730,  7  vols.     11.  "  Codex  pseudepigraphps  Ve* 
teris  Testamenti,^'  as  a  companion  to  his  prieceding  ac- 
count of  the  apocryphal  writers  of  the  New  Testament 
times;  ibid.  1713,  8vo,  reprinted  with  addiMons  in  1722. 
12.  <<  Menologiura,  sive  libellusde  mensibus,  centum  cir- 
citer  populorum  menses  recensens,  atque  inter  se  con- 
ferens,  cum  triplice  indice,  gentium,  mensium  et  scrip- 
torum,"   ibid.  1712,  8vo:     13.  "  Bibliographia  Antiquaria, 
sive  introductio   in  notitiam  scriptorum,  qui  antiquitates 
Hebraicas,  Graecas,  Romanas  et  Christianas  scriptis  illus- 
trarunt.     Accedit  Mauricii  Senonensis  de  S.  Missae  ritibus 
carmen,  nunc  primum  editum,''  1713,  4to,   and   an  en- 
larged edition,  in  which  Mauricius^s  poem  is  omitted,  17 19, 
4to.  14. '*Mathematische  Remonstratiou,  &c."  Hamburgh, 
1714,  8vo,  ,a  work  in  German  against  Sturmius,  on  the. 
institution  of  the  Lord's  Supper.   1 5.  ^*  S.  Hippoly ti  Opera, 
non  antea  collecta,  et  pars  nunc  primum  a  MSS.  in  lucem 
edita,  Gr.  et  Lat.  &c."  ibid.  1716  and  1718,  2  vols.  fftl. 
16.  <^  Bibliotheca  Ecclesiastica,"  ibid.   1718,  fol.  a  very 
valuable  collection  of  notices  of  ecclesiastical  writers  and 
their    works  from    various   biographers,    beginning   with 
Jerome,  who  goes  to  near  the  end  of  the  fourth  century, 
and   concluding  with   Miraeus,    who  ends   ii>  1650.     17. 
**  Sexti  Empirici  Opera,"  Gr.  and  Lat.  Leipsic,  1718,  foL 
18.  ^^Anselmi   Bandurii  Bibliotheca  Nummaria,''    Ham- 
burgh, 1719,  4to.     19.  ^*  S.  Philastri  de  Haeresibus  Liber, 
cum  emendationibus  et  notis,   additisque  indicibus,  ibid. 
1721,    8vo.     20.   ^^   Delectus  argumentorum   et  syllabus 
scriptorum,  qui  veritatem  religionis  Christianas  adversus 
Atheos,    Epicureos,    Deistas^  seu  Naturalistas>   Idolatras^ 
JudaDosp   et  MohaD3medano$  lucubrationibus  suis  asseru-f 

F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  27 

crunt,"  Hamb.  1725,  4to.  Thfe  performance,  very  valuable 
in  itself,  is  yet  more  so,  on  account  of  the  Proemium  and 
first  chapters  of  Eusebius's  "  Demonstratio  Evangelica,'* 
which  are  wanting  in  all  the  editions  of  that  work,  and 
were  supposed  to  be  lost ;  but  which  are  here  recovered 
by  Fabricius,  and  prefixed  to  the  **  Delectus,"  with  a  La- 
tin translation  by  himself.  21.  /^  Imp.  Csbs.  August!  tem- 
porum  notatio,  genus,  et  scriptorum  fragmenta,"  ibid, 
1727,  4to.  22.  "  Centifolium  Lutheranum,  sive  notitia 
literaria  scriptorum  omn is  generis  de  B.  D.  Luthero,  ej  us- 
que vita,  scriptis  et  reform atione  ecclesias,  &c.  digesta,'* 
ibid.  1728  and  1730,  2  parts  or  volumes,  8vo.  23.  A 
German  translation  of  Derham's  "  Astro-theology ,'*  and 
"  Physico-theology,"  1728,  1730,  8vo,  by  Weiner,  to 
which  Fabricius  contributed  notes,  references,  an  analysis, 
preface,*  &c.  24.  **  Votum  Davidicum  (cor  novum  crea 
in  me  Deus)  a  centam  quinquaginta  amplius  metaphrasibus 
expressum,  carmine  Hebraico,  Graeco,  Latino,  German!- 
CO, -fcc."  ibid.  1725,  4to.  25.  "  Conspectus  Thesauri  Li- 
terariae  ItalisB,  premissam  habens,  praeter  alia,  notitiam 
diario'rum  Italias  literariorum,  &c."  ibid,  1730,  8vo.  Every 
Italian  scholar  acknowledges  the  utility  of  this  volume. 
26.  •*  HydrotheologisB  Sciagraphia,"  in  German,  ibid,  1730, 
4to.  27.  ^'  Salutaris  Lux  Evangelii,  toti  orbi  per  divinam 
gratiam  exoriens  :  sive  notitia  kistorico-chronologica,  li- 
teraria, et  geographica,  pi*opagatorum  per  orbem  totum 
Christianorum  Sacrorum,^*  Hamb.  1731,  4to.  This  work 
is  very  curious  and  interesting  to  the  historian  as  well  as 
divine.  It  contains  some  epistles  of  the  emperor  Julian, 
never  before  published.  28.  *^  Bibliotheca  Medias  et  in- 
fimae  Latinitatis,"  printed  in  5  vols.  8vo,  1734,  reprinted 
at  Padua,  in  6  vols.  4to,  1754,  a  work  equal,  if  not  su- 
perior, to  any  of  Fabricius's  great  undertakings,  and  one 
of  those,  which,  like  his  ^  Bibliotheca  Graeca,"  seems  to 
set  modern  industry  at  defiance.  29.  ^^  Opusculorum  His- 
torico-critico-litterariorum  sylloge  quae  sparsim  viderant 
lucem,  nunc  fecensita  denuo  et  partial  aucta,"  Hamburgh, 
1738,  4to. 

Besides  these,  Reimar  gives  a  list  of  fifteen  works  to 
which  he  contributed  additions  and  dissertations ;  thirteen 
original  dissertations,  or  academical  theses,  published  from 
1688  to  1695;  sixteen  programmata;  thirteen  lives;  six 
(wations,  and  thirtyoeight  prefaces,  all  from  the  pen  of  tbi^ 

tS  F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S. 

indefatigable  writer :  he  left  also  a  considerable  numbet 
of  unfinished  manuscripts.  ^ 

FABRICIUS  (John  Lewis),  an  eminent  protestant  di- 
vine of  the  seventeenth  century,  was  born  at  Schafhousen, 

'  July  29,  1639.  He  began  his  studies  under  the  inspection 
of  his  father,  who  was  rector  of  the  college;  but  in  1647 
went  to  Cologne,  where  his  brother  Sebaldus  lived,  and 
thel'e  for  about  a  year  studied  Greek  and  Latin.  In  1648 
be  returned  to  Schaf  housen,  but  left  it  for  Heidelberg  in 
the  following  year,  where  his  brother  had  been  appointed 
professor  of  history  and  Greek.  In  1650  he  went  to 
Utrecht,  and  for  about  two  years  was  employed  in  teach- 
ing. At  the  end  of  that  time  he  visited  Paris  as  tutor  of 
the  son  of  M.  de  la  Lane,  governor  of  Reez,  and  remained 
ill  this  station  for  three  years.  Having  returned  to  Heidel- 
berg in  1656,  he  took  his  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  the 
following  year  was  admitted  into  holy  orders,  and  appointed 
professor  extraordinary  of  Greek,  but  was,  not  long  after, 
requested  by  the  elector  to  go  again  to  Paris  as  tutor  to 
the  baron  Rothenschild,  and  in  1659  he  accompanied  hig 
pupil  to  the  Hague^  and  afterwards  into  England.  On 
their  return  to  France  they  parted,  and  Fabricius  went  to 
Leyden,  where  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity. 
Soon  after  he  was  appointed  professor  of  divinity  at  Heidel- 
berg, superintendant  of  the  studies  of  the  electoral  prince^ 
inspector  of  the  college  of  wisdom,  and  philosophy  pro- 
fessor.    In  1664  he  was  appointed  ecclesiastical  counsellor 

.to  the  elector,  who,  in  I666j  sent  him  to  Schafhousen  to 
explain  to  that  canton  the  reasons-  for  the  war  of  Lorraine, 
which  ofEce  Dr.  Boeckelman  had  discharged  in  the  other 
cantons.  In  1674,  when  the  French  army  advanced  to- 
wards Heidelberg,  Fabricius  retired  to  Fredericksburgh, 
and  to  Cologne,  but  returned  the  same  year.  In  1680, 
although  a  Calvinist,  he  was  commissioned  with  a  Roman 
catholic  to  open  the  temple  of  concord  at  Manheim.  In 
1688,  the  French,  who  had  taken  possession  of  Heidelberg, 
showefi  so  much  respect  for  his  character  as  to  give  him  a 
passport,  which  carried  hini  safely  to  Schafhousen ;  but 
^he  continuance  of  the  war  occasioned  him  again  to  shift 
his  place  of  residence,  and  when  at  Francfort,  he  was  em- 
ployed by  the  king  of  England  (William  IIIJ  and  the 
States  General  to  join  the  English  envoy  in  Swisserland, 

*  lUimar  nbi  tupra.— 'Chaafepie.— Msreri.-^NiceroD,  vol.  XL. — Saxii  Onomast; 

«  * 

F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  29 


ftnd  watch  the  interests  of  the  States  General.  In  the 
execution  of  this  commission  he  acquitted  himself  with 
great  ability,  and  was  particularly  saccessful  in  adjusting 
the  differences  between  the  Vaudois  and  the  duke  of 
Savoy,  and  afterwards  in  accomplishing  an  alliance  between 
the  duke  and  the  States  General.  We  find  him  afterwards 
at  Heidelberg,  and  Francfort,  at  which  last  he  died  in 
1697.  From  these  various  employments  it  appears  that  he 
was  a  man  of  great  abilities  and  political  weight,  and  he 
derived  likewise  considerable  reputation  from  his  writings 
as  a  divine.  Such  was  his  abhorence  of  Socinianism  that 
be  opposed  the  settlement  of  the  Socinian  Poles  when 
driven  out  of  their  own  country  in  the  Palatinate;  in  which, 
however,  at  that  time  he  was  not  singular,  as,  ITccording 
to  Mosheim,  none  of  the  European  nations  could  be  per* 
suaded  to  grant  a  public  settlement  to  a  sect  whose  mem- 
bers denied  the  divinity  of  Christ.  The  same  historian 
informs  us  that  he  *'  was  so  mild  and  indulgent^*  as  to 
maintain,  that  the  difference  between  the  Lutherans  and 
Roman  catholics  was  of  so  little  consequence,  that  a  Lu- 
theran might  safely  embrace  popery;  an  opinion,  which, 
mild  and  indulgent  as  Mosheim  thinks  it,  appears  to  us 
more  in  favour  of  popery  than  of  Lutheranism.  His  works, 
on  controversial  topics,  were  collected  and  published  in  a 
quarto  volume,  by  Heidegger,  with  a  life  of  the  author, 
printed  at  Zurich  in  1698.* 

FABRICIUS  (ViKcfiNT),  a  man  eminent  for  wit  and 
learning,  and  for  the  civil  employments  with  which  he  was 
honoured,  was  born  at' Hamburgh  in  1613.  He  was  a 
good  poet,  an  able  physician,  a  great  orator,  and  a  learned 
civilian.  He  gained  the  esteem  of  all  the  learned  in  Hol- 
land while  he  studied  at  Leyden  ;  and  they  liked  his  Latin 
poems  so  well,  that  they  advised  him  to  print  them.  He 
was  for  some  time  counsellor  to  the  bishop  of  Lubec,  and 
afterwards  syndic  of  the  city  of  Dantzic.  This  city  also 
honoured  him  with  the  dignity  of  burgomaster,  and  sent 
him  thirteen  times  deputy  in  Poland.  He  died  at  Warsaw, 
fluring  the  diet  of  the  kingdom,  in  1667.  The  first  edition 
of  his  poems,  in  1632,  was  printed  upon  the  encourage- 
ment of  Daniel  Heinsius,  at  whose  house  he  lodged.  He 
published  a  second  in  1638,  with  corrections  and  additions: 
to  which  he  added  a  satire  in  prose,  entitled  ^*  Pransus 

1  Marcri.-^-Moiheim.— Saxii  Onoiaaftt. 

io  F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S. 

Paratus,'*  which  he  dedicated  to  Salmasius ;  and  in  which 
'he  keenly  ridiculed  the  poets  who  spend  their  time  in 
making  anagrams,  or  licehtions  verses,^ as  also  those  who 
affect  to  despise  poets.  The  most  complete  edition  of  his 
poems  is  that  of  Leipsic,  1685,  published  under  the  direc- 
tion of  his  son.  It  contains  also  Orations  of  our  author, 
made  to  the  kings  of  Poland ;  an  Oration  spoken  at  Ley- 
'  den  in  1632,  concerning  the  siege  and  deliverance  of  that 
city ;  and  tlie  Medical  Theses,  which  were  the  subject  of 
his  public  disputations  at  Leyden  in  1634,  &c.  ^ 

FABRICIUS  (William),  an  eminent  surgeon  ^nd  phy- 
sician, was  known  also  by  his  surname  of  Hildanus,  from 
Hilden,  a  village  of  Switzerland,  where  he  was  born,  July 
25,  1560.  Like  his  predecessor  of  the  same  name,  Fa- 
bricius  of  Aquapendente,  he  became  one  of  the  most 
eminent  surgeons  of  his  age,  and  contributed  not  a  little 
to  the  improvement  of  the  art.  He  repaired  to  Lausanne 
in  1586,  where  he  completed  himself  in  the  art  of  surgery, 
under  the  instruction  of  Griffon^  an  intelligent  teacher  in 
that  city.  Here  he  pursued  his  researches  with  indefati- 
gable industry,  and  undertook  the  cure  r>f  many  difficult 
cases,  in  which  he  was  singularly  successful.  He  com- 
bined a  knowledge  of  medicine  with  that  of  his  own  art, 
and  began  to  practise  both  at  Payerne  in  1605,  where  he 
remained  ten  years,  and  in  1615  settled  himself  at  Berne, 
in  consequence  of  an  invitation  froni  the  senate,  who 
granted  him  a  pension.  Here  he  enjoyed  the  universal 
esteem  of  the  inhabitants.  But  in  the  latter  period  of  his 
life  he  was  prevented  by  severe  and  frequent  attacks  of 
the  gout  from  rendering  his  services  to  his  fellow-citizens 
with  his  accustomed  assiduity.  At  length,  however,  this 
malady  left  him,  and  he  was  seized  with  an  asthma,  of 
which  he  died  on  the  14th  of  February,  1.634,  at  the  age 
of  seventy-four.  His  works  were  written  in  the  German 
language,  but  most  of  them  have  been  translated  into  the 
Latin.  He  published  five  "  Centuries  of  Observations,'* 
which  were  collected  after  his  death,  and  printed  at  Lyons 
in  1641,  and  at  Strasburgh  in  1713  and  1716.  These 
*'  Observations''  present  a  considerable  numl)er  of  curious 
facts,  as  well  as  descriptions  of  a  great  number  of  instru- 
ments of  his  invention.  His  collected  treatises  were  pub- 
lished in  Latin,  at  Francfort  in  1646,  and  again  in  16^23 

1  Gen.  Dict.^Moreri.— Saxii  Onomast, 

F  A  B  R  I  C  I  U  S.  %i 

in  folio,  under  ttie  title  of  ^^  Opera  Omnia.*'     And  a  Ger- 
man edition  appeared  at  Stutgard  in  1652.^ 

FABRICIUS  (Baron),  known  to  the  public  by  his  let- 
ters relating  to  Charles  XII.  of  Sweden,  during  his  resi- 
dence in  the  Ottoman  empire,  was  spining  from  a  good 
family  in  Germany.  His  father  was  president  of  Zell  for 
George  I.  as  elector  of  Hanover,  and  he  had  a  brother  who 
held  a  considerable  office  in  that  princess  service.  The 
baron,  of  whom  we  are  speaking,  as  soon  as  he  had  finished 
his  studies,  went  into  Holstein,  and  was  early  taken  into 
the   service  of  that  coort,  where  his    talents  were  much 

f  ^ 

admired.  He  was  sent  from  thence,  by  the  duke  admini- 
strator, in  a  public  character,  to  his  Swedish  majesty, 
while  he  continue  at  Bender.  He  was  then  in  the  flower 
of  his  youth,  had  a  gpod  person,  pleasing  address,  great 
accomplishments,  and  ng  vanity.  He  soon  stood  very  high 
in  the  good  graces  of  that  prince ;  accompanied  him  in  his 
exercises,  was  frequently  at  his  table,  and  spent  hours 
alone  with  him  in  his  closet.  He  it  was  that  gave  him  a. 
turn  for  reading ;  aud  it  was  out  of  his  hand  that  monarch 
snatched  the  book,  when  he  tore  from  it  the  8th  satire  of 
Boileau,  in  which  Alexander  the  Great  is  represented 
as  a  madman.  He  had  but  one  enemy  in  the  courts  viz. 
general  DaldorfF,  who  was  made  prisoner  by  the  Tartars, 
when  they  stormed  the  king^s  camp  at  Bender.  Fabricius 
took  pains  to  find  him  out,  released  him,  and  supplied  him 
with  money ;  which  so  entirely  vanquished  the  general, 
that  he  afterwards  became  a  warm  friend.  This  amiable 
rnaii  was  likewise  in  favour  with  king  Stanislaus,  and  with 
our  own  monarch. George  I.  whom  he  accompanied  in  his 
last  journey  to  Hanover,  and  who  may  be  said  to  have  died 
in  his  arms.  A  translation  of  his  genuine  letters  in  English^ 
containing  the  best  accounts  relating  to  the  Northern  Hero 
during  his  residence  in  Turkey,  was  pubHshed  in  one  vo- 
lume 8vo,  Lond.  1761.  ' 

FABRICY  (Gabkiel),  a  French  Dominican,  was  born 
in  1726  at  St.  Maximin  in  Provence,  and,  in  1757,  was 
appointed  secretary  to  the  library  of  la  Casanati  m  Rome ; 
and  in  1771  French  theologist  to  that  estahlishment.  He 
was  also  admitted  a  member  of  the  Arcadi.  He  died  Jan. 
13,  1800.  His  principal  works  are,  1.  "  Recherches  sur 
I'epoque  de  Tequitation,  et  de  T  usage  des  chars  equestres, 

1  Mani^et  and  Haller. — Kees*s  Cyclopsedia.  ^  Letters  as  above. 

32  F  A  B  R  I  C  Y. 

chez  les  anciens,"  Rome,  1764,  1765,  2  vols.  8vo.  2» 
**  Memoire  pour  servir  a  I'histoire  litteraire  de  la  vie  des 
deux  P.  P.  Ansaldi,  des  P.  P.  Mamachi,  Paluzzi,  Richiiii, 
et  Rubeis,"  inserted  in  Richards^s  "  Diet.  Univ.  des  Sciences 
Ecclesiastiques,"  vol.  V.  and  Vi.  3.  "  Des  titres  prioihifc 
de  la  revelation,  ou,  considerations  critiques  sur  la  puret6 
et  I'integrit^  du  texte  original  des  livres  saints  de  rAncien 
Testament,"  Rome  and  Paris,  1773,  2  vols.  8vo,  recpm- 
mending  a  new  translation  of  the  Bible.  4.  "  Diatribae 
qua  bibiiographise  antiquarise  et  sacree  critices  capita  aliquot 
illustrantur,"  Rome,  1782,  Bvo.  He  wrote  also  some  papers 
in  the  literary  journals.  ^ 

FABRONI  (Angelo),  an  eminent  Italian  scholar  and 
biographer,  was  born  Sept.  25,  1732,  at  Marradi  in  Tus- 
cany, of  a  family  once  so  opulent  as  to  be  able  to  assist  the 
falling  fortunes  of  the  Medici.  He  was  the  youngest  of 
the  eleven  children  of  Alexander  and  Hyacinth  Fabroni. 
He  was  educated  first  at  home  under  able  masters,  and 
afterwards  went  to  Rome,  in  1750,  to  the  college  founded 
by  Bandinelli  for  the  youth  of  Tuscany,  who  were  also  re- 
quired to  attend  the  public  schools  of  the  Jesuits.  Here 
he  studied  rhetoric,  logic,  geometry,  physics,  and  meta- 
physics. After  he  had  been  here  three  years,  Peter  Fran- 
cis Foggini,  who  had  acted  as  a  second  father  to  him  (for 
his  own  died  in  L750),  introduced  him  to  Bottari,  as  his 
assistant  in  the  duties  of  a  canonicate  which  he  held  in  the 
church  of  St.  Mary ;  and  as  Bottari  was  a  great  favourer 
of  the  Jansenists,  Fabroni  thought  to  please  him  by  trans- 
lating from  the  French  of  Quesnel,  and  publishing  *'  La 
preparazione  alia  morte ;"  and  **  Principi  e  regale  della 
vita  Cristiana."  About  the  same  time  he  published  "  Le 
Massimo  della  Marchesa  di  Sable,*'  also  translated  from  the 
French,  with  notes.  This,  he  informs  us,  was  a  work  of 
little  consequence,  yet  served  to  show  that  he  was  at  this 
time  tolerably  versed  in  the  reading  of  ancient  authors. 

From  his  earliest  youth  he  cultivated  a  pure  and  ready 
Latin  style,  and  as  a  specimen,  he  now,  encouraged  by 
Foggini,  published  the  life  of  Clement  XH.  in  that  lan- 
guage. This  however,  he  allows,  was  a  severe  task,  and 
although  he  re-wrote  it  twice  or  thrice,  and  had  the  advice 
of  his  friend,  he  did  not  think  it  worthy  of  the  illustrious 
subjects    Cardinal  Coffiini,  however,  had  a  higher  opinion 

1  pid.  Hit  t. 

F  A  B  R  O  N  I.  33 

of  its  merit,  and  not  only  defrayed  the  expence  of  printing, 
bat  made  the  author  a  handsome  present.  Such  liberality 
produced-  a  suitable  impression  on  Fabroni^s  mind,  who  ^ 
became  in  gratitude  attached  to  this  patron,  and  when  a 
female  of  the  Corsini  family  married  about  this  time,  he, 
with  learned  gallantry,  invited  the  most  celebrated  Italian 
poets  to  celebrate  the  joyous  occasion.  About  this  time 
having  presented  an  oration,  which  he  had  delivered  in 
the  pope^s  chapel,  on  the  ascension,  to  Benedict  XIV.  hit 
holiness  received  him  very  graciously,  and  exhorted  him  to 
continue  the  studies  he  had  begun  so  well.  Among  these 
we  find  that  he  had  for  some  time  made  considerable  pro<^ 
gress  io  canon  law,  and  had  even  defended  some  causes, 
but  afterwards  resigned  all  this  for  the  more  agreeable  study 
of  the  belles  lettres  and  classics.  At  the  funeral  of  James 
III.  of  England,  as  be  was  styled^  Fabroni  was  ordered  by 
his  college  to  compose  an  oration  in  praise  of  that  prince, 
which  be  accordingly  delivered  in  the  presence  of  abe  car- 
dinal duke  of  York,  who  expressed  his  sense  of  its.  merit 
not  only  by  tears  and  kind  words,  but  by  a  liberal  present. 

After  this  Fabroni  appears  tO;have  employed  himself  ia 
preparing  his  valuable  lives  of  the  eminent  Italian  literati 
of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries,  the  first  vo- 
lume of  which  be  published  at  Rome  in  1766,  8vo,  and, 
as  he  informs  us,  soon  had  to  encounter  an  host  of  Aristar- 
cbus^s.  In  1767,  a  vacancy  occurring  of  the  ofiice  of 
prior  of  the  church  of  St.  Lorenzo  at  Florence,  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  that  preferment  by  the  duke  Peter  Leopold, 
and  here  he  remained  for  two  years,  during  which  he  went 
on  with  his  great  work.  At  the  end  of  this  period,  he  ob- 
tained leave  to  return  to  Rome,  and  as  he  had  considera- 
ble expectations  from  pope  GanganellL  (Clement  XIV.} 
would- have  probably  attached  himself  to  him,  had  he  not 
thought  that  it  would  appear  ungrateful  to  his  patron  the 
duke  Peter  Leopold,  if  he  served  any  other  master ;  but 
gratitude  does  not  seem  to  have  been  his  only  motive,  and 
he  hints  tliat  implicit  reliance  was  not  always  to  be  placed 
in  Ganganelli's^  promises.  ' 

« At  Pisa,  in  1771,  he  began  a  literary  journal  which  ex- 
tended to  102  parts  or  volumes;  in  this  he  had  the  occa- 
sional assistance  of  other  writers,  but  often  entire  volumes 
were  from  his  pen.  At  length  the  grand  duke,  who  always 
had  a  high  regard  for  FabVoni,  furnished  him  liberally  with 
the  means  of  visiting  the  principal  cities  of  Europe.     Due* 

Vol.  XIV.  D 

34  F  A  B  R  O  N  I. 

ing  this  tour  he  informs  us  that  he  w^s  introduced  to,  and 
lived  familiarly  with  the  most  eminent  characters  in  France, 
with  D'Alerabert,  Condorcet,  La  Lande,  La  Harpe,  Mi- 
rabeau,  Condilliac,  Rousseau,  Diderot,  &c.  and  laments 
that  he  found  them  the  great  leaders  of  impiety.  He  then 
came  to  England,  where  he  resided  about  four  months,  and 
became  acquainted  with  Waring,  Maskelyne,  Priestley, 
and  Dr.  Franklin,  who  once  invited  him  to  go  to  America, 
which,  he  informs  us,  be  foolishly  refused.  With  what  he 
found  in  England  he  appears  to  be  little  pleased,  and  could 
not  be  brought  to  think  the  universities  of  Oxfofd  and 
Cambridge  equal,  for  the  instruction  of  youth,  to  those  of 
Italy.  In  short  he  professes  to  relish  neither  English  diet, 
manners,  or  climate ;  but  perhaps  our  readers  may  dispute 
his  taste,  when  at  the  same  time  he  gives  the  preference 
to  the  manners,  &c.  of  France.  In  1773  he  returned  to 
Tuscany,  and  was  desired  by  the  grand  duke  to  draw  up  a 
st:heme  of  instruction  for  bis  sons,  with  which  he  insinuates 
that  the  duke  was  less  pleased  at  last  than  at  first,  and  adds 
that  this  change  of  opinion  might  arise  from  the  malevolent 
whispers  of  literary  rivals.  He  how  went  on  to  prosecute 
various  literary  undertakings,  particularly  his  ^^  VitaD  Italo- 
rum,"  and  /the  life  of  pope  Leo,  &c.  The  greater  part 
were  completed  before  1800,  when  the  memoirs  of  his  life 
written  by  hin^self  end,  and  when  bis  health  began  to  be 
much  affected  by  attacks  of  the  gout.  In  1801  he  desisted 
from  his  accustomed  literary  employments,  and  retired  to 
a  Carthusian  monastery  near  Pisa,  where  he  passed  his  time 
in  meditation.  Ampng  other  subjoets,  he  reflected  with 
regret  on  any  expressions  used  in  his  works  which  might 
have  given  offence,  and  seemed  to  set  more  value  on  two 
small  works  he  wrote  of  the  pious  kind  at  this  time,  than 
on  all  his  past  labours.  When  the  incursions  of  the  French 
army  had  put  an  end  to  the  studies  of  the  youth  at  Pisa,, 
Fabroni  removed  to  St.  Cerbo,  a  solitary  spot  near  Lucca, 
and  resided  for  a  short  time  with  some  Franciscans,  but 
rj^turned  to  Pis9,  where  an  asthmatic  disorder  put  an  end 
to  his  life  Sept.  22,  1803.  He  left  the  bulk  of  his  pro- 
perty, amouiiting  to  about  1 500  scudi,  to  the  poor,  or  to 
public  charitable  institutions ;  and  all  the  classics  in  his 
library,  consisting  of  the  best  editions,  to  his  nephew,  Ra-* 
phiael  Fabroni. 

Of  his   principal  work,  the  '^.Vitae  Italorum   doctrina 
elxcellentium,  quae  sacculis  XVII.  et  XVIII.  floruerunt,'" 

F  A  B  R  d  N  L  ?5 

l^ighteen  volumes  were  published  in  his  life-time,  and  two 
more  were  afterwards  added :  the  last  contains  some  me- 
moirs of  his  life  written  by  himself,  with  illustrative  notes, 
a  short  continuation,  and  a  collection  of  letters  addressed 
to  him  by  various  illustrious  and  learned  characters.  His 
lives  are  written  with  great  accij^^cy  and  precision,  and 
many  of  them  are  much  fuller  and  more  minute  than  was 
Attempted  by  any  preceding  biographer;  but  his  Latin 
style,  which  he  fancied  to  be  pure,  is  deformed  by  many 
words  aud  phrases  of  modern  Latinity,  and  he  has  rendered 
many  circumstances  obscure  by  Latinizing  the  names  of 
eminent  persons  of  all  nations. 

His  other  works,  not  already  mentioned,  are,  1.  ^' Dia- 
lochi  di  Focione  del  Mably,  trad*  del  Franceses'  2.  ^^  Let- 
tere  del  Magolotti,"  Florence,  1769.  3.  "  Lettered' Uo- 
mini  dotti  a  Leopoldo  Medici.''  4.  **  Istoria  dell'  arte  del 
dbegno."  5.  ^^  Dissertazioue  'suUa  fabola  di  Niobe.'' 
5.  <'  Prefazioiii  aL  L  e  IL  tomo  degli  Uomini  lUustri  Pi- 
9ani."  6.  "  Vita  Laurentii  Medicei,"  4to.  7.  "  Historia 
Lycaei  Pisani,"  3  vols.  4to.  He  was  at  one  time  rector  of 
tbe  university  of  Pisa^  but  his  employment  ceased  with  the 
incursions  pf  the  French  army.  -  8,  "  Viaggi  d'Anacarsi." 
9.  \^  Viu  Leonis  X."  4to.  10.  "  Vita  Cosmi  Medicei,"  4to. 
11.  "  Epistolfls  Francisci  Petrarch®,'*  4to.  12.  "  Vita  R 
Petrarchae,'*  4to.j.  13.  ♦«  Vito  Pallantis  Stroctii,'^  4to. 
14.  ^'  Elogi  d'illustri  Italian!,  cioe  di  Michelangelo  Giaqo- 
melli,  Eust.  Zanotti,  Tomaso  Perelli,  Paolo  Frisi,  Inno- 
cenzo  Frugeni,  ^  JPigtro  Metasta^."  15.  ^<  Elogi  di 
Dante  Alighieri,.dLAngelo  PoUziano,  di  Ludovieo  Ariosto^ 
e  di  Toirquato  Tasso,"  Parma,  1800.  16*  <*  Oratio  ad  S^ 
Rl  £.  Cardinales  cum  subrogandi  -Pontifioi^  eausa  conclave 
Venetiis  ingressuri  essent,"  Pisa,  1800.  17.  ^^Oratioin 
funere  Franc.  Leopoldi  Aostriaci,"  Pisa,  1800.  18.  "  De- 
V6ti  Affetti  in.preparazione  alle  Feste  del  S.  natale,'^  &c, 
iKd.  J 801.  19,  '*  l^^Qveua  in  ono^^.di  Maria  S.  S.  Au-^ 
siliatrice,    coU'^ag^iuntaV  di.  dodici  Medi|a^ioni,!'    Pisa^ 

FABROT  (Charles  Annibal),  aj  v«fyv  learned  lawyer 
ahd  sctrolar,  was  born  in  1580,  at  Aix  in  Provence,  whither 
his  father,  a  nativ^..of  Nismes  in  Langt^edoc,  bad  retired 
during  the  civil  wars.  After  making  very  distinguished' 
progress  in  Greek<and  Latin,  the  belles  lettres,  and  jurif- 

»  Fabroiii  Vitas,  tol.  30^.      ' 

36  F  A  B  R  O  T. 

prudence,  he  was  admitted  doctor  of.  laws  in  1606,  and 
then  became  an  advocate  in  the  parliament  of  Aix«  Among 
the  many  friends  of  distinction  to  whom  his  talents  recom* 
mended  him,  were  M.  de  Peiresc,  a  counselled  of  that  par* 
liament,  and  William  de  Vair,  first  president.  By  the 
interest  of  this  last-mentioned  gentleman,  he  was  promoted 
to  the  law-professorship  at  Aix,  which  office  he  filled  until 
1617,  when  Du  Vair  being  made  keeper  of  the  seals,  in* 
vited  him  to  Paris.  On  Du  Vair's  death  in  1621,  Fabrot 
resumed  his  office  in  the  university  of  Aix,  where  he  was 
appointed  second  professor  in  1632,  and  first  professor  in 
1638.  At  this  time  he  was  absent,  having  the  preceding 
year  gone  to  Paris  to  print  his  notes  on  the  institutes  of 
Theophilus,  an  ancient  jurist.  This  work  be  dedicated  to 
the  chancellor  Segui^r,  who  re()uested  him  to  remain  in 
Paris,  and  undertake  the  translation  of  the  Basilics,  or 
Constitutions  of  the  Eastern  emperors,  and  gave  him  a 
pension  of  2000  livres.  This  work,  and  his  editions  of 
some  of  the  historians  of  Constantinople,  which  he  pub- 
lished afterwards,  procured  him.  from  the  king  the  office  of 
counsellor  of  the  parliament  of  Provence,  but  the  intervention 
of  the  civil  wars  rendered  this  appointment  null.  During 
his  stay  at  Paris,  however,  several  of  the  French  univer- 
sities  were  ambitious  to  add  him  to  the  number  of  their 
teachers,  particularly  Valence  and  Bourges,  offers  which 
his  engagements  prevented  his  accepting.  His  death  is 
said  to  have  been  hastened  by  the  rigour  of  his  application 
in  preparing  his  new  edition  of  Cujas ;  but  his  life  had  al- 
ready been  lengthened  beyond*the  usual  period,  as  he  was 
in  his  seventy^pinth  year  when  he  died,  Jan.  16,  1659. 
His  works  are:  1.  ^^  Antiquit^s  de  la  ville  de  Marseille,** 
Lyons,  1615  and  1632^  8 vo.  This  is  a  translation  from  the 
Latin  MS.  of  Raymond  de  Soliers.  2.  ^^  Ad  tit.  Codicis 
Theodosiani  de  Paganis,  Sacrificiis,  et  Templis  notae,*' 
Paris,  li518,  4to.  3.  ^' Exercitationes  dus  de  tempore 
humani  partus  et  de  numero  puerperii,**  Aix,  1628^  8vo  ; 
Geneva,  1629,  4to,  with  a  treatise  by  Carranza,  on  natural 
and  legitimate  birth.  4.  <^  Car.  Ann.  Fabroti  Exercita- 
tiones  XII.  Accedunt  leges  XIV.  quae  in  libris  digescarum 
deerant,  Gr.  et  Lat.  nunc  pi^imum  ex*  Basilicis  editse,^* 
Paris,  1639,  4to..  5.  <^  Theophili  Antecessoris  Institu* 
tiones,'*  Gn  et  Lat.  Paris,  1638  and  1657,  4to.  6.  *<Iti* 
stitutiones  Justiniani,  cum  notis  Jacobi  Cujacii,"  ibid. 
164S,  12mo»    7.  <<£pistolaB  de  Mutuo,  cum  responsipoc 

F  A  B  R  O  T.  37 

Cfaudii  Salmasii  ad  ^gidium  Menagium,**  Leyden,  1645^ 
Svo.  8.  **  Replicatio  adversus  C.  Salmasii  refutationem," 
&c,  Paris,  1647,  4to.  9.  "  Basilicorum  libri  sexaginta/* 
Gr.  et  Lat.  ibid.  1647,  7  vols,  folio.  The  whole  of  the 
translation  of  this  elaborate  collection  of  the  laws  and  con« 
stitutions  of  the  Eastern  emperors,  was  performed  by  Fabrot, 
exoept  books  38,  39,  and  60,  which  had  been  translated 
by  Cujas,  whose  version  he  adopted.  10.  "  Nicetae  Aco- 
minati  Choniatae  Historia,"  ibid.  1647,  fol.  II.  "  Georgii 
Cedreni  Compendium  historiarum,"  Gr.  et  Lat.  ibid.  1647, 
2  vols.  fol.  12.  "  Theophylacti  Simocattse  Hist,  libri  octo,'* 
ibid.  1647,  fol.  1.X  "  Anastasii  Bibliothecarii  Hist.  Eccle- 
siastica,"  ibid.  1649,  fol.  14.  "  Laonici  Chalcondylae  Hist, 
de  origine  ac  rebus  gestis  Turcarum,  libri  decern,*'  ibid. 
1650.  fol.  15.  "  Prselectio  in  tit.  Decret.  Gregorii  IX.  de 
vita  et  honestate  Clericorum,"  ibid.  1651,  4to.  16.  "Con- 
stantini  Manassis  Breviarium  Historicum,^*  Gr.  et  Lat.  ibid. 
1655,  fol.  17.  "Cujacii  Opera  omnia,*'  ibid.  1658,  la 
vols.  fol.  1 8.  "  J.  P.  de  Maurize  Juris  Canonici  Selecta," 
ibid.  1659, 4to.  19.  "  Notae  in  T.  Balsamonis  coUectionem 
constitutionum  Ecclesiasticarum.'*  This  is  inserted  in  the 
second  volume  of  Justel  and  VoeVs  Bibliotheca  of  Canoii 
law.  Ruhnkenius  published  a  supplementary  volume  %o 
his  edition  of  Cujas  at  Leyden  in  1765.  ^ 

FABYAN,  or  FABIAN  (Robert),  an  English  historian^ 
was  an  alderman  of  London,  and  presents  us  with  the  rare 
instance  of  a  citizen  and  merchant,  in  the  fifteenth  century, 
devoting  himself  to  the  pleasures  of  learning :  but  we 
know  little  of  his  personal  history.  There  was  nothing  re* 
markable  in  his  descent,  and  he  made  lib  great  figure  in 
public  life.  From  his  will  it  appears  that  his  father^s  name 
was  John  Fabyan ;  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that, 
although  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  trade,  his  family  were 
people  of  substance  in  Essex.  Bishop  Tanner  say^  he  was 
bom  in  London.  At  what  period  he  became  a  member  of 
the  Drapers*  company  cannot  now  be  ascertained.  Their 
registers  would  probably  have  furnished  a  clue  to  guess  at 
the  exact  time  of  hii^  birth,  but  the  hall  of  that  ancient 
company  was  twice  destroyed  by  fire,  and  they  have  na 
mnniments  which  reach  beyond  1602.  From  records,  how- 
ever, in  the  city  archives,  it  appears  that  he  was  alderman 
of  the  ward  of  Farringdon  Without ;  in  1493  be  served  the 

)  N!«CTOD,  vol*  XXIX.— Moreri.— Saxli  Onomasticon. 

38  F  A  B  Y  A  N. 

office  of  ftberiiF;  and  in  the  regisi^rs  wbieh  go  by  the  aamtf 
of  the  "  Repertory/'  a  fewscattered  memoranda  are  preseWe^ 
of  the  part  which  be  occasionally  took,  at  a  period  some- 
what later,  in  public  transactions. 

On  tbq  20th  of  September,  1496,  in  the  mayoralty  of 
sir  Henry  Colet,  we  find  him  V  assigned  and  chosen/'  with 
Mr.  Recorder  and  certain  commoners,  to  ride  to  the  king 
'^  for  redress  of  the  new  impositions  raised  and  levied  upon 
English  cloths  in  the  archduke's  land."     This  probably  al- 
ludes to  the  circumstance  of  Philip,  to  whom  the  emperor 
Maximilian  had  resigrned  the  Low  Countries  the  year  be- 
fore, exacting  the  duty  of  a  florin  upon  every  piece  of 
English  cloth  imported  into  his  dominions ;  but  which  he 
desisted  from  in  the  articles  of  agreement  signed  by  his 
ambassadors  in  London,  July  7,  1497,     In  the  following 
jear,'  when  the  Cornish,  rebels  marched  towards  London, 
aKierman  Fabyan  was  appointed  with  John  Brooke,  an4 
John  WfLrner,  late  sheriff,  to  keep  the  gates  of  Ludgate 
and  Newgate,  the  postern  of  the  house  of  Friars-preachersy 
and  the  Bar  of  the  New  Temple.  A  few  months  after,  in  the 
thirteenth  of  Henry  VIL  we  find  him  an  assessor  upon  the 
different  wards  of  ^oudon,  of  the  fifteenth  which  bad  been 
granted, to  the  king  for  the  Scottish  war.     In  1502,  on  the 
pretext  of  poverty,,  he  resigned  the  alderman's  gown,  not 
willing  to  take  the  mayoralty.;  and  probably  retired  to  the 
inansioQ  in  Essex,  mentioned  in  his  will,.atTbeydon  Ger- 
nod.  That  h^  was  opulent  at  this  period  cannot  be  doubted, 
but  he  seems  to  have  considered  that  the  espeuces  of  the 
chief  magistracy  were  too  great,  even  at  that  time,  to  be 
sustained  by  a  man  who  b^^d  a  family  of  sixteen  children, 
for  such  is  the  numb^  specified  iii  his  will,  and  whose 
figures  in  brass  he  ordered  to  be  placed  upon  his  monu« 
ment.    Stowe,  in  bis  "Survey  of  London,"  gives  the  Eng- 
lish part  of  the  epjtapb  on  Fahyan's  tomb,  from  the  cbmrqh 
of  St.  JViichael,  Cornhill,  and  says  he  died  in  1511.;  adding 
that  his  monument  was  gone.     Bale,  who  places.  Fabyan*« 
death  oh  February  28,  1512,  is  probably  nearest  the  truth, 
fts  his  will,  though  dated  July  Uth,  1511,  was  not  proveci 
till  July  12th,  1513  ;  which,  apcording  to  the  ecelesiastical 
eomputatiqn,  would  be  somewhat  less  than  five  months  after 
the  supposed  time  of  his  ^eath.     His  will,  which  afforus  % 
lE;t)ilous  comment  on  the  manners  of  the  tio^e  of  Henry  V|IL 
ibay  be  seen  in  Mr.  Ellis's  late  excellent  edition  of  bia 

F  A  B  Y  A  N.  3d 

Cbfonicley  to. the  preface  to  which  edition  this  article  is 
solely  indebted. 

From  several  passages  in  Fabyan's  history,'  it  is  evident 
that  he  was  conversant  in  French,  and  no  layman  of  the 
age  he  lived  in  is  said  to  have  been  better  skilled  in  the 
Latin  language.  With  these  accomplishments,  with  great 
opportunities,  and  with  a  taste  for  poetry,'  he  endeavoured 
to  reconcile  the  discordant  testimonies  of  historians,  and 
therefore  named  his  work  *•  The  Concordance  of  Histories  ;'* 
adding  the  fruits  of  personal  observation  in  the  latter  and 
more  interesting  portion  of  his  Chronicle.  His  pt)etry, 
indeed,  is  not  of  a  superior  cast  Mr.  Warton  considered 
•*  The  Complaint  of  king  Edward  11.''  to  be  the  best  of  hi^ 
metres ;  but  observes,  that  it  is  a  translation  from  a  Latin 
poem  attributed  to  that  monarch,  but  probably  written  by 
William  of  Wyrcestre.  "  Our  author's  transitions,*'  he 
adds,  '^  from  prose  to  verse,  in  the  course  of  a  prolix  narra- 
tive, seem  to  be  made  with  much  ease,  and  when  he  be- 
gins to  versify,  the  historian  disappears  only  by  the  addi- 
tion of  rhyme  and  stanza." 

Fabyan,  like  the  old  chroniclers  in  general,  for  fear  o^ 
neglecting  some  important  facts,  went  beyond  the  age  of 
historical  certainty  in  his  details.  He  divides  bis  Chronicles 
into  seven  portions,  giving  a  copy  of  verses  as  an  epilogue 
to  each,  under  the  title  of  the  Seven  Joys  of  the  Blessed 
Virgin.  The  first  six  portions  bring  his  history  from  the 
landing  of  Brute  to  the  Norman  conquest.  The  seventh 
extends  from  the  conquest  to  the  conclusion.  That  he  was 
a  little  tihgefd  with  soperstttion  must  be  allofred ;  but  he 
was  no  great  fieivourer  of  the  monastic  institution,  and  his 
observations  on  some  of  the  miraclcis  related  in  bis  history 
are  too  pointed  to  be  mistaken. 

There  have  been  five  editions  of  Fabyan ;  the  first  printed 
by  Py nson,  in  1516,  the  great  rarity  of  which  is  attributed 
by  Bale  to  cardinal  Wolsey,  who  ordered  some  copies 
^^exemplaria  nonnuUa"  to  be  burnt,  because  the  Author 
bad  m^de  too  clear  a  discovery  of  the  revenues  of  the 
clergy.  This  obnoitious  part,  Mr.  Ellis  thinks,  was  the  ab'^ 
litract  6f  the  hilt  projected  by  the  house  of  commons  in  the 
eleventh  year  of  Henry  IV.  for  depriving  ecclesiastics  of 
their  temporal  possessions.  Balers  assertion,  however^  is 
unsupported  by  any  other  writer.  The  second  edition  was 
printed  by  Rastell  in  1533  ;  the  third  by  John  Reynes  in 
1542;  the  fourth  by  Kingston  in  1559,  all  in  folio;  and 

40  F  A  B  Y  A  N. 

the  fifth  makes  part  of  the  series  of  Chronicles  lately  re^ 
printed  by  a  society  of  the  most  eminent  booksellers  of 
London,  and  was  edited  by  Henry  Ellis,  esq.  F.  R.  S.  and 
F.  S.  A.  with  such  collations  and  improvements  as  give  it  a 
very  superior  value.  It  is  reprinted  from  Pynson's  edition 
of  1516,  the  first  part  collated  with  the  editions  of  1533, 
1542,  and  1559,  and  the  second  with  a  manuscript  of  the 
author^s  own  time,  as  well  as  the  subsequent  editions;  in* 
eluding  the  differebt  continuations.  ^ 

FACCIO,  or  FATIO  (Nicolas  of  Duilier),  a  man  of 
considerable  learning,  but  unfortunately  connected  with 
the  French  prophets,  was  a  native  of  Switzerland,  whither 
his  family^  originally  Italians,  were  obliged  to  take  refiige> 
for  religion^s  sake,  in  the  beginning  of  the  reformation. 
He  was  born  Feb.  16,  1664.  His  father  intending  him  for 
the  study  of  divinity,  he  was  regularly  instructed  in  Greek 
and  Latin,  philosophy,  mathematics,  and  astronomy ;  learn* 
ed  a  little  of  the  Hebrew  tongue,  and  began  to  attend  the 
lectures  of  the  divinity  professors  of  Geneva  :  but  his  mo- 
ther being  averse  to  this,  he  was  left  to  pursue  his  own 
course,  and  appears  to  have  produced  the  first  fruits  of  his 
studies  in  some  letters  on  subjects  of  ^astronomy  sent  to  Ca&« 
sini,  the  French  king's  astronomer.  In  1682  he  went  to 
iParis,  where  Cassini  received  him  very  kindly.  In  the 
following  year  he  returned  to  Geneva,  where  he  became 
pa^rticularly  acquainted  with  a  count  Fenil,  who  formed  the 
design  of  seizing,  if  not  assassinating  the  prince  of  Orange^ 
afterwards  William  IIL  This  design  Faccio  having  learned 
from  him  communicated  it  tb  bishop  Burnet  about  1 686, 
who  of  course  imparted  it  to  tjie  prince.  Bishop  Burnet^ 
in  the  first  letter  of  his  Travels,  dated  September  1485, 
speaks  of  him  as  an  incomparable  mathematician  and  phi- 
losopher, who,  though  only  twenty-one  years  old,  was 
already  become  one  of  the  greatest  men  of  his  age,  and 
seemed  born  to  carry  learning  some  sizes  beyond  what  it 
bad  hitherto  attained.  Whilst  Dr.  Calamy  studied  at  the^ 
imiversity  of  Utrecht^  Faccio  resided  in  that  city  as  tutor 
to  twp  young  gentlemen,  Mr.  EUys  and  Mr.  Thornton,  and 
conversed  freely  with  the  English.  At  this  time  be  was 
generally  esteemed  to  be  a  Spinozist ;  .and  bis  discourse^ 
says  Dr.  Calamy,  very  much  looked  that  way.  Afterwards^ 
it  is  probable,  that  he  was  professor  of  mathematics  at 

*  Preface  ag  abore*  v 

F  A  C  C  I  O.  M 

Geneva.  In  1687  he  came  into  Englandi  and  was  honoured 
with  the  friendship  of  the  most  eminent  mathematicians  of 
that  age.  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  in  particular,  was  intimately 
acquainted  with  him.  Dr.  Johnstone  of  Kidderminster  bad 
in  his  possession  a  manuscript,  written  by  Faccio,  containing 
commentaries  and  illustrations  of  different  parts  of  sir 
Isaac's  Principia.  About  1704  hd  taught  mathanatics  ia 
Spitalfields,  and.  obtained  about  .that  time  a  patent  for  a 
species  of  jeweUwatches.  When  he  unfortunately  attached 
himself  to  the  new  prophets,  he  became  their  chief  secre- 
tary, ^nd  commuted  their  warnings  to  writing,  many  of 
which  were  published.  The  connexion  of  such  a  man  with 
these  enthusiasts,  and  their  being  supported,  likewise,  by 
another  person  of  reputed  abilities,  Maximilian  Misson,  a^ 
French  refugee,  occasioned  a  suspicion,  though  without 
reason,  that  there  was  some  deep  contrivance  and  design 
in  the  affair.  On  the  second  of  December,  1707,  Faccio 
stood  in  the  pillory  at  Charing-cross,  with  the  following 
words  affixed  to  his  hat :  *^  Nicolas  Fatio,  convicted  for 
abetting  and  favouring  £lias  Marion,  in  his  wicked  and 
counterfeit  prophecies,  and  causing  them  to  be  printed  and 
published,  to  tefrify  the  queen's  people.'*  Nearly  at  the 
same  time,  alike  sentence  was  executed  upon  Elias  Marion^ 
one  of  the  pretended  prophets,  and  John  d'Ande,  another 
of  their  abettors.  This  mode  of  treatment  did  not  convince 
Faccio  of  his  error ;  and,  indeed,  the  delusion  of  a  man  of 
such  abilities,  and  simplicity  of  manners,  was  rather  an 
object  of  compassion  than  of  public  infamy  and  punish« 
ment.  Of^ressed  with  the  derision  and  contempt  thrown 
upon  himself  and  his  party,  he  retired  at  last  into  the 
country,  and  spent  the  remainder  of  a  long  life  in  silence 
Und  obscurity.  He  died  at  Worcester  in  1753,  about  eighty* 
nine  years  old.  When  he  became  the  dupe  of  fanaticism^ 
he  seems  to  have  given  up  his  philosophical  studies  and 
connections.  "Faccio,  besides  being  deeply  versed  in  all 
branches  of,  mathematical  literature,  was  a  great  proficient 
in  the  learned  and  oriental  languages.  He  had  x&bA  mnch, 
idso,  in  books  of  alchymy.  To  the  last,  he  continued  a 
$rm  believer  in  the  reality  of  the  inspiration  of  the  French 
prophets.  Dr.  Wall^of  Worcester,  who  was  well  acquainted 
with  him,  communicated  many  of  the  above  particulars  to. 
Br.  Johnstone,  in  whose  hands  were  several  of  Faccio's  fa- 
natical manuscripts  and  journals;  and  one  of  his  letters 
giving  an  account  of  count  Fenil's  conspiracy^  and  some 

4«  F  A  C  C  I  O. 

particulars  of  the  author's  family  was  communicated  to  the 
late  Mr.  Seward,  and  published  in  the  second  volume  of 
his  Anecdotes.  In  the  Republic  of  Letters,  vol.  I.  we  find 
a  Latin  poem  by  Faccio,  in  honour  of  siir  Isaac  Newton ;  and 
in  vol.  XVin.  a  communication  on  the  rules  of  the  apcient 
Hebrew  poesy,  on  which  subject  be  appears  to  have  cor- 
responded with  Whiston.  There  are  also  many  of  his  ori- 
ginal papers  and  letters  in  the  British  Museum  ;  and  among 
them  a  Latin  poem,  entitled  "  N.  Facii  Duellerii  Auriacus 
Tbrono-Servatus,"  in  which  he  claims  to  himself  the  merit 
of  having  saved  king  William  from  the  above-mentioned 
conspiracy.  * 

FACCIOLATI  (James),  a  learned  Italian  orator  and 
grammarian,  was  born  Jan.  4,  1682,  at  Tofeglia,  and  stu- 
died principally  at  Padua,  where  be  took  his  degree  of 
doctor  in  divinity  in  1704,  and  taught  for  some  time,  and 
afterwards  was  professor  of  philosophy  for  three  years.  He 
was  then  appointed  regent  of  the  schools.  As  the  Greek 
and  Latin  languages  were  now  his  particular  department^ 
he  biestowed  much  pains  in  providing  his  scholars  with 
suitable  assistance,  and  with  that  view,  reviewed  and  pub- 
lished new  and  improved  editions  of  the  Lexicons  of  Cale- 
pinus,  Nizolius,  and  Schrevelius.  Some  years  after  be 
was  promoted  to  be^logic  professor,  and  in  that  as  welt  asr 
the  former  situation,  endeavoured  to  introduce  a  more  cor- 
rect and  useful  mode  of  teaching,  and  published  a  work  on 
the  subject  for  the  use  of  his  students.  In  1739,  when  the 
business  of  teaching  metaphysics  was  united  to  that  of 
logic,  Facciolati  was  desirous  of  resigning,  that  he  might 
return  to  his  original  employment ;  but  the  magistrates  oF 
Padua  would  by  no  means  allow  that  their  university  should! 
be  deprived  of  his  name,  and  therefore,  allowing  him  to 
retain  bis  title  and  salary,  only  wished  him  to  take' in  hand- 
the  history  of  the  university  of  Padua,  which  PapadopoK- 
had  written,  and  continue  it  down  to  the  preseiit  time.^ 
This  appears,  from  a  deficiency  of  proper  records,  a  very" 
arduous  task,  yet  by.dint  of  perseverance  he  accomplished' 
it  in  a  manner,  which  although  not  perfectly  satisfactory, 
as  far  as  regards  the  "  Fasti  Gymnastici,**  yet  was  entirely 
so  in  the  ^'  Syntagmata.*'     He  wrote  also  some  works  in 

theology  and  morale,  and  had  the  ambition  to  be  thought  a 

.  ■♦ 

1  Biog.  Brit,  vol,  UI.  art,  Calamy. — ^Seward's  Anecdotes.— TaUer,  with  notes* 
1806,  vol.  IV.  , , 

F  A  C  C  I  O  L  A  T  L  4» 

^oet,  but  bis  biographer  Fabroni  thinks  that  in  this  be  was 
not  successful.  His  principal  excellence  was  as  a  classical 
schola'r  and  critic,  especially  iti  the  Latin,  and  his  high 
faune  procured  him  an  invitation  from  the  king  of  Portugal 
%Q  sup^gyrintend  a  college  for  the  young  nobility  at  Lisbon, 
but  be  excused  himself  oa  account  of  his  advanced  age. 
Fabroni  mentions  a  set  of  china  sent  to  him  by  this  sove* 
reign,  which  he  says  was  a  Tery  acceptable  present,  and 
corresponded  to  the  elegant  furniture  of  Facciolati*s  house. 
U0  had  a  garden  in  which  be  admitted  no  plants  or  fruit- 
trees  but  what  were  of  the  most  choice  and  rare  kiitd,  and 
four  or  five  apples  from  Facciolati's  garden  was  thought  no 
mean  present.  In  every  thing  he  was  liberal  to  his  friends, 
and  most  benevolent  to  the  poor.  He  died  in  advanced 
age  of  the  iliac  passion,  Aug.  27,  1769. 

His  works  were,  1.  "  Orationes  LatinsB,*'  separately 
published,  but  collected  and  printed  at  Padua  in  1744, 
Bvo,  and  reprinted  with  additions  in  1767.  2.  ^^  Logicse 
discipline  rudimenta,"  Venice,  1728,  8vo.  3.  "Acroases 
dialectics,*'  first  published  separately,  and  afterwards  in- 
corporated in  a  work,  entitled  *^  J.  Facciolati  logica  tria 
complectens,  Rudimenta,  Institutiones,  Acroases  undecim," 
Venice,  1750.  4/  '<  De  Vita  Cardinalis  Coruelii  episcopi 
Patavini.*'  This  life  of  one  of  his  early  patrons  appeared 
in  the  ^^  Acta  Erudit.''  Lips.  1722.  5.  ^'Ortografia  modema 
Italiana,*'  Padua,  1721.  6.  '<  Exercitationes  in  duas  prfores 
Ciceroni^  orationes,"  Padua,  1731.  7.  '^  Animadversiones 
Critics  in  I.  Litteram  Latini  Lexici  cui  titulus  Magnum 
Dictionarium  Latino  Galiicum,*'  Padua,  173),  8vo.  8. 
^'  Animadversiones  criticsB  in  X.  Litterarum  ejusdem 
Lexici."  This  is  in  Calogera's  collection  of  scientific 
works,  vol.  XIX.  Venice,  1739.  9.  ''  Scholia  in  libros  Ci- 
ceronis  de  ^fficiis,  de  senectute,  &c.''  Venice,  8vo.  1 0« 
Monita  Isocratea,  Gr.  et  Lat.''  Padua,  1741,  8vo.  1 1.  ^  De 
Gymnasio  Patavino  jmitagmata  duodecim  ex  ejusdem  Gym- 
Hasii  fastis  excerpta/'  ibid.  1750,  8vo.  12.  ^*  Fasti  Gym- 
nasii  Patavini,  ab  anno  1260  ad  annum  1756,"  ibid.  1757, 
4to.  13.  ^<  Sfera  e  geografia  per  le  scuole  d^  fanciuUi.'* 
14.  ^  Ciceronis  Vita^iteraria,"  ibid.  15.  Vita  et  acta 
Jcsn  Christ!  secundum  utramque  generationem,  divinam 
ac  humanam,".  ibid.  1761.  16.  ^*  Vita  et  acta  B.  Mariie,** 
ibid.  1764.  17.  '*  Viatica  TheologicaX.  quibus  adversqs 
religionis  dissidia  cathollcus  viator  munitur,"  Padua,  1763.* 
18.  «<£pistol9  Latins  CLXXI  Jacobi  Facciolati/'  ibid. 

4i  F  A  C  I  N  I. 

1765.  Besides  these  he  was  the  aatbcnr  of  sonie  articles  in 
the  literary  journals.  ^ 

PACINI  (Peter),  a  painter  of  history,  was  bom  at  Bo- 
logna in  1560.  He  began  to  paint  when  already  grown  up 
to  manhood,  at  the  advice  of  An,  Caracci,  who^  on  seeing 
a  whimsical  design  of  his  in  charcoal,  concluded  he  would 
be  an  acquisition  to  his  school.  Of  this  advice  be  had  rea» 
son  to  repent,  not  only  because  Facini  roused  his  jealousy 
by  the  rapidity  of  his  progress,  but  because  he  saw  him 
leave  his  school,  become  his  rival  in  the  instruction  of 
youth,  and  even  lay  snares  for  his  life.  Facini  had  two 
characteristics  of  excellence,  a  vivacity  in  the  attitudes 
and  heads  of  his  figrures,  that  resembled  the  style  of  Tin- 
toretto, and  a  truth  of  carnation  which  made  Annibal  hiin- 
self  declare  that  his  colours  seemed  to  be  mixed  with  hu- 
man flesh.  Beyond  this  he  has  little  to  surprise  ;  his  de- 
sign is  weak,  his  bodies  vast  and  undefined,  his  heads  and 
hands  ill  set  on,  nor  had  he  time  to  correct  these  iaults,  as 
he  died  young,  in  1602.  At  St.  Francesco,  in  Bologna,  is 
an  altar-piece  of  his,  the  marriage  of  St.  Catherine,  at- 
tended by  the  four  tutelary  saints  of  the  city,  and  a  numbeir 
of  infant  angels,  which  shews  the  best  of  his  powers.  His 
children  carolling,  or  at  play,  in  the  gallery  Matvezzi,  and 
elsewhere  at  Bologna,  are  equally  admired ;  they  are  iii 
the  manner  of  Albani,  but  with  grander  proportions.  * 

FACIO  (Bartholomew),  a  very  learned  man  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  was  a  native  of  Spe^zia,  a  sea-port  in  the 
Genoese  territory.  The  most  curious  inquirers  into  the 
history  of  literature  have  not  yet  been  able  to  ascertain  the 
precise  period  of  his  birth.  From  many  passages,  however, 
which  occur  in  his  works,  it  appears,  that  he  was  indebted 
for  instruction  in  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages  to  Guarino 
Veronese,  whom  he  frequently  mentions  in  terms  of  affec- 
tionate esteem.  Facio  was  one  of  the  numerous  assemMage 
of  scholars  that  rendered  illustrious  the  court  of  Alphonsus, 
king  of  Naples,  by  whom  he  was  treated  with  distinguished 
honour.  He  had  been  sent  by  the  Genoese  to  Alphonsus 
on  a  political  errand,  in  which  be  failed;  but  the  interviews 
he  had  gave  the  king  so  favourable  an  opinion  of  him,  that 
he  invited  him  into  his  service,  and  made  him  hissecretarjr, 
an  office  which  he  filled  for  many  years.     Daring  his 

*  FaWtmi  Vit»  Italorum, — Saxii  Onomattiooii,  a  curiouf  irticle>  with  Mine 
original  corretpoadeaee. 
«  PilkiDgtoa. 

>      FA  C  LO.  45 

resideace  at  J^aples,  the  jealousy  of  rivalship  betrayed  him 
into  a  violent  quarrel  with  Laurentius  Valla,  against  whom 
he  Composed  four  invectives,  and  as  he  happened  to  die 
$oon  after  Valla,  the  circumstance  occasioned  the  following 

''  Ne  vel  in  Elyaiis  sine  vindice  Valla  susurret, 
Facius  baud  multos  post  obiit  ipse  dies.*' 

Some  say  Facio  composed  these  lines  himself  on  his  death- 
bed, which  is  doubtful,  as  indeed  is  the  period  of  his  death. 
Mehus,  his  last  biographer,  fixes  his  death  in  1457 ;  but 
Valla,  we  know,  died  eight  years  before,  which  is  rather  a 
too  liberal  translation  of  ^^  baud  multos  dies/'  Niceron 
contends  for  1467,  which  is  nine  years  after  the  death  of 

His  works,  according  to  the  catalogue  given  by  Mehus, 
are,  1.  De  Bello  Veneto  Clodiano  ad  Joannem  Jacobum 
Spinulam,  liber,"  Leyden,  1568*  2.  <<De  humans  vitse 
felicitate,"  Hanov.  1611,  and  with  it,  ^^  De  excellentia  et 
prsstantia  hominis,"  a  work  erroneously  ascribed  to  Pius  II. 
with  whom  Facio  was  intimately  acquainted.  3.  ^'  De  rebus 
gestis  ab  Alphonso  primo  Neapolitarum  rege  Commenta- 
riorum  libri  decern,"  Leyden,  1560,  4to,  and  reprinted  in 
1562  and  1566.  The  first  seven  hooks  were  also  published 
at  Mantua  in  156S,  and  it  has  been  inserted  in  various  col- 
lections of  Italian  history.  4.  ^*  Arriani  de  rebus  gestis 
Alexandri  libri  octo,  Latine  redditi,"  Basil,  1539,  folio. 
This  translation  was  made  by  Facio  at  the  request  of  hia 
patron  Alpbonsus.  5.  '*  De  viris  illustribus  liber,"  pub* 
lished  for  the  first  time  by  the  abb6  Mehus,  at  Florence, 
1745,  4to,  with  a  life  of  the  author^  and  some  of  his  cor- 
respondence. Saxius  has  published  in  his  Onomasticon  a 
small  tract  of  Facio's,  '*  de  differentiis,"  or  the  difference 
between  words  apparently  of  the  same  meaning.  Tira* 
boschi  thinks  Facio's  style  much  more  elegant  than  that  of 
any  of  his  contemporaries,  and  in  his^  lives  of  illustrious 
men,  published  by  Mehus,  he  displays  much  impartial  and 
just  criticism.  ^ 

FACUNDUS,  bishop  of  Hermianum  in  Asia,  is  noticed 
by  ecclesiastic  writers  as  having  been  present  at  the  coun- 
cil of  Constantinople,  held  by  pope  Vigilius  in  the  year 
547,  where  he  was  a  strenuous  defender  of  the  writings 

1  Shepherd's  Life  of  Pofgio,  p.  435.— Gisgacn^  HisU  Lilt  4*Italif .^^ic0^ 
roB>  vol.  XXLrrMoreti.— SasUi  Onovast. 

46  F  A  C  U  N  B  U  & 

called  <<  The  Three  Chapters^''  which  the  council  of  Chal« 
cedoii  had  pronounced  orthodox.  The  works  so  naifed 
were,  1.  The  writings  of  Theodore  of  Mopsuestia.  2.  The 
books  which  Theodoret  of  Cyrus  wrote,  against  the  twelve 
anathemas  published  by  Cyril  against  the  Nestorians.  3« 
The  letter  which  Ibas  of  Edessa  had  written  to  Maris,  a 
Persian,  concerning^  the  councit  of  Epbesus,  and  tiie  con- 
demnation of  Nestorius.  The  question  of  condemning 
these  writings,  had  been  raised  by  Theodore  bishop  of 
CsBsarea,  for  the  sakd  of  weakening  the  authority  of  the 
council  of  Chalcedon,  and  crushing  the  Nestorians.  The 
emperor  Justinian  listened  to  this  prelate,  published  an 
edict  against  The  Three  Chapters  in  the  year  544,  and  in 
the  council  of  Constantinople  above-mentioned,  forced  the)^ 
pope  Vigilius  to  accede  t6  the  same  sentence.  Vigilius, 
agitated  between  the  contending  parties,  changed  his 
opinion  and  conduct  four  times  ;  but  Fadundus  remained 
firm,  and  was  banished  for  bis  perseverance.  He;  wrote 
twelve  books  on  the  suhgect,  addressed  to  Justinian,  which 
are  still  extant,  and  one  against  Mutmnus,  but,  in  fact, 
against  Vfgilius  ;  both  published  with  notes,  by  P.  Sir* 
mond,  in  1629.  There  is  also  an  '^  Epistola  Catholicae 
fidei  pro  defensione  trium  capitulorum,"  added  to  the 
edition  of  1675.  His  style  is  animated,  but  he  is  ft'Cr^ 
quentiy  deficient  in  moderation.^ 

FAERNO  (Gabriel),  an  elegant  Latin  poet  and  philo* 
logist,  was  born  at  Cremona  in  the  early  part  of  the  six« 
teenth  century,  and  by  his  accomplishments  in  polite 
literature,  gained  the  esteem  and  friendiship  of«* 
dinal  de  Medicis,  afterwards  pope  Pius  IV.  knd  of  his  ne* 
phew  the  cardinal  Borromeo.  Having  acquired  a  critical  [ 
knowledge  of  the  Latin  lattguage,  be  was  enabled  to  dis-* 
play  much  judgment  in  the  correction  of  the  Ropnan  clas« 
sics,  and  in  the  collation  of  ancient  manuscripts  on  which 
he  was  frequently  employed,  and  indeed  had  an  office  of 
that  kind  in  the  Vatican  library.  Gbiiini  says  that  be  was 
equally  learned  in  the  Greek  language,  but  Muret  asserts 
that  he  was  quite  unacquainted  with  the  Gr^ek.  That  he 
was  a  v^ry  elegant  Latin  poet>  however,  is  amply  proved 
by  his  "  Fables,"  and  perhaps  his  being  accused  of  steal- 
ing fromi  Phaedrus  may  be  regarded  as  a  compliment  to  his 
style.     Thuanus  appears  to  have  first  suggested  this  liccuir 

1  Mor^ri.—* Dopin. — Mo0heiai*-*Saxit  OnomasL 

F  A  E  R  N.  O.  47 

ution.     He  says  that  the  learned  world  waa  greatly  obliged 
tojiiiin^  yet  nd4  been  more  so,  if,  instead  of  suppressing, 
he  bad  beeu  content  with  imitating  the  Fables  of  Phasdrus, 
and  assert^  that  Faerno  dealt  unfairly  with  the  public  con- 
cerning Phasdrus,  who  was  then  unknown ;  having  a  ma- 
nuscript of  that  author,  which  he  concealed  fmm  the  world 
for  fear  of  lessening  the  value  of  the  Latin  fables  he  had 
made  in  imitation  of  ^sop.     Perrault,  however,  whopub- 
lished  a  translation  of  Faerno's  Fables  into  French  verse  at 
Paris  in  1699,  has  defended  his  author   from  Thuanus's 
imputation.     His   words    in   the  preface .  are  as  follow : 
^^  Faerno  has  been  called  a  second  Phaedrus^  by  reason  of 
the  excellent  style  of  his  Fables,  though  he  never  saw 
Phaedrus,  wh0:did  not  come  to  our  knowledge  till  above 
thirty  years  after  his  death ;  for  Pithoeus,  having  found 
that  manuscript  in  the  dust  of  an  old  library,  published  it 
in  the  beginnit^  of  this  century.     Thuanus,  who  makes 
very  honourable  mention  of  our  author  in  his  history,  pre- 
tends, that  Pboedrus  was  not  unknown  to  him;  and  even 
blames  him  for  hav&fog  suppressed  -that  author,  to  conceal 
what  he  had  stolen  from  bin)-     But  there  is  no  ground  for. 
what  he  says ;  and  it  is  only  the  effect  of  the  strong  per- 
suasion of  aU  those .  who  are  so  great  admirers  of  antiquity 
as  to  think  that  a  modern  author  can  do  nothing  that  is. 
excellent,  unless  h^  has  an  ancient  author  for  bis  modeL 
Out  of  the  hundred  fables  which  Faerno  published  in  Latin 
verse,  there  are  but  five  that  had  been  treated  by  Phsedrus  ; 
and  out  of  tbo$(^  fiv^  there  are  but  one,  or  two  that  have^ 
been  manage^  nearly  in  the  same  manner:  which  hap- 
pened only  bectose  it.  is  impossible  that  two  men,  who 
treat  on  the  same  subject,  .should  not  agree  sometimes  in 
the  same  thoughts,  or  in  the  same  expressions.^'" .  > 

JB'aerno  died  in  the  prime  of  life,  at  Rome,  Nov.  17>  1 56L 
How  much  Qiight  have  been  expected  from  his  talents  and 
habits  of  studyi  had  be  liyed  longer,  may  appear  from 
what  he  left:  1. ."  Terentii  Comoedise^"  Florence,  1S65,  2 
vols.  8yo,  a  valuable  and  rare  edition.  There: is  no  ail- 
ci^nt  adttor  to  whom  Terence  is  more  indebted  than  to 
Faernip ;  who,  by  a  judicious  collation  of  ancient  manu- 
scripts and  editions,  especially  the  one  belonging  to  Bem- 
bus, .(examined  by  Politian,  and  unknown  to  all  preceding 
editors)^  has  restored  the  true  reading  of /his  d.uthor  in 
many  important  passages.  Faerno's  edition  became  the 
basis  of  almost  ei^ery  subsequent  one,  and  Dr.  Bentley 


48  F  A  E  R  N  O. 

had  3ach  an  opinion  of  his  nfotes  that  he  reprinted  them 
entire  in  his  edition.  2.  ^^  Ciceronis  Orationes  Philippicar/* 
Rome,  1563,  8vo,  very  highly  praised  by  Graevius.  ^. 
<^  Ceiitum  Fabulse  ex  antiquis  Autoribus  delects,  et  car- 
fisinibus  expUcatse/'  Rome,  1564,  4to,  with  prints,  froni 
which  it  is  said  that  the  subjects  for  the  fountains  at  Ver<^ 
sailles  were  taken^  There  is  Another  edition  of  London, 
1743,  4to,  very  beautiful,  but  not  so  much  valued  as  the 
former.  It  is  said  that  this  work  was  occasioned  by  a  wish 
expressed  by  the  pope  that  he  would  make  a  collection  of 
thebestof  Esop's^bles,  and  those  of  other,  ancient  authors, 
and  put  them  into  Latin  verse  for  the  instruction  of  the 
young.  4.  **  Censura  emendationum  Livianarum  Sigonii.'* 
Among  the  collections  of  Latin  poetry  written  by  Italian 
scholars  are  some  attributed  to  Faemo,  as  ^^  In  Lutheranos, 
iiectam  Germanicam  ;**  '*  Ad  Homobonum  HofFredum  ;** 
a  Physician  of  Cremona ;  <^  In  Maledicum,'*  &c.  ^ 

FAG  AN  (Christopher  Barthelemi),  a  French  comic 
writer  of  some  eminence  within  the  last  century,  was  born 
at  Paris  in  1702.  He  was  son  of  a  clerk  in  ^  public  office 
at  Paris,  in  which  he  also  obtained  an  appointment  that 
gave  him  little  trouble,  and  left  him  leisure  for  literary 
occupations.  He  wrote  for  several  of  the  French  theatres, 
and  bis  works  were  collected  into  four  volumes,  l2mo,1760. 
The  general  character  of  bis  comedies  is  a  delicate  and 
natural  liveliness.  The  most  approved  of  them  w^e,  '^  The 
Rendezvous,'*  and  "  The  Ward."  In  his  own  character, 
as  well  as  in  talents,  he  was  not  unlike  la  Fontaine,  indo* 
lent,  averse  to  business,  negligent  of  his  appearance,  ab« 
sent,  timid,  and  by  no  means  likely  to  be  taken  by  a 
stranger  for  a  man  <^  genius.  He  died  April  28,  1755,  at 
the  age  of  fifty-three^* 

FAGE  (RaimonD  de  la),  a  self-taught  genius,  wasbori^ 
in  1648  at  Lisle  en  Albtgeois  in  Languedoc.  He  drew 
with  the  pen,  or  Indian  ink,  and  arrived  at  such  eminence 
in  that  branch  as  to  be  complimented  upon  it  by  Carlo 
Marat.  He  went  to  visit  that  painter,  who  rec^ved  him. 
with  politeness,  and  offered  him  his  pencil;  when  he  de- 
clined using  it,  saying,  that  he  had  never  practbed  paint'^ 
ing.  ^<  I  am  glad  to  hear  it,*'  said  the  artist,  <<  for  if  1 
may  judge  from  your  drawings  of  the  progress  you  would 

1  Niceron,  rol  XXin.-«Mor«ri.— rirebosch»^-4lMii  OiiMBMt.«»Pft4il^ 
Classics.  s  Diet  HibU^-M^rtrk 

.     t  A  G  Ei  .  4d 

tife  made  in  painting,  I  must  certainly  ht9e  'given  place 
tQ  ^ou.*'  Fage  lived  irregularly,  generaUy  drawing  at  a 
public-house,  and  'sometimes  paying  his  bills  by  a  sketch 
produced  upon  the  occasion^  He  died  in  1690*  \udran, 
Simoneau,  and  others,  engraved  a  collection  of  one  huti*- 
dred  and  twenty-three  prints  from  his  designs,  and  Stnitt 
mentions  some^ prints  engraved  by  himself  ^ 

FAGIUS  (Paul),  or  sometimes  PHAGIUS,  whose  Ger- 
man  name  was  Buchlein,  a  protestant  minister,  and  one  of 
the  early  reformers,  was  born  at  Hheinzabernin  Germany, 
1504,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  his  learning- in  that  town 
under  the  care  of  his  father,  who  was  a  school- master.  He 
was  sent  to  Heidelberg  at  eleven,  and  at  eighteen  to  Stras- 
burgh ;  where  not  being  properly  supported,  he  had  re- 
course to  teaching  others, .  in  order  to  defray  the  ex  pence 
of  bis  own  books  and  necessaries*  The  study  of  the  He- 
brew becoming  fi^hionable  in  Germany,  he  applied  him* 
self  to  it ;  and  by  the  help  of  Elias  Levita,  the  learned 
Jew,  became  a  great  proficient  in  it  In  1527  he  took 
upon  him  the  care  of  a  school  at  Isne,  where  he  married 
and  had  a  family.  Aftervcards,  quitting  the  occupation  of 
a  schoolmaster,  he  entered  into  the  ministry,  and  became 
a* sedulous  preacher  among  those  of  the  reformed  religion. 
Bufflerj  one  of  the  senators  of  Isne,  being  informed  of  bis 
perfect  knowledge  in  th.e  Hebrew  tongue,  and  of  his  natural 
bias  to  >  the  arts,  erected  a  printing-house  at  his  own 
charge,  that  Fagius  might  publish  whatever  he  should 
deem  useful  to  i^ligion  in  that  way;  but  the  event  did  not 
answer  the  expence. 

In  1541  the  plague  began  to  spread  at  Isne;  when  Fajorius 
udderstanding  that  the  wealthiest  of  the  inhabitants  were 
about  to  leave  the  place,  without  having  any  regard  to  the 
|K)orer  sort,  rebuked  them  openly,  and  admonished  them 
of  their  duty  ;  telling  them  that  they  should  either  continue 
in  the:  town,  or  liberally  bestow  their  alms  before  they 
went^  for  the  relief  of  those  they  left  behi nd^';  and  de- 
claring ~at  the  same  tim^,  that  during  the  time  of  that  ca- 
lamity h^  would  himself  in  person  visit  those  that  were 
sick,  would  administer  spiritual  comfort  to  them,  pray  for 
them,  and  be  present  with.tben^  day  and  night ;  all  which 
he  did,  and  yet  escaped'  the  distemper.  At  the  same  sea- 
so|j.tbe  plague  raged  in  Straabiirg,  andamong  mauy  others, 

»  Moreri.— Diet  Hist. 

Vw..  XIV.  E 



so  PAGiua 

prsfed  fatal  to  the  refoimer,  Wolfang  Capito ;  upon  wbtc'ii 
Fagias  was  called  by  the  senate  to  succeed  him.  Here  he 
codtinued  to  preach  till  the  beginping  of  the  German  wars, 
when  the  elector  Palatine^  intending  a  reformation  in  hili 
churches,  c^led  Fagius  from  Strasburg  to  Heidelberg,  and 
made  htm  the  public  professor  there:  but  the  emperor  pro^^ 
Tailing  against  the  elector,  an  obstruction  was  thrown  in 
the  way  of  the  reformation.  During  his  residence  here^ 
however,  he  published  many  books  for  the  promotion  of 
Hebrew  learning,  which  were  greatly  approved  by  Bucet 
and  others,  and  form  the  most  important  of  the  works  be 
has  left. 

His  father  dying  in  1548,  and  the  persecution  in  Ger* 
many  rendering  that  country  unsafis  to  allfrtiodid  not  pro- 
fess the  Romish  doctrine,  he  and  Bucer  came  over  to  Eng^ 
land  in  consequence  of  receiving  letters  from  arcbbtshofi^ 
Cranmer,  in  which  they  had  asstirances  of  a  kind  reeeptioft 
aJMl  a  handsome  stipend,  if  they  would  continue  here^ 
They  arrived  in  April  J54£l>,  but  Strype  says  in  \54H;  ^ero 
entertained  some'days  in  the  palace  at  Lambeth,  and  ap*^ 
pointed  to  reside  at  Cambridge,  where  they  were  to  un- 
dertake a  new  translation  and  illustiration  of  the  scriptures, 
Fagins  taking  the  Old  Testament,  and  JSucer.tbe  Neiv,  for 
their  several  parts.  A  pension  of  100/.  a  year  was  settled 
ori  Fagius,  and  the  same  on  Bucer,  besides  the  salary  they 
w«re  to  receive  from  the  unwersity.  But  this  was  all  put 
«n  end  to,  by  the  sudden  illness  and  death  of  both  these 
professors.  Fagius  fell  ill  at  London  of  a  quartan  fever^ 
but  would  be  removed  to  Cambridge,  on  hopes  of  receiving 
benefit  from  the  change  of  air.  He  died  there  Nov.  1 2, 1 5  50  ^ 
and  Bucer  did  not  live  above  a  year  after.  Melchior  Adam 
and  Verheiden  suggested  that  Fagius  was  poisoned^  but 
for  this  we  find  no  other  authority.  By  a  disgraceb^l** 
bigotry,  both  their  bodies  were  dug  up  and  burnt  in  the 
reign  of  queen  Mary. 

Fagius's  works  were  numerous,  both  in  German  and 
Xatiu.  Among  them  we  find,  1.  <^  Sententise  vere  elegantes 
pise,  sive  capitula  Patrum,"  Heb.  et  Lat.  Isne,  1541,  4ta 
2.  ^<  Exppsitio  Dictionum  Hebraicarum  iiteralis  in  quatuor 
capita  Geneseos,^'  Isue,  1542,  4to.  3.  ^*  Liber  Fidei,-' 
Heb.  et  Lat.  ibid.  1 542,  4to.  4.  <<  Liber  Tobi^,"  Heb.  et 
Lat.  ibid.  1542,  4to.  5.  <<  Isagoge  in  Lingruato  Hebrieam, 
C.Qnst  1543,  4to.    6.  «<  Seutentisr  Mordes  Ben  Syr«, 

FAG  N  A  1^  I.  dl 

idd»  noies»  1542,  4to.    7;  ^  Breves  annolatio6es  in  Tar* 
giiiii,'M546,  fol  &c. :&cJ 

FAGNANl  (PROSPBit)t  a  celebrated  canonist  of  thi; 
seventeenth  century,  vras  regarded  at  Rome  as  sn  oratory 
and  every  cause  which  he  took  in  band  as  successfal.  He 
was  for  about  fifteen  year^  secretary  to- several  popes/ all 
of  whom  entertained  a  high  respect  for  his  talents,  and 
frequently  consnlted  hioi*  He  became  blind  at  the  age  oC 
forty^four,  which  misfortune  does  not  appear  to  have  in- 
terfered with  bis  professtonal  labours,  for  it  was  after  this 
that  he  composed  his  celebrated  <^  Commentary  on  the 
Decretals/*  in  3  vols,  folio,  which  extended  his  fame 
thfoughottt  all  Europe^  It  was  dedicated  to  pope  Alex- 
and^  VII.  by  whose  order  he  liad  ei^ged  in  the  undex:'^* 
taking,  and.wa^  printed  at  Rome  in  1661,  and  five  timet 
refHTioted..  The  best  edition  i|i  that  of  Venice,  1097,  in 
wbich  the  entire  text  of  the  Decretals  is  given.  Fagnani 
cootioued  deprived  of  his  sight,  but  in  full  possession  of 
his, mental  faculties  notil  bis  death  in  1679,  as  it  issnp^ 
posed,  •  in  tJm  eightieth  year  of  his  age.  His  memory  ap-' 
pears- to  have  been  uneommon,  i^d  the  stores  of  learning 
be-had  laid  up  before  be  was  deprived  of  bis  sight  he  could 
bfiog^lcNFth  with  promptitude  and  accuracy,  ieven  to  a  quo- 
tation^Qro  the  poets  whom  he  studied  in  bis  youth. ' 

FAGON  (Guy  Crbscent),  an  eminent  French  physi- 
cian in  tthe  reign  of  Louis  XIV.  was  born  at  Paris,  May 
11,  1638.  He  was  the. son  of  Henry  Fagon,  commissioner 
i|):  ontinary  of  war,  and  of  Louisa  de  la  Brosse^  niece  of 
Guy^  de  la  Brosse,  phymckin  in  ordinary  to  Louis  XIII. 
and:grandson  of  a  physician  in  ordinary  to  Henry  IV.  Me 
studied  first  in  the  Sorfaonoe,  under  M.  Gillot,  an  eminent 
doctor^  witfa-wbocn  he  resided  as  student,  and  who  per- 
fuaded  htm  to  chiise  the  medical  profession.  M.  Fagon 
pever.forgc^  M.  Giltot  in  his  highest  prosperity ;  but,  if  he 
met  him  in  the  street,  alighted  from  his  cOach,  and  con*> 
ducted-  Inra  ta  the  boose  x^te  he  was  going;  This  young 
phji^iariiiad  scarcely  begun  to  dispute,  when  he  ventured 
to  maintain^  in  a  thesis,  tbd  circulation  of  the  blood,  which  that  time  hetd  as  a  pmradox  among  the  old  doctors ; 
and  also  aaather  on  the  use  of  tobacco,  published  long 
aftemeards;  f^An  freqiiens :  Nicotiante  nsus  vitam  abbre- 

'  Alelchior  Ad^m  in  TitU  Ofrm.  Theol.— MorerL—* Strype*s  I^ife  of  Cranmer, 
p.  195,  197,  199,  and  Appiii4i«,  No.  44,  117,  irbere  lit »  frequently  calM 
Plufitt9«  ^  Moreci. 

£  2 

f  I  .        F  A  G  a  N- : 

vie V  Paris,  1699,  4to.  .  He  took  hia  dpctor^s  degree  1664^ 
M.  Vallot  wishing  to  repair  and  replenish  the  royal  garden;^ 
M*  fiagon  offered  bi»  services;  and  goings  at  his  owa 
expence,  to  Auvergnei  Langaedoc,  Provence,  the  Alps^ 
and  the  Pyrenees,  returned  with  aa  ample  collection  of 
curious  and  useful  plants.     He  had  the  principal  share  ia 
the  catalogue  erf  the  pli^nts  in  that  garden,  published  1665^ 
entitled  "  Hortus  Rejgius,'*  to  which  he  prefixed  a  little 
Latin  poem  of  his  oWn.     M.  Fagoa  was  made  professor  of 
botany  and  chemistry  at  the  royal  garden,  and  began  to 
have  the  plants  engraved ;  but  there  are  oaly  forty-five 
)>lates  finished,  which  are  very  scarce* .  The  king  appointed 
him  first  physician  to  the  dauphiness  in  1080,  and  to  thcL 
queen  some  months  after.     In  1693  be  was  made  first  phy-» 
siciaa  to  the  king,  and  superintendaut  of  the  royal  garden 
in.  1693,  ta  which  he  retired  after  the  king's  death,  aad^ 
for  the  improvement  of  which,  he  persuaded  Louis  XIV^ 
to  send  M.  de  Tournfort  into  Greece,  Asia,  and  Egypt, 
which  produced  the  scientific  voyage  so  well  known  to  the 
learned  world.     Fagon  died  March  11,  1718,  aged  oeaf 
eighty.     The  academy  of  sciences  .  bad  chosen  him  ait 
honorary  member  in  1699.     He  left  "  Les  Qualit6s  du 
Quinquina,''  Paris,.  1703,  l2mo.     He  married  Mary  Noze-" 
reau,  by  whom  he  had  two  )ions :  Anthony,  the  eldest, 
bishop  of  Lombez,  then  of  Vannes,  died  February  16,  1 742 ; 
th^  second,  Lewis,  counsellor  of  state  in  ordinary,  and  tor 
the  royal  council,  and*inieiidant  of  the  finances,  died  at 
Paris  May  8,  1744,  unmarried.     The  Fagonia,  in  botaDy^ 
was  so  called  by  Tournfort  in  honour  of  him.  ^ 
,  *^AHRENHEIT  {Gabriel  Daniel),  the  celebrated  im- 
prover of  the  thermometer^  was  born   at  Dantzic,  May 
14,  1686.     He  was  originally  intended  for  commerce,  but 
having  a  decided  turn  for  philosophical  studies,  employed 
himself  in  the  construction  of  barometei»  and  thermometers, 
which  carried  to  great  perfection.    About  1720  he 
intrpduced  an  essential  improtefnent  in  the  thermometer, 
by  substituting  mercury  for  spirit  of  wiae.     He  also^  made 
a  new  scale  for  the  instrument,  fixing  the  extremities  of  it 
at  the  point  of.  severe  cold  observed  by  himself  in  Iceland 
in  1709,  which  be  conceived  to  be  the  greatest  degree  of 
cold,  and  at  the  point  where  mercury  boils,  dividing  the- 
intermediate  space  into  600  d^rees.  His  point  of  extreme 

*  DicL  Hist,  fle  I/Avocat.'^Moreri. 

F  A  H  R  E  N  ITE  I  T^  ** 

^old,  ^hlch  is  the  slsime  that  is  produced  by  surrounQing  th^ 
kulbofthe  thermometer  with  a  mixture  of  snow,  sal  am* 
moniac,  and  sea  salt,  he  marked  0,  and  carried  his  degrees 
upwanis ;  though  few  thermometers  have  been  practically 
formed  which  carry  their  degrees  much  above  212,  the 
point  lat  which  water  boils.  Forty  degrees  below  the  0  of 
Fahrenheit,  have  since  been  observed  at  Petersburg,  and 
elsewhere;  and  as  this  is  the  point  at  whicl>  mercury 
freezes,  it  would  lAake  a  better  limit  to  the  scale^  which 
ti^ould  thus  be  confined  between  the  utmost  extremities  of 
heat  and  cold  tb^t  can  be  examined  by  means  of  that  fluid. 
Our  English  philosophers  have  in  general  adopted  th^ 
scale  of  Fahrenheit ;  those  of  France  have  preferred  Reau* 
pmr's.  *  Fahrenheit  published  a  dissertation  on  thermo- 
meters in  1724.  He  travelled  to  Holland,  and  in  various 
parts  of  the  continent,  in  pursuit  of  kr^owi|sdge,  and  dfed 
Sept.  16,  1736.* 


FAILLE  (Gbhmain  de  la),  a  French  topographical 
writer,  was  born  at  Castelnaudari  in  Upper  Li),nguedoc, 
Oct.  30,  16K6.  After  going  through  a  course  of  studies  at 
'Toulouse,  he  was  in  1638  appoint^ed  king^s  advocate  to 
the  presidial  of  his  native  city,  which  office  he  resigned  in 
1-655  on  being  chosen  syndic  to  the  city  of  Toulouse,  and 
came  to  reside  in  ^he  latter,  where  he  was  enabled  to  cui* 
tivate  bis  taste  for  the  belles  lettres ;  and  during  the  dis« 
charge  of  the  duties  of  his  office,  which  he  executed  with 
zeal  and  disinterestedness,  the  opportunity  he  had  of  in* 
$pecting  the  archives  suggested  to  him  th^  design  of  writing 
the  annals  of  Toulouse.  On  making  known  his  Infientions, 
the  parliament  granted  \\\m  permission  to  examine  its  re- 
gisters, and  the  city  undertook  to  defray  the  expense  of 
printing  his  work.  Having  been  advanced  to  the  rank  of 
capitotil,  or  alderman  of  the  city,  which  office  he  served 
for  the  third  time  in  1673,  he  communicated  to  \ih  brethren' 
a  plan  of  ornamenting  their  capitolium,  or  town-ball,  with 
busts  of.  the  most  distinguished  personages  who  had  BUed 
the  oflBces  of  magistracy,  and  they  having  allowed  him  to 
make  choice  of  the  proper  objects,  a  gallery  was  completed 
in  1677  wjth  the  busts  of  thirty  persons  whom  he  had  se« 
lected  as  qri^riting  that  honour.  This,  and  other  services 
wbjch  he  rendered  to  the  citizens  of  Toulouse,  induced 

>  Diet.  Hist 

54  ,        T  A  I  L  L  E. 

them  to  ccTnfer  a  handsome  pension  on  him,  and  likewise 
•  to  bestow  the  reversion  of  the  place  of  syndic  on  his  nei^ 
pheW)  who  dying  before  La  Faille,  they  gave  it  to  hi^ 
grand-nephew.  In  1694  the  academy  of  the  *^  Jeux  Flo* 
raux^*  elected  him  their  secretary,  a  situation  which  he 
filled  for  sixteen  years  with  much  reputation  ;  for,  besides 
the;  fame  he  bad  acquired  as  an  historian  and  magistrate, 
he  possessed  considerable  literary  taste  and  talents,  and 
even  in  his  ninetieth  year  produced  some  poetical  pieces 
in  which  there  was  more  spirit  and  vivacity  than  could 
have  been'  expected  at  that  very  advanced  period.  He 
died  at  Toulouse  Nov.  12,  1711,  in  his  ninety*sixth  yean 
His  **  Annales  de  la  ville  de  Toulouse**  were  published 
there  in  2  vols.  fol.  1687  and  1701,  The  style,  although 
spmewhat  incorrect,  is  lively  and  concise.  The  antials  are 
'brought  down  only  to  1610,  the  author  being  afraid,  if  he 
proceeded  nearer  to  his  own  times,  that  he  might  be 
tempted  to  violate  the  impartiality  which  be  had  hitherto 
endeavoured  to  preserve.  He  published  also  ^^  Trait£  de 
la  noblesse  des  Capitouls,*'  1707,  4to,  a  very  curious  work, 
which  is  said  to  have  given  offence  to  some  of  the  upstart 
families.  To  the  works  of  Goudelin  of  Toulouse,  a  poet, 
published  in  1678,  12mo,  he  prefixed  a  life,  and  criticism 
on  his  poetns.  Some  of  bis  own  poetical  pieces  are  in  the 
**  Journal  de  Verdun,"  for  May  1709.* 


FAIRFAX  (Edward),  an  ingenious  poet,  who  flourished 
in  the  reigns  of  queen  Elij^abeth  and  king  James  the  First^ 
was  the  second  son  of  sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  of  Denton',  York- 
shire, by  Dorothy  his  wife,  daughter  of  George  Gale,  of 
Ascham-Grange,  esq.  treasurer  to  the  Mint  at  York*.  In 
what  y^ar  he  was  born  is  not  related.  The  family  firom 
which  he  sprang  w^s  of  a  very  military  turn.  His  father 
had  passed  his  youtii  in  the  wars  of  Europe,  and  was  with 
Charles  duke  of  Bourbon,  at  the  sacking  of  Rome,  in  1527. 

*  The  author  of  the  «*  Lives  of  the  poet,  sent  to  Dr.  Atterbury  in  1704-5, 

P^ets,''  published  under  the  uame  of  does  not  speak  of  him  as  if  he  had  any 

Theophilu9  Gibber,  says  that  Mr.  Ed*  idea  that  be  was  of  illegitimate  birih. 

ward  Fairfax  was  the  natural  son  of  The  cireudidtances,  too,  of  bis  bein^ 

sir  Thomas  ;  and  this  opinion  has  been  always  styled  Edward  Fairfan,  esq.  of 

pretty  generally  received.     But  Doug-  Kewhall  in  Fuyistone^  jo  th«  forest  of 

las,  who  U  a  writer  of  good  authority^  Knaresborough,  and  of  bis  giving  upou 

has  pofiiively  expres^ted  hioiseif  ss  we  his  own  estate,  in  the  bosojoi  of  his  fa- 

vead  in  the  text ;  and  Mr.  Brian  Paix-  mily,  seent   best  to  a£cord  with  the. 

fax,   secretary  to  the  archbishop  of  supposition  of  his  having  been  a  lawfu) 

^aaterbary/  in  h>f  account   of   tffir  bcanoh  of  tbajt  fa.mtlv. 

^  Niceron,  roL  IV.«-'Moreri.'— Diet.  Hist 


JEfk  engaging  in  this  expedition  is  said  to  have  given  such 
offence  to  sir  Wtlliam  Fairfax^  that  he  was  disinherited ; 
but  this  is  not  reconcileable  to  the  fact  of  his  succeeding 
to  the  family  estate ^at  Denton,  which  he  transmitted  to  bis 
desoendatlts.  It  was  in  1577,  or,  according  to  Douglas,  in 
1579,  when  iar  advanced  in  years;  that  he  was  knighted  by 
queen  Elizabeth*  The  poet^s  eldest  brother,  THomas,  who 
in  proeessof  time  became  the  first  lord  Fairfax  of  Cameron, 
received  tl^  hooour  of  knighthood  before  Rouen  in  Nof- 
maudy,.  in  1591,  for  his  bravery  in  the  army  sent  to  the 
assistance  of  Henry  the  Fourth  of  France ;  and  he  after- 
wards signalized  himself  on  many  occasions  in  Germany 
against  the;  house  of  Austria*  A  younger  brother  of  Ed- 
ward Fairfax,  air  Charles,,  was  a  captain  under  sii:  Francis 
'Vere,'at  the.  battle  of  Newport,  fought  in  1600;  and  in 
the  famous  three  years^  siege  of  Ostend,  commanded  all 
the  English  in  that  town  for  some  time  before  it  surren- 
dered. Here  he  received  a  wound  in  his  face,  from  tlie 
.piece  of  a  skuU  of  a  marshal  of  France,  killed  near  him  by 
a.€ap)n(»i--ball,  and  was  hinu^elf  killed  in  1604. 

While  his  brothers  were  thus,  honourably  employed 
abroad,  Edward  Fairfax  devoted  himself  to  a  studious 
^urae  of  life.  That  he  had  the  advantages  of  a  very  libe* 
ral  education  cannot  be  doubtedi  from  his  intellectual  ac* 
quirements,  and  the  distinction  which  ^e  soon  obtained  in 
tbe  literary  world.  Indeed,  bis  attainments  were  such, 
that  he  became  qualified  to  have  filled  any  employment, 
either  in  church  or  state.  But  an  invincible  modesty,  and 
the  love  of  retirement,  induced  him  to  prefer  tbe  shady 
grovea  ,and  natural  cascades  of  Denton,  and  the  forest  of 
Knaresborough,  to  tbe  employments  and. advantages  of  a 
public  station.  Accordingly,  having  married,  he  fised 
himself  at  Fuyistone,  as  a  private  gentleman.  His  time 
was  not,  however,  inactively  or  ingloriously  spent.  This 
was  apparent  in  his  poetical  exertions,  and  in  several  cQmr 
positions  in  prose,  the  manuscripts  of  which  were  left  by 
him  in  tbe  library  of  lord  Fairfax,  at  Denton.  The  u^ve 
and  education  of  his  children,  for  which  he  was' so  well 
qualified,  probably  engaged  some  part  of  his  attention. 
We  are  informed,  likewise,  that  be  was  very  serviceable, 
in  the  same  way^  to  his  brother  lord  Fairfax  y  besides  which, 
he  assisted  him  in  the  government  of  his  family  and  the 
management  .of  iiis  affairs.  The  consequence  of  this  wais, 
that  ail  his  lordship's  children  were  bred  scholars,  and  well 

«6-  FAIRFAX. 

pxioeipied  in  religion  and  virtue ;  that  his  house  vraa  iiauiied 
for  4tS' hospitality,  and.  at  the  9ain^  time,  his  estate  im* 
proved.     What  Mr.  Eaward  FairfaiE^s 'principles  were,  ap^ 
pears  from  the  character  which  he  gives  of  btai«elf,  in  hia 
book  oh  daMnonoIogy:  *^  For  inyself/'  says  he,  *^  I  am  in 
religion  neither  a  fantastit;  puritan,  nor  a  superstitious  pa«: 
pist;  but  SQ  ^tjcted  in  conscienee,  that  1  bi^ve  tbe  sure 
ground  pf  God's  word  to  warrant  all  I  believe,  ainl  die 
cbinmencUbie  oidipancei^of  our  English  eburch  to  approve- 
afl  I  [practise :  -ki  which  course  I  live  a  faithful  Christian, 
and  an  obedient;  subject,  and  so  teach  my  £atmily.''     li|- 
these  princ^iples  be  persevered  to  the  end  of  his  days,  wbicb 
took  plfce  about  1 632..    He  died  at  bis  own  bouse,  called 
Newbal]|  in  the  parish  of  Fupstooe,  between  Denton  aind 
Knaresborojugb,  and  was  buried  in  the  same  p^trish;  where, 
a  marble  stone,  with  an  inscription,  was  placed  over  bts^ 

Suqb  are  the  few  particulars  that  are  related  concemiog 
Ibe  private  life  of  Fairfax.  But  it  is  a«  a  poet  thai  be  ift^ 
prin^  ^pd^^^y  entitled  to  attention  ;  and  in  this  respeet  he  if 
beld  in  just  reputation,  and  deserves  to  have  bis  name 
transmitted  with  honour  ti>  posterity.  His  principal  work. 
was  his  translation  of  Tasso's  heroic  poem  of  ^'  Godfi^y  «#. 
Bologne'^  out  of  Italian  int6  Eng)isb  verse ;  and  what  addsr 
to  the  merit  of  tbe  work  i%  tbat  it  was  bis  first  essay  iflr 
poetry,  and  executed  when  he  was  very  young.  On  ittf 
appearance,  it  was  dedicated  to  queen  EU^^be^b*  The* 
book  was  highly  commended  by  the  best  judges  and  wit!| 
of  the  age  in  which  it  was  written>  and  their  judgment  ba^. 
been  sanctioned  by  the  approbation  of  succeeding  eritips^; 
King  James  valued  it  above  all  other  Engli^  poetry ;  and. 
king  Charles  used  to  divert  himself  witb  reading  ilintbetime 
of  his.  confinement.  All  who  mention  Fairfax,-  do  him  the^ 
justice  to  allow  that  he  was  air  accomplished  geniua.  Dry-*: 
den  introduces  Spenser  and  Fairfax;  almost  on^  the  level,  oS: 
the  leading  authors  of  their  times,  and  Waller  coofefl»ed 
that  he  Owed  the  music  of  his  numbers  to  Fairfax's  Godfrey 
of  Bologne.  "  The  truth  is,"  says  the  author  of  Cibber*a 
Lives,  '^  this  gentleman  is,  perhaps^  the  only  writer  down: 
to  sir  William  Davenant,  who  needs  na  apology  to  be  made, 
for  him  on  account  of  the  age  in  which  he  lived.  His  die** 
tion  is  so  pure,  elegant,  and  full  of  graces,  and  the  turn  of 
bis  lines  so  perfectly  melodious,  that  one  cannot  read  it 
without  rapture ;;  and  we  ekn  scarcely  imagivie  the  originai 


ItaiiaA  has  gfi^eatly  tile  ftdvanUge  in  either :  nor  is  it  v^ 
probable,  tbat  while  Fairfax  can  be  read,  any  author  wiU 
attjempt.a  new  translation  of  Tasso  with  suocess.'-  With-- 
oat  dis paling  the  general  truth  of  this  eulogium  (wfaicb,^ 
however,  might  somewhat  have  been,soften«i)^  it  cannot 
fail  to.  be  observed,  how  much  the  biographer  has  been 
itttstaken  in  bis  concluding  conjecture.  A  new  trantlatioii 
of  Tasso^ias  not  only  been  attempted^  but  executed,  Irjr 
Mr.  Hoote,  with  rcftiiarkable  success  and  with  distii^ishea 
^xceltence  i  and  indeed  in  such  a  manner,  that  in  the  opi* 
raon  of  Dr.  Johnson,  Fairfax's  work  wi)l  {lerhapa  not  80cmi[ 
he  reprinteid.  Of  Fairfax,  it  has  been  justly  said  that  he 
l&d  the  powers  ef  genius  and  fancy,  and  broke  tfaroogb 
jtbat  servile  custom  of  translation  which  prevailed  in  his 
time.  His  liberal  elegance  rendered  his  versions  more 
agreeable  than  the  dryness  ef  Jonson,  and  tiie  dull  fidelity 
Qf  Sandys  and  May  ;  and  he  would  have  translated  Tassoi^ 
with  suceess^bad  he  not  nnhappily  chosen  a  species  of  ver- 
fifioation  which  was  ill  adapted  to  the  English  langni^. 
Mr.  Hooie,  in  assigning  the  reasons  for  bis  giving  a  new 
version  of  Tasso's  *^  Jerusalem  Delivered,'*  remarks  that 
£aiff£sx's. stanzas  cannot  be  read  with  pleasure  by  the  gene* 
rality  of  those  who  have  a  taste  for  English  poetry :  of  which 
i|o  other  proof  is  necessary  than  that  it  appears  scarcely  ta 
have  been  i^ead  at  all.  It  is  not  only  unpleasant,  but  irk- 
some^  in  sisch  a  degree  as  to  surmount  curiosity,  and  more 
than  counterbalance  all  the  beauty  of  expression  and  senti-^ 
xjsent,  which  is  to  be  found  in  that  work.  He  does  not, 
faoweveff,  flatter  himself  that  be  has  excelled  Fairfax,  ex- 
cept hi  iseasure  and  viersification  ;  and,  even  of  these^  the 
principal  recomfnendation  is,  tbat  they  are  more  modern,  and 
better  adapted  to  the  ear  of  all  readers  of  English  poetry, 
inrcept  of  the  very  few  vho  have  acquired  a  taste  for  the 
phfiises  Md  cadencies  of  those  times,  when  otir  verse,  if 

Sit  our  lani^Ua^e,  was  in  its  rudiments."  The  author  of  his 
ie  in  the  Btog.  Brrtmniea,  however,  is  of  opinion  that  it 
was  not  necessary  to  the  justification  oi  Mr.  Hoole's  nevr 
"versioti,  that  he  should  pass  so  severe  a.  censure  on  Fair- 
£ix*f  measure.  To  say  that  ^  it  is  not  only  unpleasant,  but 
irksome,  in  such  a  degree  as  to  surmount  curiosity,  and 
more  than  coumterbahtnce  all  tbe  beauty  of  expression 
which  is  to  be  found  in  the  work,"  appears  to  be  very  un-* 
ju^  The  peniptctrity  and  harmony  of  Fairfax's  versifica- 
tion aie  indeed,  extraoi^dinary^  considering^  the  time  iw 

£8  F  A  I  AT  A  X. 

which-  he  wrote ;  and  in  thts  respect  he  ranks  nearly  with 
.  Spenser.  Nothing  but  a  fine  fancy  and  an  elegant  mind 
eould  have  enabled  him,  in  that  period^  to  have  made  such 
advances  towards  perfection.  Hume  seems  to  be  nearly 
of  the  same  opinion.  ^^  Fairfax/'  says  that  historian^  <^  has 
trandated  Tasso  with  'an  elegance  and  ease,  and  at  the 
same  time  with  an  exactness,  which  for  that  age  are  sur« 
prising.  Each  line  in  the  original  is  faithfolly  rendei^  by 
a  corneqpoudent  line  in  the  translation.  Harrington's  trans-  . 
latioii  of  Arlostb  is  not  likewise  without  its  merit.  >  It  is  to 
be  regretted,"  that  these  poets  should  have  imitated  the 
,  Italians  ii»  their  stanza,  which  has  a  prolixity  and  vmifor* 
,mity  in  it  that  displeases  in  long  performances.  They  bad 
otherwise,  as  well  ms  Spenser,  contributed  much  to  the  po«* 
Kshing  and 'refining  of  English  versification/' 

*  Mr.  Fairfax's  poetical  exertions  did  not  end  with  his 
'translation  of  ^li^lsso.  He  wrote  the  history  of  Edward  the 
black  prince,  and  a  number  of  eclogues;  No  part  of  the 
history  of  Edward  the  black  prince  has,  we  believe,  ever 
been  Jaid  before  the  public;  which  is  the  rather  to  be  re- 
gretted as  it  might  hence  have  more  distinctly  been  dis- 
cerned what  were  our  poet's  powers  of  original  invention. 
,  The  eclogues  were  composed  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign 
of  king  James,  and,  after  their '  being  finished,  lay  neg^ 
lected  ten  years  in  the  autbor^s  study,  until  Lodowic,  dote 
of  Richmond  and  Lenox,  desired  a  sight  of  them,  which 
occasioned  Mr.  Fairfiix  to  transcribe  them  for  his  grace's  use. 
That  copy  was  seen  and  approved  by  many  learned  men'; 
and  Dr.  Field,  afterwards  bishop  of  Hereford,  wrote  verses 
upon  it  But  the  book  itself,  and  Dr.  Field's  encomium, 
perished  in  the  fire,  when  the  banqueiing-«house  at  White* 
ball  was  burnt,'  and  with  it  part  of  the  duke  of  Richmond's 
lodgings.  Mr.  William  Fairfax,  however,  our  author^s  son, 
recovered  the  eclogues  out  of  "bis  father's*  loose  papers. 
These  eclogues  were  twelve  in  number,  and  were  com- 
posed on  important  subjects,  relating  to  the  manners,  cba- 
nacters,  and  incidents  of  the  times.  They  were  pointed 
with  many  fine  strokes  of  satire ;  dignified  with  wholesomn 
lesions  of  morality  and  policy  to  those  of  the  highest  nuiks ; 
and  s6me  modest  hints  were  given  even  to  majesty  itsell; 
^  With  respect  to  poetry,  they  were  entitled  to  high  com* 
mendation ;  and  the  learning  they  contained  .was  so  various 
and  extensive,  that,  according  to  the  evidence  of  his  son, 
who  wrpte  large  annotations  on  each>  no  man's  reading  he* 

r  A  I  R  F  A  X.  59 

tHe  the  4katbor's  own  was  sufficient  to  explain  bis  refe^ 
Mnees  effectually.  The  fourth  eclogue  was  printed,  by 
Mrs.  Cooper,  in  ^  The  Muses  (library/'  published  in 
1737.  It  is  somewhat  extraordinary  that  the  whole  of  them 
should  never  have  appeared  in  print.  If  they  are  still  in 
being,  it  might  not,  perhaps,  be  an  unacceptable  service 
to  give  them  to  the  public* 

None  of  Fairfax's  writings  in  prose  have  ever  been  pub- 
iished.  They  most  of  them  related  to  the  controversy  of 
religion  with  the  church  of  Rome,  and  are  represented  as 
having  afforded  signal  proofs  of  his  learning  and  judgment; 
The  person  with  whom  the  cootrovensy  was  carried  on  was 
one  John  Dorrell)  a.  Romish  priest  of  no  ordinary  fame, 
at  that  time  a  prijwner  in  the  castle  of  York.  Between 
him  and  Mr.  Fairfax  a  variety  of  letters  passed,  relative  to 
the  most  distinguished  tenets  of  popery.  A  copy  of  our 
author's  treatise  on  Dteooonology  was  in  the  possession  of 
Isaac  Reed)  esq.  entitled,  ^*  A  Discourse  of  Witchcraft,  as 
it  was  acted  in  the  familj^  of  Mr.  £dward  Fairfax,  of  Fuyis-' 
tone,  ia  the  county  of  York,  in  the  year  1621."  Fairfax  lefik 
several  children,  sops  and  daughters.  William,  his  eldest 
son,  before  mentioned,  was  a  scholar,  and  of  the  same 
temper  with  his  father,  but  more  cynical  He  translated 
Diogenes  Laertius  out  of  Greek  into  English.  This  gen« 
tleman  was  grammatical  tutor  to  Mr.  Stanley,  the  cele*^ 
brated  author  of  the  History  of  Philosophy^  It  is  asserted 
by  Mrs.  Cooper,  that  the  greatest  part  of  that  work,  as 
well  as  the  notes  on  Euripides^  truly  belonged  to  Mr.  WiU 
liam  Fairfax*  though  his  modesty  and  friendship  declined 
the  reputation  of  them.  To  auch  vague  assertions  little 
regard,  we  apprehend,^  is  to  be  paid ;  and  it  was  not  Euri<* 
pidea,  but  ^chylys,  that  was  published  by  Mr.  Stanley.^ 

FAIRFAX  (Thomas,  Lord),  a  very  active  man  in  the- 
parliament's  service  during  the  civil  wars,  and  at  lengtiv 
general  of  their  armies,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Ferdinands 
lord  Fairfax*;  by  Mary  his  wife,  daughter  of  Edmund  Shef* 
field  earl  of  Mulgrave.  He  was  boril  at  Denton  within  the 
parish  of  Otiey,  in  Yorkshire,  in  4a.nuary,  '161L.  -After  a 
proper  school  education,  he  studied  tiometime  in  St.  John V 
college,  in  Cambridge,-  to  which,  in  bis  lauer  days,  he 
became  a  benefactor.  He  ap^ars  to -have  been  a  lover  of 
learning,  though  he  did  not  excel  in  any  branch,  except. 

I  Biojf.  Brit.— Atterbury's  Corros^>ondettce.— Coopcr'c'  Mvscs  Ubraryv. 


it  was  in  the  history  and  antiquities  of  Britain,  as  will  ap*^ 
pear  in  the  sequel.  '  Being  of  a  martial  disposition  even  in 
his  youpger  years,  but  finding  no  employment  at  home, 
be  went  and  served  in  Holland  as  a  volunteer  under  the 
command  of  Horatio  lord  Vere,  in  order  to  learn  the  art  of 
war.  After  some  stay  there  (but  how  long  we  pannot  learn) 
he  came  back  to  England ;  and,  retiring  to  his  father's 
house,  married  Anne,  fourth  daughter  of  lord  Vere.  Here 
he  contracted  a  strong  aversion  for  the  court ;  either  by 
the  instigation  of  his  wife,  who  was  a  zealous  presbyterian, 
or  else  by  the  persuasions  and  example  of  his  father,  who, 
as  Clarendon  says,  grew  <<  actively  and  factiously  disaf- 
fected to  the  king."  When  the  king  jflrst  endeavoured  to 
raise  a  guard  at  York  for  his  own  pennon,  be  was  entrusted 
by  his  party  to  prefer  a  petition  to  the  king,  beseeching 
him  to  hearken  to  his  parliament,  and  not  to  take  that 
bourse  of  raising  farces,  and  when  his  majesty  seethed  to 
ihun  receiving  it,  Fairfax  followed  him  with  it,  on  Hey- 
wortb-iiioor,  in  the  presence  of  r^ear  100,000  people,  and 
presented  it  upon  the  pommel  of  nis  saddle.  Shottly  after, 
upon  the  actual  breaking  out  of  the  citil  wars,  in  1642,  his 
father  having  received  a  commission  from  the  parliament 
to  be  general  of  the  forces  in  the  North,  he  had  a  commis- 
sidri  under  him  to  be  general  of  the  horse.  His  first  ex- 
ploit was*  at  Bradford  in  Yorkshire,  which  he  obliged  ^ 
body  of  royalists  to  quit,  and  to  retire  to  Leeds.  A  few 
dftys  ^fter,  he  and  captain  Hotham,  with  some  horse  and 
dragoons  marching  thither,  the  i-oyalists  fled  in  baste  to 
York.  And  the  former  having  advanced  to  Tadcaster,  re^ 
solyed  to  keep  the  pass  at  Wetherby,  for  securing  the 
West  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  whence  their  chief  supplies^ 
came.  Sir  Thomas  Glemham  attempted  to  dislodge  them 
thence;  but,  after  a  short  and  sharp  encounter,  retired. 
On  this,  William  Cavendish  earl  of  Newcastle,  and  Henry 
Clifford  earl  of  Cumberland,  united  their  forces  at  York, 
amounting  to  9000  men,  and  resolved  to  fall  upon  Tad- 
caster  :  which  being  judged  untenable,  the  lord  Fairfax, 
and  his  son  sir  Thomas,  drew  out  to  an  advantageous  piece 
of  ground  near  the  town  :  but,  after  a  six  hours  fight,  were 
beaten,  and  withdrew  in  the  night  to  Selby.  Three  days 
afler,  sir  Thomas  marched  in  the  night  by  several  towns 
in  which  the  royalists  lay,  and  came  to  Bradford,  where 
be  entrenched  himself.  But  having  too  many  soldiers  to 
Ue  idle,  and  too  few  to  be  upon  consta^at  duty,  he  resolved 


to'  attack  bis  enemies  in  their  garrisons.' ,  Accordingly; 
coining  before  Leeds,  he  carried  that  town  (Jan.  23,  1642-3) 
after  a  hot  dispute,  and  found  a  good  stpre  of  ammuni- 
tion, of  which  he  stood  in  great  want.     He  next  defeated 
a  party  of  700  horse  and  foot  .at  Gisborough,  under  the 
command  of  colonel  Slingsby;  and   then  Wakefield  and 
Doucaster  yielded  themselves  to  the  parliament.     But,  for 
these  overt  acts,  William  ^arl  of  Newcastle,    the   kingV 
general,  proclaimed  sir  Thomas  and  his  father  traiu^rs,  and 
the  pirKament  did  the  like  for  the  earl.     In  ti>e  mean  time> 
the  lord  Fairfax,  being  denied  succour  froni  Hull  and  the 
East  Riding,  was  forced  to  forsake  Selby,  and  retire  to 
Leeds :  of  which  the  ear)  of  Newcastle  having  intelligence, 
Uy  with  his  army  on  Cli(Ford-moor,  to  intercept  him  in 
his  way  to  Leeds.     On  this  sir  Thomas  was  ordered,  by 
his  father,  to  bring  what  men  he  could  to  join  with  him  at 
Sherburne,  on  purpose  to  secure  his  retreat    To  amuse 
the  earl,  sir  Thomas  made  a  diversion  at  I'adcaster,  which 
the  garrison  immediately  quitted,  but  lord  Goring  march* 
ing  to  its  relief,  with  twenty  troops  of  horse  and  dragoons^ 
defeated  sir  Thomas  upon  Bramham-moor :  who  also  re- 
ceived a  second  defeat  upon  Seacroft-moor,  where  some  * 
of  his  men  were  slain,  and  many  taken  prisoners,  and  him- 
self  made  his  retreat  with  much  difficulty  to  Leeds,  about 
an  hour  after  his  father  was  safely  come  thither.     Leeds 
and  Bradford  being  all  the  garrisons  the  parliament  had  in 
tb$  North,  sir  Thomas  thought  it  necessary  to  possess  some 
other  place :  therefore  with  about  1 100  horse  and  foot,  he 
drove,  on  the  21st  of  May,  the  royalists  out  of  Wakefield, 
which  they  had  seized  again ;  and  took  1400  prisoners,  80" 
officers,   and   gveat  store  of    ammunition.     But,    shortly 
after,  the  earl  of  Newcastle  coming  to  besiege  Bradford^ 
and  sir  Thomas  and  his  father  having  the  boldness,  with 
about  3000  men,  to  go  and  attack  bis  whole  army,  which* 
consisted  of  10,000,  on  Adderton-moor ;  they,  were  en- 
tirely routed  by  the  earl,  jon  the  SOth  of  June,  with  a  conr 
siderable  loss.     Upon  that,    Halifax"  and   Beverly   being 
abandoned  by  .the  parliamentarians,  and  the  lord  Fairfax' 
having- neither  a  pl^e  of  strength  to  defend  himself  in,  not' 
a  garrison  in  Yorkshire  to  retire  to,  withdrew  the  same 
night  to  Leeds^  to  secure  Ijbat  town.     By  his  order,  sir 
Thomas  stayed  in  Bradford  with  800  foot,  and  60  horse; 
but  b^ifig  surrounded^  he  was  obliged  to  force  his  way* 
through iv in. which  desperate  attempt,  his, lady,  and:maj9^' 


otbers^  were  taken  prisoneris.     At.  his  comtog  to  Leeds,  to 
found  things  in  great  dbtraction;  the  council  of  war  bav-^ 
iDg  resoly^  to  quit  the  town,  and  retreat  to  Hull,  which 
wa&  si%ty  miles  otf ;  with  many  of  the  king^s  garrison  in  the 
yfSLy^  bui  he  got  safely  to.Selby^  where  diere  was  a  ferry,' 
a^ul  bard  by  one  of  the  parliament's  garrisoas  at  Cawood* 
Immediately  after  his  copntng  to  Selby,  being  attacked  by 
a  party  of  horse  which  pursued  htm,  be  received  a  shot  in 
the  wrist  of  bis  left  arm,  which  made  the  bridle  fall  out  of 
bis  handy  and  occasioned  such  an  effusion  of  bloody  that; 
be  was  ready  to  fall  from  bis  horse.     But,  tidying  the  reins; 
in  the  other  baud  in  which  be  bad  his  sword,  he  withdrew 
himself  out  of  the  crowd ;  and  after  a  very  troublesome  and 
dangerous  passage,  be  came  to  Hull.     Upon  these  re^ 
peated  disasters^  the  Scots  were  hastily  solicited  to  send 
2^0,000  meq  to  the  assistance  of  the  parliamentarians,  wiio 
were  thvis  likely  to  be  over|K)wered*     Lord  Fairfax^  after 
bis  coming  to  Hull,  made  it  bis  first  business  to  raise  new" 
forces,  and,  in  a  short  time^  had  about  1500  foot,  and  700 
horse.     The  town  being  little,  sir  Thomas  was  sent  to  fie^ 
rerly,  with  the  horse  and  600  foot:  for,  the  marquis  oC 
!N$wcastie  looking  upon  them  as  inconsiderable,  and  leav- 
ing only  a  few  garrisons,  was  marclied  with  his  whole  army^ 
into  Lincolnshire;, having  orders  to  go  into  Essex,  and 
block  up  London  on  that  side    But  be  was  hastily  recalled 
northward,  upon  lord  Fairfax's  sending  out  a  large  party-* 
to  make  an  attempt  upon  Stanford- bridge  near  York.    The 
marquis,  at  his  return  into  Yorkshire,  first  dislodged,  froni' 
Beverly y  sir  Thomas,  who  retreated  into  Hull,   to  which, 
the  marquis  laid  siege,    but  could  not  cany  the  place.  ^ 
During  the  siege,  the  horse  being  useless,  and  many  dyin|; 
every  day,  sir  Thomas  was  sent  with  them  over  into  Lin<^ 
Goloshire,  to  join  the  earl   of  Manchester's  forces,  then, 
commanded  by  major-general  Cromwell.    At  Horncastle^ 
or  Wjnsby^  they  routed  a  party  of  iOOO  me%  commanded 
by  sir  John  Henderson:  and,  at  the  same  time,  the  be-  ' 
sieged  in  Hull  making  a  sally  upon  the  besiegers,  obliged 
them  to  retire.     These  two  defeats  together,  the  one  falU 
ing  heavy  upon  the  horse,  the  other  upon  tbe  foot,  kept 
the  royalists  all  that  winter  from  attempting  any  thing ; 
and  tbe  parliamentarians,  after  the  taking  of  Liocolu,  set*   . 
tied  themselves  in  winter  quarters.     But  sir  Thomas  bad 
not  long  tbe  benefit  of  them  ;  for,  in  the  coldest  season  of 
the  year,  be  was  commanded  by  the  parliament  to  go  and 

Fairfax:  «i 

ikhe  the  mege  of  Nantwich  in  dwBbire,  which  loid  Bytong 
with  an  army  from  Ireland,  bad  roduced  to  great  extre- 
mity.  He  set  forward  from  Lincolnshire,  December  29» 
and,  being  joined  by  sir  William  Brereton,  entirely  routed, 
on  the  21st  of  January,  lord  Byron,  who  was  drawn  out  to 
meet  them.  After  that,  they  took  in  several  garrisons  ia 
Gfaeshire,  particularly  Crew^house,  &c*  Sir  Thomas,  ha?^ 
ing  stayed  in  those  parts  till  the  middle  of  March,  was  or«- 
dered  biack  by  his  father  into  Yorkshire,  that  by  the  con« 
joaction  of  their  forces  he  might  be  abler  to  take  the  field. 
They  met  about  Ferry-bridge ;  and  colonel  Bellasis,  go*' 
ytmcT  of  York,  having  advanced  to  Selby  to  hinder  tl^ir 
janctiott,.  they  found  means,  notwithstanding,  to  join,  and 
entirely  defeated  him,  on  the  llthof  April,  1644.  Thi9 
good  success  rendered  sir  Thomas  master  of  the  6eld  in 
Yoricsbire,  and  nothing  then  hindered  him  from  marching 
into  Northumberland,  as  he  had  been  ordered  by  the  par- 
liament, to  join  the  Scots,  which  were  kept  from  advancing 
southward  by  the  superior  forces  of  tbe  marquis  of  New- 
castle, quartered  at  Durham.  But  that  stroke  having 
thrown  York  into  the  utmost  distraction,  tbe  inhabitants 
speedily  sent  to  the  marquis  to  haste  back  thither;  by  which 
means  a  way  was  left  open  for  the  Scots,  wbo,  with  cold^ 
and  frequent  alarms,  were  reduced  to  great  extremity. 
They  joined  the  lord  Fairfax  at  Wetherby,  on  the  20th  of  J 

Aprii,  and,  marching  on  to  York,  laid  siege  to  that  city  *,  '^ 

wherein  the  marquis  of  Newcastle  had  shut  himself  up, 
being  closely  pursued,  on  the  way  thither,  by  sir  Thomas^ 
and  migor-general  Desley.  And,  when  prince  Rupert  was 
advancing  out  of  Lancashire  to  the  relief  of  that  place, 
they  marched  with  6000  horse  and  dragoons,  and  5000 
foot,  to  stop  hia  progress :  but  he,  eluding  their  vigilance, 
and  bringii>g  round  bis  army,  which  consisted  of  abovef 
20,000  men,  got  into  York.  Whereupon  the  parliament 
tacians^raised  the  siege,  and  retired  to  Hessey-moor.  Tbe 
EngHsh  were  for  fighting,  and  the  Scots  for  retreating; 
whieb  last  o|union  prevailing,  they  both  marched  away  to 
Tadqj^ter,  there  being  great  differences  and  jealousies  be* 
tweeilP  tb^  two  nations.  But  the  rash  and  haughty  prince, 
instead  of  harassing  and  wearing  them  out  by  pnident  de-- 
lays^  resolved,  iirithout  consulting  tbe  marquis  of  New'^  • 
■      .      *  "^  -  '  ■ 

*.  Iq  our  account  of  Dodsworth  (toI.  XIL  p.  181),  will  be  found  %:^me  cir^ 
9umstaneeii  favourable  to  sir  Thomas  Fairfax's  character  in  the  conduct  of  ilosi 
Siege*  •.*♦..•«•  -  \  •    ' 


caitle,  pr  4ny  0f  bis  officers,  to  engage  theai^  on  Mftrst6«K 
laoor,  eight  miles  from  York,  on  the  2d  of  July :  wbere 
that  bloody  battle  was  fought  which  entirely  rained  the 
king^ft  ailairs  in  the  north.  In  this  battle^  sirThoosaB  fair** 
fax  commanded  the  right  wing  of.  the  horse.  The  prince^ 
after  his  defeat,  retiring  towards  Lancashire,  and  the  aiar«» 
quis,  in  discontent,  sailing  away  to  Hamburgh,  the  three 
parliament-generals  came  and  $at  down  again  before  York, 
Ivhich  surrendered  the  15Ui  of  July:  aud  the  North  was 
now  wholly  reduced  by  the  parliament's  forces,  except 
some  garrisons^%  In  SeptecDber  following,,  sir  Thomas  waa 
sent  to  take  Helmesley-casile,  where  he  receired  a  daa^** 
gerous  shot  in  one  of  bis  shoulders,  and  was  brought  back 
to  York,  all  being  doubtful  of  his  recovery  for  some  time^ 
Some  time  after,  he  was  more  nearly  killed  by  a  canncm^ 
shot  before  Pomfret-castle. 

Hitherto  he  had  aisquitted  himself  with  undaunted  bra-^ 
very,  and  with  great  and  deserved  applause  from  his  party. 
Had  he  stopped  here,  or  at  such  times  at  least  as  the  king's 
concessions  were  in  reason  and  equity  a  just  groupd  for 
peace  (which  was  more  than  once),  he  might  have  been 
honourably  ranked  among  the  rest  of  those  patriots,  who 
took  up  arms  onjly  for  the  redress  of  grievances*  But  his 
boundless  ambition,  and  his  great  desire  to  rule,  made  him 
w:eakly  engage,  with  the  utmost  zeal,  in  the  worst  and 
most  exceptionable  parts  of  the  rebellion.  When  the  par- 
liamentarians thought  fit  to  new-model  their  army,  and  to 
lay  aside  the  earl  of  Essex,  they  unanimously  voted  sir 
Thomas  Fairfax  to  be. their  general  in  his  room,  be  beiu^ 
ready  to  undertake  or  execute  any  thing  that  he  waa  ot^ 
dered.  To  him  Oliver  Cromwell  was  joined  with  the  title 
of  lieutenant-general,  but  with  intention  of  being  his  go-' 
vernor,  exercising  the  superiority  of  deep  art  over  a  com-* 
pmratively  weak  mind.  Sir  Thomas,  being  thus  voted  com-^ 
maodeL> in-chief  of  the.  parliament's  army  on  the  21st.  of 
January,  1644-5,  received  orders  from  the  parliament 
speedily  to  come  up  from  the  north  to  London,  where  he 
an'ived  privately,  Feb.  18,  and,  the  next  day,  was  brought 
by  four  of  the  members  into  the  house  of  commons,  where 
be  was  highly  complimented  by  the  speaker,  and  received 
his  commission  of  general.  The  loth  of  ibe  same  months 
an  ordinance  was  made,  for  raising  and  maintaining  of  forces 
under  his  command  :  it  having  been  voted,  a  few  days  be- 
fore, that  he  should  nominate  all  the  commanders  in  his 

imy^  to  ii^  tiken  out  of  any  of  tlie  othar  armte^^  with  the 
{q[)>prob2itio&  of  both  houses.  March  25^  the  parliament 
ordered  bitn  150O/.  The  Sd  of  April,  he  went  from  Lon-^ 
doii  ta  Windsor,  where  he  appointed  the  general  r^ndez^ 
voos :  and  continued  there  till  the  last  day  of  that  month, 
new-framing  and  modelling  the  army :  or  rather  Cromwell 
doing  it  in  bis  name.  April  16,  he  was  appointed,  by 
both  houses,  govenior  of  Hull.  In  the  mean  time,  Taun- 
ton, in  Somersetshire,  one  of  the  parliament's  garrisons^ 
being  closely  besieged  by  the  royalists,  sir  Thomas  Fairfax 
received  orders  to  hasten  to  its  relief,  with  8000  hors^  and 
foot.  He  began  his  march  May  1,  and  by  the  7th  had 
reached  Blandfbrd  in  Dorsetshire :  but,  the  king  taking 
the  ficdd  from  Oxford,  with  strong  reinforcements  brought 
by  die  princes  Rupert  and  Maurice,  isir  Thomas  was  or- 
dered by  the  parliament  to  send  3000  foot  and  1 500  horse 
to  relieve  Taunton^  and  himself  to  return,  with  the  rest  of 
his  forces,  to  join  Oliver  Cromwell  and  major-general 
Browne,  and  attend  the  king's  motions.  The  14th  of  May 
be  was  come  back  as  far  as  Newbury ;  where  having  rested 
three  nights,  he  went  and  faced  Dehnington-castle,  and 
•took  a  few  prisoners^  Thence  be  proceeded  to  lay  siege 
to  Oxfol^dy  as  he  was  directed  by  the  committee  of  both 
kingdoms,  and  sat  ddwn  before  it  the  22d.  But,  before 
he  bad  made  any  progress  in  this  siege,  he  received  orders 
to  draw  near  the  king,  who  bad  taken  Leicester  by  storm, 
May  ^1^  and  was  threatening  the  eastern  associated  coun- 
ties. Sir  Thomas  therefore  rising  from  before  Oxford, 
June  5,  i^rived  the  same  day  at  Marsh-Gibbon,  in  Buck- 
inghamshire;  on  the  11th  he  was  at  Wootton,  and  the 
next^ay  at  Gilsborough,  in  Northamptonshire  :  where  he 
kept  his  head-quarters  till  the  I4th,  when  he  engaged  the 
kiog*a  forces,  at  the  fatal  and  decisive  battle  of  Naseby^ 
and  obtained  a  complete  victory.  The  king,  after  that^ 
retiring  into  Wales,  sir  Thomas  went  and  laid  siege  bn 
the  l€th  to  Leicester,  which  surrendered  on  the  18th.  He 
proceeded,  on  the  22d,  to  Warwick;  and  thence  (with  a 
disposition  either  to  gd  over  the  Severn  towards  the  king, 
or  to  oiove  westward  as  he  sbould  be  ordered)  he  marched 
on  through  'Gk>i}cestersbire  towards  Maiiborough,  where 
he  arrived  the  2Btlu  'Here  he  received  orders  from  the 
parliament/  to  bastish  to  the  relief  6f  Taunton^  which  was 
besiej^«d-again  by  tfa6  royatists ;  letters  being  sent  at  the 
lame  time  into  diie  aaaoeikted  couiities  for  recruits,  and  the 
VOL.  XIV.  F 

#&  JTA.!  R  FA  K« 

arrears  of  pay  for  his  army ;  but  on  his  arrival  at  Blandfor^^ 
he  was  informed^  that  lord  Goring  bad  drawn  off.  bis  horse 
froni  before  Taunton^  and  left  his  foot  in  the  passage  to 
block  up  that  place^  marching  himself  with  the  horse  to- 
wards Langport.     Sir  Thomas  Fairfax,  therefore,  advanc* 
Ing  against  him,  defeated  btm  there  on  the  10th. of  July  ; 
and  the  Jiext  day,  went  and  summoned  Bridgewateic,  which 
was  taken  by  storm  on  the  22d.     He  became  also  master 
tof  Bath  the  30kh  of  the  same  month;  and  then  laid  close 
siege  to  Sherborne-castle,  which  was  likewise  taken,  by 
storm  August    15.      And,    having  besieged  the  city  of 
Bristol  from  the  22d  of  August  to  the  10th  of  Septen^ber, 
it  was  surrendered  to  him  by  prince  Rupert,     After  this 
laborious  expedition,  the  general  rested  some  days  at  Batb, 
having  sent  out  parties  to  reduge  the  castles  of  the  Devises 
and  Berkley,  and  other  garrisons  between  the  west  and 
London ;  and  on  the  23d  moved  from  Batb  to  th^  Devisei»^ 
and  thence  to  Warminster  on  the  27th,  where  he  sta}^ 
till  October  8,  when  he  went  to   Lyme  in   Dorsetshire. 
From  this  place  he  came  to  Tiverton,  of  which  he  became 
ma);ter  on  the  19th;  and  then,  as  he  could  not  underis^ke^- 
a  formal  siege  in  the  winter  season,  he  blocked  up  the 
strong  city  of  Exeter,  which  did  not  surrender  till  the  13Ch 
of  April  following :  in  the  mean  time,  he  took  Dartmouth 
by  storm,  January  18,  1645-6;  and  several  forts  and  gar- 
risons  at  different  times.     Feb.  16,  be  defeated  the  lord 
Hopton  near  Torrington.    This  nobleman  retreating  with 
his  broken  forces  into  Cornwall,  sir  Thomas  followed  him  : 
in  pursuit  of  whom  be  came  tg  Launceston  Feb.  25,  and 
to  Bodmin  March  2.     On  the  4th,  Mount  Edgecombe  was 
surrendered  to  him ;  and  Fowey  about  the  same  time.     At 
last  the  parliament  army  approaching  Truro,  where  lord 
Hopton  had  his  head-quarters,  and  he  being  so  hemmecl  in 
as  to  remain  without  a  possibility  of  escaping,  sir  Tbomts, 
on  the  5th  of  March,  sent  and  offered  him  honourable 
terms  of  capitulation,  which  after  some  delays,  lord  HoptXHi 
accepted,  and  a  treaty  was  signed  by  commissioners  on 
both  sides,  March  14  ;  in  pursuance  of  which,  the  royalists, 
l^oiisisting  of  above  5000  bqrse,  wf  re  disbanded^  and  took 
an  oath  never  to  bear  arms  against  the  parliament.     3ut, 
before  the  treaty  was.  signed,  lord  Hopton,.  aqd,  Arthur 
lovd   Capel,  retired  to  Scilly,.  whence  they  passed  into^ 
Jersey,  April  17,  with  Charles  prince  of  Wales,  sir  JEUU 
*vard  Hyde^  and  other  persons  of  distioaioo..  .  Thus  ib« 


iin^B  ai^ihy  in  the  west  being  entirely  dispersed  by  the 
vigilance  and  wonderful  success  of  general  Fairfax,  be  re- 
turned, March  31,  to  the  siege  of  Exeter,  which  surren- 
dered to  him  upon  articles,  the  }3th  of  April,  as  already 
<>bserved :  and  with  the  taking  of  this  city  ended  bis  west^i* 
em  expedition.  He  then  marcbed,  with  wonderful  speedy 
towards  Oxford,  the  roost  Considerable  garrison  remaining 
iu  the  king's  hands,  and  arriving  on  the  1st  of  May^  with 
his  army,  began  to  lay  siege  to  it.  The  king,  who  was 
there,  afraid  of  being  enclosed,  privately,  and  in  disguise^ 
departed  thence  on  the  27th  of  April;  and  Oxford  sur-* 
rendered  upon  articles,  June  ^4,  as  did  Wallingford,  Ju^ 
$2. .  After  the  reduction  of  these  places,  sir  Thomas  went 
atad  besieged  Raglan d«castle,  in  Monmouthshire,  the  pro- 
perty of  Henry  Somerset,  marquis  of  Worcester,  which 
yielded  Aug.  1 9.  His  next  employment  was  to  disband 
major-general  Massey's  brigade,  which  he  did  at  the  De« 
Tises.  About  that  time  he  was  seised  with  a  violent  fit  of 
the  ston#,  un^er  which  he  laboured  many  days.  As  sooa 
as  he  was  recovered,  he  took  a  journey  to  London ;  where 
*he  arrived  November  12,  being  met  some  miles  off  by 

Sreat  crowds  of  people,  and  the  city  militia.  The  next 
ay,  both  houses  of  parliament  agreed  to  congratulate  his 
coming'  to  lown^  and  to  give  him  thanks  for  bis  faithful 
services  and  wise  conduct:  which  they  did  the  day  folio w-» 
iog.  Waiting  upon  him  at. bis  house  in  Queen-street^. 
Ilardly  had  he  had  time  to  rest,  when  he  was  called  upoa 
to  coayoy  the  two  hundred  thousand  pounds  that  had  beea 
granted  to  the  Scotisb  army;  the  price  of  their  delivering 
u^  their  sovejCeigo  king  Charles,  For  that  purpose  he  set 
out  from  London,  December  18,  with  a  sufficient  force^ 
caiTyihg  at  the  same  tioie  50,000/.  for  his  own  army.  The 
king  being  delivered  by  the  Scots  to  the  parliament's  com- 
missiotkers  at  Newcastle,  Jan.  30,  1646-7>  sir  Thomas  went 
'and  met  biiA,  Feb.  15,  beyoi^d  Nottingham,  in  his  way  to 
Holmby ;  and  his  majesty  stopping  his  horse,  sir  Thomas 
'alighted,  and  kissed  bis  band;  and  afterwards  mounted, 

.'•*  They  gftve  him  toaie^hing  more  I64C,  an  ordinance  was  made  for  set- 

Sttbftantial  than  words    and  compli-  tling  5000/.  a  year  upon  him  and  his 

kneats,  by  makinc  him  iiery  cont ider-  heirs;    And  4000/.  a  year  was  granted 

able  presents  and  grants  at  different  to  him  out  of  the  duke  of  Buckingham's 

limes.    As,  namely,  m  1 645,  they  tn^t  estate :  which  probably  waa  part  of  the 

hhai  a  jewel  of  great  value»  set  with  5000/.  iettlfld  upon  htm  by  the  parlia- 

diamonds,^  whiclit  was  lied  in  a  blue  ^lenU    Instead  of  Jthe  other  thousand, 

Mkh%nd,  and  t>ui  aVout  bis  neck.    In  10^000/.  was  gWeu  bioi-lky  parliament. 


e»  fAiRFAx: 

knA  discoursecl  with  him  as  they  rode  along.  The  5'di  ot 
March  following,  after  long  debate  in  parliament,  he  wa» 
Toted  general  of  the  forces  that  were  to  be  continued.  Hd 
came  to  Cambridge  the  12th  of  the  same  month,  where  he 
was  highly  caressed  and  complimented,  and  created  mastef 
of  arts. 

'    Hitherto,  the  crafty  and  ambitious  Cromwell  had  per^ 

ittitted  him  to  enjoy  in  all  respects  the  supreme  command^ 

at  least  to  outward  appearance.     And,  under  his  conduct, 

the  army's  rapid  success,  after  their  new  model,  had  much 

surpassed  the  expectation  of  the  most  sanguine  of  their 

inasters,  the  parliament     The  question  now  was,  to  dts-^ 

band  the  mcyority  of  them  after  their  work  was  done,  and 

to  employ  a  part  of  the  rest  in  the  reduction  of  Ireland* 

But  either  of  the  two  appeared  to  all  of  them  intolerable. 

For^  many  having,  from  the  dregs  of  the  people,  risen  to 

the  highest  commands,  and  by  plunderings  and  violence 

amassing  daily  great  treasures,  they  could  not  bear  the 

thoughts  of  losing  such  great  advantages.    To  maintaiti 

themselves  therefore  in  the  possession  of  them,  Cromwell, 

and  his  sonrin-law  Ireton,  as  good  a  contriver  as  himself, 

but  a  much  better  writer  and  speaker,  devised  how  to  rai^ 

a  mutiny  in  the  army  against  the  parliament.    To  this  end 

they  spread  a  whisper  among  the  soldiei^y,  **  that  the  par- 

hameni,    now   they  had  the  king,  intended  to  disband 

them;  to  cheat  them  of  their  arrears ;  and  to  send  them 

ifnto  Ireland,  to  be  destroyed  by  the  Irish.**    The  arkny, 

Enraged  at  this,  were  taught  by  Ireton  to  erect  a  council 

among  themselves,  of  two  soldiers  out  of  every  troop  arid' 

every  company,  to  aonsult  for  the  good  of  the  army,  ahd 

to  assist  at  the  council  of  war,  and  advise  for  the  peace  and 

safety  of  the  kingdom.    These,  who  were  caHed  adjutatdrs, 

dr  agitators,  were  wholly  under  CromwelPs  influence  and 

direction,  iJie  most  active  of  them  being[  his  avowed  civa^ 

tures.     Sir  Thomas  saw  with  uneasiness  his  power  ofi  the 

tfrmy  usurped  by  these  agitators,  the  forerunners  of  dOfi** 

ftision*  and  anarchy,  whose  design  (as  he  observes)  was  to- 

raise  their  own  fortunes  upon  the  public  ruin;  and  th^t 

made  him  resolve  to  lay  dowu  his  commission.     But  be- 

Was  over-persaaded  by  the  heads  of  the  Indq)endent  fac* 

tian  to  hold  it  till  he  had  accoioiplished  their  desperate 

projects,  of  rendering  themselves  masters  not  only  of  the 

parliament,  but  of  the  whole^^ingdom ;  for,  he  joined  in' 

the  several  petitions  and  procQeoings  of  the  army  that 

FAjaF  A.X{  a» 

lend^  tb  destroy  the  pwrliament^s  power.  About  ibe  be- 
gioniog  of  June»  he  Mvanced  towards  London,  to  awB  tb# 
pariiameot^  though  both  bouses  desired  bis  army  might  not 
come  within  fifteen  miles  of  the  same ;  June  15,  he  waa  n 
party  in  the  charge  against  eleven  of  the  members  of  tbo 
bouse  of  commons ;  in  August,  he  espoused  the  speakeca 
of  both  houses,  and  the  sixty  ^six  members  that  had  fled  to 
tb«  army,  and  betrayed  the  privileges  of  parliament :  and^ 
mtering  London,  August  6,  restored  them  in  a  kind  of 
triumph ;  for  which  he  received  the  thanks  of  both 
houses,  and  was  appointed  constable  of  the  Tower.  On 
die  other  hand  it  is  said  that  he  was  no  way  concerned  iuf 
the  violent  removal  of  the  king  from  Ilolmby>  by  cornet 
Joyce,  on  the  3d  of  June;  and  wmted  with  great  resped 
upon  bis  m^esiy  at  sir  John  Cutts^s  bouse  near  Cambridge^ 
Being  ordered,  on.  the  i5th  of  the  same  month,  by  the 
parliament,  to  deliver  the  person  of  the  king  to  soch  per* 
sons  as  both  houses  should  appoint ;  that  he  might  be  brought 
to  BricbfDOiid,  where  propositions  were  to  be  presented  to 
him  for  a  safe  and  well-grounded  peace ;  instead  of  com* 
plying  (though  he  seemed  to  do  so)  he  carried  his  majesty 
from  pbuce  to  place,  according  to  the  several  motions  of 
the  army,  outwardly  expressing,  upon  most  occasions,  a 
due  respect  for  him,  but,  not  having  the  will  or  resQlutioa 
lo  oppose  what  he  had  not  power  enough  to  prevent^  he 
resigned  himself  entirely  to  Cromwell.  It  was  this  ua^ 
doubtedly  that  made  him  concur,  Jan.  9,  1647*8,  in  that 
in£unou&  declaration  of  the  army,  of  ^^  No  further  ad^ 
dresses  or  application  to  the  king ;  and  resolved  to  stand  by 
the  parliament,  in  what  should  be  further  necessary  £ot 
settiiugand  securing  the  parliament  and  kingdom,  without 
the  king  and  against  him.'*  His  father  dying  at  Yitric,  < 
llacefa  i3t  he  ibecame  possessed  of  his  title  and  estate; 
imd  was  appointed  keeper  of  Pontefract^castHs,  custos 
routlorum  of  Yorkshire,  &c»  in  his  room.  But  his  £sther*s 
death  made  no  alteratiou  in  his  conduct,  he  remaining 
•the  saoae  aerviie  or  deluded  tool  to  Cromwell's  ambitiou* 
He  not  only  sent  extraordinary  supplies,  and  tpok  all 
paiM  imaginable  for  reducing  colonel  Poyer  in  Wales,  but 
also  quelled,  with  the  utmost  zeal  and  industry,  an  insur- 
rection of  apprentices  and  others  in  London,  April  9,  who 
iatd  declared  for  God  and  king  Charles.  The  ist  of  the 
f>ame  month  he  r^oved  his  head^quarters  to  St.  £dn)und's« 
bury ;  and,,  upon  the.  royalists  seizing  Berwick  and  Ciir^ie^ 

to  t  A  m  F  A^Xi 

and  the  apprehension  of  the  Scots  entering  England,  Imi 
uras  desired,  May  9,  by  the  parliament,  to  advance  in  per^ 
6on  into  the  North,  to  reduce  those  places,  and  to  prevent; 
any  danger  from  the  threatened  invasion^  Accordingly 
he  began  to  march  that  way  the  20th.  But  be  was  sooii; 
tiecalled  to  quell  an  insurrection  in  Kent,  beaded  by  George 
Coring,  earl  of  Norwich,  and  sir  William  Waller.  Ad«* 
vancing  therefore  against  them  from  London  in  the  latter 
eiid  of  May,  he  defeated  a  considerable  party  of  them  at 
Slaidstone,  June  2,  with  his  usual  valour.  But  the  earl 
and  about  500"of  the  royalists,  getting  over  the  Thames  al 
Greenwich  into  Essex,  June  3,  they  were  joined  by  several 
parties  brought  by  sir  Charles  Lucas,  and  Arthur  lord 
€apel,  which  made  up  their  numbers  about  400 ;  and  went 
and  shut  themselves  up  in  Colchester  on  the  12th  of  June. 
Lord  Fairfkx,  informed  of  their  motions,  passed  over  with 
his  forces  at  Gravesend  with  so  much  expedition,  that  ha 
Hrrived  before  Colchester  June  1 3,  Immediately  he  sum« 
tnons  the  royalists  to  surrender;  which  they  relui4iig,  he 
attacks  them  the  same  afternoon  with  the  utmost  fury,, 
but,  being  repulsed,  he  resolved,  June  14,  to  block  up 
the  place  in  order  to  starve  the  royalists  into  a  compliaoce* 
These  endured  a  severe  and  tedtotfs  siege  of  eleven  weeksy 
Dbtsutren^ring' till  August  28,  and  feeding  for  about  five 
veeks chiefly  on  horse-flesh;  all  their  endeavours  for  oIm 
tainihg  peace  on  honourable  terms  being  ineffectual.  Thi^ 
Hffair  is  the  most  exceptionable  fkn^  in  lord  Fairfax-a 
conduct,  If  it  admits  of  degrees,  foiK-M  granted  worse 
'^ms  to  that  poor  town  than  to  any  otfajdr  in  the  whole 
^ourse  of  the  war ;  he  endeavoured  to  destroy  it  as  much 
as  possible;  he  laid^an  exorbitant  line,  or  ransom^  of 
12^000/.' upon  the  inhi^itants,  to  excuse  them  from  being 
plundered;  and  he  vented  his  revenge  and  fory.  upon  sit 
Charles  Lucas  and  sir  J&eorge  Lisle,  who.  had  belutvedi^ 
the  mrost  inoffensive  manner  during  the  siege,  sparing^that 
})uffpon  the  earl  of  Norwich,  whose  behaviour  .had  beeii 
q%iite  different :  so  that  his  name  and  memory  there  ought 
to  be  for  ever  detestable.  After  these  mighty  e^ploit^ 
against  a  poor  and  unfortified,  town,  he  made  a  kind  of 
triumphant  progress  to  Ipswich,  Yarmouth,  Norwich,-  Sti 
£dmdnd^s-bury,  Harwich,  Mersey^  aud  ..Maldoo..  About 
^he  beginning  of  December  he  came  to  London^  to  awe 
that  city  and  the  parliament,  and  to  forward  the  proceedt 
ings  against  the  kin^ ;   quartering  himself  ii^  the  ro^ 




y  A  IKF  A  X.  If 

jNdace  of  - WUteliall :  and  it  was  by  especial  order  frooi 
biquaiidtbe'coanciiof  the  a.rroy9  that  several  members  of 
the  bouse  of  commons  were  secluded  and  imprisoned,  the 
6th  and  7th  of  that  month ;  he  being,  as  Wood  expresses 
itf  lolled  in  a  kind  of  stupidity.  Yet,  although  his  name 
stood  foremost  in  the  list  of  the  kjiog's  judges,  he  refused 
to  act,  probably  by  his  lady's  persuasion  *.  Feb.  1 4, 1 648-9, 
be  was  voted  to  be  one  of  the  new  council  of  state,  but 
on  the  19  th  he  refused  to  subscribe  the  test,  appointed 
by  parliament,  for  approving  all  that  was  done  concerning 
the  king  and  .kingship.  March  31  he  was  voted  general 
of  all  the.  forces  in  England  and  Ireland ;  and  in  May  be 
marched  against  the  levellers,  who  were  grown  very  nu« 
m^ous,  apd  began  to  be  troublesome  and  formidable  in 
Oxfordshire,  and  utterly  routed  them  at  Burford.  Thenoe, 
on  the  22d' of  the  same  month,  he  repaired  to  Oxford  with 
Oliver  CromweU,  and  other  officers,  where  he  was  highly 
feasted,  and  created  LL.D.  Next,  upon  apprehension  of 
the  Uke  risings  in  other  places,  he  went  anid  viewed  the 
fables  and  fortifications  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  at  South* 
ainpton,  and  Pprtsmooth ;  and  near  Guildford  had  a  ren* 
dezToos.  of  the  army,  which  be  exhorted  to  obedience* 
June  4,  he  was  entertained,  with  other  officers,  &c.  by  the 
city  .of  London,  and  presented  with  a  large  and  weighty 
bason  and  ewer  of  beat;en  gold.  In  June  1650,.  upon  the 
ScoM  declaring  for  king  Charles  II.  the  juncto  of  the 
council  of  state  having  taken  a  r^olution  to  be  beforehand, 
and  not  to  stay  to  be  invaded  from  Scotland,  but  to  carry 
first  the  war  into  that  kingdom;  general  Fair£u,  being 

*  From  Whitlock  and  Clarendon  we  '*  No,  northehandreclth  partof  lbem^7 

Itarn  that  this  lady,  at  the  mock  trial  upon  which,  one  of  the  officers  bid  the 

«f  Unf  Cbarlas,  «aei>iiiMd   atond  a*  aDkUar»siv»  fire  into  that  boa  wbance  the 

fainst  the   proceedings  of  thiB  high  presamptuoui  wards  wera  uttered.  But 

court,  and  the  irreverent  usage  of  the  it  was  quicklv  discerned  that  it  was  Uie 

lauff  hy  his  Mib^ctKr  intomoch  that  -  g^saeral's  win,  who  had  uttered  both 

theaoHrt  was  interrupted  :•  for»  her  iiu^  sharp  ^yiofa;wba  was  pnsentljr 

husband,  the  lord  Fairfax,  being  called  persuaded  or  forced  to  leave  the  pJace« 

first  as  one  of  the  jadges,  and  do  an-  to  prevent  any  n^w  disorder.— Having 

tvcf  beiqg  tpade,  the  crier  called  him.  been  bred  in  HoHand^  che  had  Httt» 

the  second  time»  when  ther^  was  a  reverence  for  the  church  of  Cps^aad* 

TOice  heard  that  said,  **  he  had  more  and  so  had  unhappily  concur^  in  her 

wit  than  to  be  there,"  which  pat  the  hasbaad**  entering  into  rebelliaQ,n«ver 

court  iato  some  disorder ;  and  some-  imagining,  says  Clarendon,  what  mW ' 

^ody  asking  who  it  was,  therie  was  no  sery  it  would  bring  upon  the  kingdom  ; 

answer,  bat  a  litiife  nHtrmiiring.  '  But,  and  now  abhorred  th^  woik  in  hand,  as 

preeenUy,  when  the  impeachment  was  nrach  as  any  body  could  do,  and  did  alt 

r^adt    an<l  that  expression  used,  of  she  could  to  hiwler  her  hosbaad  from 

'*  All  the  good  people  of  England,"  the  apti^g  any  patt  in  it. 

£anefoice^iaaloudataiiitiaos«ered»  .    •          ^ 


^oainluAf  seemed  to  aj^prove  of  the  design  ;  but*)afterwafdfr/ 
by  the  persuasions  of  bis  lady,  and  of .  the  presbyteriait 
ministerfi)  he  declared  himself  unsatisfied  that  there  was  a 
just  ground  for  the  parliament  of  £ngland  to  send  their 
army  to  invade  Scotland ;  and  resolved  to  lay  down  1m9 
commission  rather  than  engage  in  that  affair ;  and  on  the 
26th  tha|:  high  trust  was  immediately  committed  to  Oliver 
Cromwell,  who  was  glad  to  see  him  removed^  as  being  no 
longer  necessary,  but  rather  an  obstacle  to  his  farther  am-^ 
bitious  designs.     Being  thus  released  from  all  public  era-' 
ploymepty  he  went  and  lived  quietly  at  his  own  house  inr 
Nun- Appleton  in  Yorkshire ;  always  earnestly  wishing  and 
praying  (as  we  are  assured)  for  the  restitution  of  the  royal 
family,  and  fully  resolved  to  lay  hold  on  the  first  oppor^ 
tunity  to  contribute  his  part  towards  it,  which  made  him' 
always  looked  upon  with  a  jealous  eye  by  the  usurpers  of 
that  time.     As  soon  as  he  was  invited  by  general  Monk  to 
assist  him  against  Lambert^s  army,  he  cheerfully  embraced 
the  occasion,  and  appeared,  on  the  3d  of  December  l€5dv 
at  the  head  of  a  body  of  gentlemen  of  Yorkshire ;  and,' 
upon  the  reputation  and. authority  of  his  name,-  the  Irislr 
brigade  of  1200  horse  foHMiok  Lambert's  army,  and  joined' 
bim.     The  consequrace  was,  the  immediate  breaking  of^ 
all  LamberCs  forces,  which  gave  general  Monk  an  easy 
march  into  England.     The  1st  of  January  1659-60,  btr 
lordship  made  himself  master  of  York;  and,  on  the  2d  of^ 
the  same,  month,  was  cbosai  by  the  romp  parliament  one' 
of  the  council  of  state,  as  he  was  again  on  the  23d  of  Fe** 
bruary  ensuing*    March  29  be  was  elected  one  of  the- 
knights  for  the  county  of  York,  in  the  healing  parliament ; 
and  was  at  the  head  of  the  committee  appointed  May  3^; 
by  the  house  of  commons,  to  go  and  attend  king  Charles' 
11^  at  the  Hague,  to  desire  him  to  inake  a  speedy  return' 
to  his  parliament,  and  to  the  exercise  of  his  kingly  ofiice.> 
May  16  he  waited  upon  his  majesty  with  the  rest,  and 
endeavoured  to  atone  in  some  measure  for  all  past  offences,,* 
by  readily  concurring  and  assisting  in  bis  restoration.  After 
the  dissolution  of  the  short  healing  parliament,  he  retired, 
again  to  his  seat  in  the  country,  where  he  lived  in  a  private 
manner  till  his  death,  which  happened  November  12,  1671, 
in  the  sixtieth  yes^r  of  his  age*.     Several  letters,  remonsr 

*  In  a  paper  extracted  from  an  on-  for  1773,  ar«  soma  circumstaDees  re« 
frinal  manuscript  by  Pr,  Bryan  Fairfax,  lating  to  the  latter  part  of  lord  Fair- 
knd  inserted  in  tb^  Annual  Rejjiister    f««*9  Ufe,    He  W8is  afllicled  wi^l;^  tlier 

Fairfax;  it 

intttsen^  and  other  papers,  sabscrtbed  with  his  name,  ai*^ 
preserved  in  Rusfaworth  and  other  collections,  being  pub^' 
lisbed  during  the  tini^e  he  was  general ;  but  he  disowned 
most  of  them.  After  his  decease,  some  '^  short  memorials, 
written  by  himself/'  were  published  in  1699,  8vo,  by* 
Brian  Fairfax,  esq.  but  do  his  lordship  no  great  honour, 
either  as  to  principle,  style,  or  accuracy.  Lord  Fairfax, 
as  to  his  person,  was  tall,  but  not  above  the  just  proportion/ 
and  of  a  gloomy  and  melancholy  disposition.  He  stam-^ 
hiered  a  little,  and  was  a  bad  orator  on  the  most  plausible 
occasions*  As  to  the  qualities  of  his  mind,  he  was  of  a 
good  natural  disposition;  a  great  lover  of  learning*,  having 
contributed  tg  the  edition  of  the  Polyglott,  and  other  large 
works ;  and  a  particular  admirer  of  the  History  and  Anti« 
quilies  of  Great  Britain,  as  appears  by  the  encouragement 
be  gave  to  Mr.  Dodsworth.  In  religion  be  professed  Pres-' 
byterianismn,  but  where  he  first  learned  that,  unless  in- 
the  army,  does  not  appear.  He  was  of  a  meek  and  humble 
carriage,  and  but  of  few  words  in  discourse  and  couijcil ; 
yet,  when  his  judgment  and  reason  were  satisfied,  he  was 
unalterable ;  and  often  ordered  things  expressly  contrary  . 
to  the  judgment  of  all  his  council.  His  valour  was  un- 
<|Uestiotiable.  He  was  daring,  and  regardless  of  self-in-* 
tereftt,  and,  we  are  told,  in  the  field  he  appeared  so  highly 
transported,  that  scarcely  any  durst  speak  si  word  to  him, 
and  he  would  seem  like  a  man  distracted  and  furious.  Had 
not  the  more  successful  ambition  and  progress  of  Cromwell 
eclipsed  I^rf  "Fairfax's  exploits,  he  would  have  been  con- 
sideredasthe  greatest  of  the  parliamentary  commanders  ; 
and  one  of  the  greatest  heroes  of  the  rebellion,  had  not 
the  extreme  narrowness  of  his  genius,  in  every  thing  but 
war,  obstructed  his  shining  as  a  statesman.  We  h^/ve  al-*^ 
ready  noticed  that  he  had  some  taste  for  literature,  and 
that  both  at  York  and  at  Oxford  he  endeavoured  to  pre-* 

gout  aod.  stooe^  t))e  pains  of  which  he  were  ever  represented  in  the  figure  of: 

endured  with  a  courage  and  patience  mortal   man.     Most  of  his  time  i»at 

equal  to  what  he  had  shewn  in  his  war.  spent  in  reHgious  duties*  and  a  grea^ 

like  e|cp|«its.   These  disorders  were  Uie  part    of    the    remainder    In   reading 

result  of  the  wounds  be  had  suffered,  vaiuable  hAoks,  for  which  he  was  welL 

and  the  fatigues  he  had  gone  through,  qualified  by  his  skill  in  modem  Ian* 

dating  the  war.    The  gout  took  frona  guages.     Hi«  death  was  occasioned  by 

^m  the  use  of  his  legs,  and  confined  a  fever,  which  carried  him  oft  in  a  ftm  - 

him  to  a  chair,  ia  which  he  sat  like  an  days.     The  last  morning  of  his  life  he . 

old   Roman,  *  his  manly  countenance  called  for  a  bible,  snying,*' his  eyes- 

striking  awe  and  reverence  into  all  that  grew  dim/'  and  read  the  forty*teeoiid 

heheld  him;  while  it  was  mixed  with  fsalm.-. 
§s  much  modesty  and  sweetness  as 


serve  the  libraries  from  being  pillaged.  He  also  presented 
twenty-nine  ancient  MSS.  to  the  Bodleian  librarj,  one  of 
which  is  a  beautiful  MS.  of  Govver^s  ^'  Confessio  Amantia.** 
When  at  Oxford  we  do  not  find  that  he  countenanced  any 
of  the  outrages  committed  there,  but  on  the  contrary, 
exerted  his  utmost  diligence  in  preserving  the  Bodieiao: 
from  pillage ;  and,  in  fact,  as  Mr.  Warton  observes,  that 
valuable  repository  suffered  less  than  when  the  city  was  in 
the  possession  of  the  royalists.  Lord  Orford  has  intro^ 
duced  lord  Fairfax  among  his  ''  Royal  and  Noble  Authors,'' 
^^  not  only  as  an  historian,  but  a  poet.  In  Mr.  Tbcnres^ 
by's  museum  were  preserved  in  manuscript  the  foUowing* 
pieces:  «  The  Psalms  of  David;"  *^The  S^ngof  Selo- 
mon;*'  "  The  Canticles ;"  and  "  Songs  of  Moses,  Exod.: 
15.  and  Deut.  52.'*  and  other  parts  of  scripture  versiBed. 
*f  Poem  on  Solitude/'  Besides  which,  in  the  sam^  coU 
lection  were  preserved  ^^  Notes  of  Sermons  by  his  lonl-^ 
ship,  by  bis  lauly,  and  by  their  daughter  Mary,"  the  wife 
of  the  second  duke  of  Buckingham ;  and  *^  A  Treatise  on 
tjbe  iShortness  of  Life."  But,  of  sill  lord  Fairfax's  works,' 
by  far  the  most  remarkable  were  some  verses  which  be 
wote  on  the  horse  on  which  Charles  the  Seoond  rodcf  to* 
his  coronation,  and  which  had*  been  bred  and  presented  Uy 
the  king  by  his  lordship.  How  must  that  merry  monarch,.- 
not  apt  to  keep  his  countenance  on  more  serious  occasions, 
liave  smiled  at  this  awkward  homage  from  the  old  victoridusl 
bero  of  republicanism  and  the  covenant !"  Besides  tbese^'- 
sieveral  of  his  MSS.  are  preserved  in  the  library  at  Denton,^ 
of  which  Mr.  Park  has  given  a  list  in  his  new  edition  of  ibe^ 
**  Royal  and  Noble  Authors."  *  j 

FAIRFAX  (7'homas,  sixth  Lord),  was  born  about* 
1691.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of  Thomas,  fifth  lord  Fair^ 
fax,  of  Cameron,  in  the  kingdom  of  Scotland,  by  Catheliue^f 
Qnly  daughter  and  heiress  of  Thomas  lord  Culpepper;  ia; 
whose  right  he  afterwards  possessed  Leeds  Castle,  with' 
several  manors  and  estates  in  th^  county  of  Kent,  and  in^ 
the  Isle  of  Wight;  and  that  immense  tract  of  country, 
comprised  within  the  boundaries  of  the  rivers  Potowmae 
and  Rappahannoc  in  Virginia,  called  the  Northern  Neck^' 
containing  by  estimation  five  millions  seven  hundred  thou*  * 
aand  acres. .  He  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  his  father  while 
young ;  and  atjiis  decease,  he  and  bis  two  brothers^  Henry  % 

'  Bios-  Brit, 


pni  Bobert^  and  four  sistersy  one  of  whom,  Frances,  was 
afterwards  married  to  Denny  Martin,  esq.  of  Loose,  in 
Kent,  came  under  the  guardianship  of  tbeir  mother  and 
grandmother,  the  dowager  ladies  Fairfax  and  Culpepper, 
th^  latter  of  ^ivhom  was  a  princess  of  the  bouse  of  Hesse 

Lord  Fairfiix,  at  the  usual  age,  was  sent  to  the  univer* 
sity  of  Oxford  to  complete  his  education,  aod  was  highly 
esteemed  there  for  his  learmng  and  accomplishmento.  His 
judgment  upon  literary  subjects  was  then,  and  at  other 
times,  frequently  appealed  to ;  and  his  biographer  informs 
^^  be  was  one  of  the  writers  of  the  Spectator,  but  the  an<» 
notators  on  that  work  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  any  o£ 
his  papers.  After  some  years'  residence  in  the  university, 
he  took  a  commission  in  the  regiment  of  horse  called  the 
Blues,  and  remained  in  it,  as  is  supposed,  till  the  death  of 
the  survivor  of  the  two  ladies  above  mentioned ;  who  had 
usually  resided  Mt  Leeds  Castle.  Some  time  before  their 
decease,  a  circumstance  happened,  that  eventually  occa-* 
iioQed  him  much  uneasiness.  He  had  been  persuaded, 
vpoQ  his  brother  Henry's  arriving  at  the  age  of  twenty-one^ 
or  raAher  compelled  by  the  ladies  Culpepper  and  Fairfax^ 
under  a  menace,  in  ca^e  of  refusal,  of  never  inheriting  the 
Northern  Neck,  to  cut  off  the  intail,  and  to  sell  Dentoa 
Hall, .  and  the  Yorkshire  estates,  belonging  to  this  branch 
of  the  Fairfax  family,  which  bad  been  in  tbeir  possessioa 
for  five  or  six  centuries,  in  order  to  redeem  those  of  the 
late  lord  Culpepper,  tbi^t  had  descended  to  his  heiress^ 
exceedingly  encumbered,  and  deeply  mo^rtgaged.  This 
circumstance  happened  while  lord  Fairfax  was  at  Oxford^ 
ai|d  is  said  to  have  occasioned  bim  the  greater  vexation, 
as  it  appeared  after  weirds,  that  the  estates  had  been  dis-: 
po^d  of,  through  the  treachery  of  a  steward,  for  consider* 
9bly  less  than  their  value ;  letss  even  than  what  the  timber 
that  was.cut  dewo  to  discharge  the  purchase  money,  be« 
fore  the  stipulated  day  of  payment  came,  was  sold  for.  Her 
conceived,  therefore,  a  violent  disgust  against  the  ladies, 
who,  as  be  used  to  say,  had  treated  him  with  such  un- 
paralleled cruelty ;  and  ever  afterwards  expressed  the 
keiNiest  sense  of  the  injury  that  had  been  done,  as  he 
thought,  to  the  Fairfax  family.  After  entering  into  pos-» 
session^  he  began  to  inquire  into  the  value  ai)d  situation  of: 
bis  estates ;  and  he  soon  discovered  that  the  proprietary 
lands  in  Virginia  had  been  extremely  mismanaged  and 

^  i 


under-let.  An  agent,  who  at  the  same  time  was  a  tenanlf 
bad  been  employed  by  the  dowager  lady  Fairfax,  to  saper^ 
intend  her  concerns  in  that  quarter  of  the  world  ;  and  he 
h  said  to  have  abused  her  confidence,  and  to  have  enriched 
himself  and  family,  as  is  too  frequently  the  case,  at  the 
expence  of  his  employer.  Lord  Fairfax  therefore  wrote  t6 
William  Fairfax,  esq.  bis  father's  brother's  second  son,  who 
held,  at  that  time,  a  pleu^e  of  considerable  trust  and  emolu-*"^ 
ment  under  the  government  in  New  England  ;  requesting 
him  to  remove  to  Virginia,  and  to  tak^  upon  himself  the 
Agency  of  the  Northern  Neck.  With  this  request  Mr^ 
Fairfax  readily  complied  ;  and  as  soon  as  he  bonvefiiently 
could,  he  removed  with  his  family  to  Virginia,  and  settled 
in  Westmoreland  county.  He  there  opened  an  agency- 
office  for  the  granting  of  the  proprietary  lands  ;  and  as  the 
quit-rent  demanded  was  only  after  the  rate  of  two  shillings 
for  every  hundred  acres,  the  vacant  lands  were  rapidly  let/ 
And  a  considerable  and  permanent  income  was  soon  deri^^e^ 
from  them.  ' 

Lord  Fairfax,  informed  of  these  circnmsttinces,  deter^ 
Hiined  to  go  himself  to  Virginia,  to  tisit  his  estates,  awt 
the  friend  and  relation  to  whom  he  was  so  greatly  obliged.^ 
Accordingly,  about  1739,  he  embarked  for  that  continent; 
and  on  his  arrival  in  Virginia,  he  went  fend  spent  twelver 
months  with  his  friend  Mr.  Fairfax,  at  his  hduse  in  Westi 
moreland  county ;  during  which  time  he  became  so  capti« 
rated  with  the  climate,  the  beauties  and  produce  of  thS 
country,  that  he  formed  a  resolution  of  returning  to  Ettg*^ 
land,  in  order  to  prosecute  a  suit,  which  he  had  with  the 
crown,  on  account  of  a  considerable  tract  of  land  'claimed 
in  behalf  of  the  latter  by  governor  Gooch  (which  suit  wa» 
afterwards  determined  in  his  favour) ;  and,  after  making' 
|some  necessary  arrangements,  and  settling  his  family  af- 
fairs, to  return  to  Virginia,  and  spend  the  remainder  of 
his  life  upon  his  vast  and  itoble  domain  there.  It  is  not 
quite  certain  bow  long  he  remained  in  England  to  adjust 
all  these  concerns,  but  he  appears  to  have  finally  settled 
in  the  Northern  Neck  in  1746,  or  1747, 

On  his  return  at  this  time,  he  went  to  Belvoir^  tfae^seafc 
of  his  friend  and  relation  Mr.  William  Fairfax,  and  remained 
several  years  in  his  family,  undertaking  and  directing  the 
management  of  his  farms  and  plantations,  and  amusinigf- 
himself  with  hunting  and  the  pleasures  of  the  field.  At. 
I^n^th^  th^  laads  about  Bel  voir  not  au^w^^rin^  h»^  expeeta^r 


^oa»  and  the  fox^s  becomipg  less  oumerotts,  he  determined 
to  remove  to  a  fine  tract  of  land  on  the  western  side  of  thq 
Plae  RiUge,  or  Apalachian  mountiaina,  in  Frederic  county, 
lirbout  eighty  miles  from  Belvpir ;  where  he  buiit  a  small 
neat-house,  which  he  called  Green  way- court ;  and  laid  out 
one  of  the  most  beautiful  farms,  consisting  of  arable  and 
grazing  lands,  and  pf  meadows  two  or  three  miles  in  lengdi^ 
that  had  ever  been  seen  in  that  quarter  of  the  world.  He 
there  lived  the  remainder  of  his  life,  in  the  style  of  a  gen-« 
tleman  farmer,  or  rather  of  au  En^ish  country  gentleman* 
He  kept  many  servants,  white  and. black  ;  several  hunters ^ 
a  pleatiful,  l^ut  plain  table,  entirely  in  the  English  fashion; 
and  his  mansion  was  the  mansion  of  hospitality.  His  dress 
corresponded  with  his  mode  of  life,  and  notwithstanding 
he  had  every  year  new  suits  of  clothes,  of  the  most  fashion** 
abl^  and  eicpensive  kind,  sent  out  to  him  from  England, 
which  he  never  put  ^n,  was  plain  in  the  extreme.  His  man-» 
uers  were  bumble,  modest,  and  unaffected  ;  not  tinctured 
in  the  smallest  degree  with  arrogance,  pride,  or  self-con-^ 
%eit.  .  He  was^free  from  the  selfish  passioiis,  and  liberal 
almost  to  excess.  The  produce  of  his  farms,  after  the  de* 
duction  of  what  was  necessary  for  the  consumption  of  hia 
own  family,  was  distributed  and  given  away  to  the  poor 
planters  and  settlers  in  bis  neighbourhood.  To  these  be 
frequently  advanced  money,  to  enable  th)em  to  go  on  .with; 
their  improvements ;  to  clear  away  the  woods,  and  culti* 
Tate  the  ground  ;^and  where  the  lands  proved  unfavourable, 
tod  not  likely  to  answer  the  labour  and  expectation  of  the 
planter  or  husbandman,  he  usually  indemnified  him  for  the 
eicpence  he  had  been  at  in  the  attempt,  and  gratuitously^ 
granted  him  fres^i  lands  of  a  more,  favourable  and  promising 
nature.  He  was  a  friend  and  father  to  all  who  held  and 
lived  under  him;  and  as  the  great  object  of  bis  ambition- 
was  ,the  peopling  and  cultivating  of  that  beautiful  country  ^ 
Qif  which  he  was  the  proprietor,  be  sacrificed  every  other* 
pursuit,  and  made  every  other  consideration  subordinate, 
to  this,  great  point 

-  Lord  Fairfax  had  been  brought  up  in  revolution  princi* 
pies,  andhad^rly  imbibed  high  notions  of  liberty,  and  of 
the  excellence  of  .the  British  constitution.  He  devoted  a 
O0nsid<U:able  part  of  his  time  to  the  public  service.  Hb 
vitas  lord  lieutenant  and  custos  rotulorum  of  the.t»)unty  of* 
Erederic ;  presided  at  the  county  court^  held  at  Winches-^^ 
ttr^  irhere.dwi^g  the  sessions  he  always  kept  open  ta^le^^ 


and  acted  as  surveyor  at)d  oterseer  o(  the  highways  ah^ 
public  roads.  His  chief  if  not  sole  amusement  was  bvmU 
ing ;  and  in  pursuit  6f  this  exercise  he  frequently  cattied 
bis  hounds  to  distant  parts  of  the  country ;  and  entertained 
every  gentleman  of  good  character  and  decent  appearance, 
who  attended  him  in  the  field,  at  the  inn  or  ordinary,  where 
he  took  up  his  residence  for  the  hunting  season.  So  unex* 
eeptionable  and  disinterested  was  his  behaviour,  both  pub- 
lic and  private,  and  so  generally  was  he  beloved  and  re** 
spectedy  that  during  the  late  contest  between  Great  Britain 
and  America,  he  never  met  with  the  least  insult  or  molesta- 
tion from  either  party,  but  was  suffered  to  go  on  in  hi» 
improvement  and  cultivation  of  the  Northern  Neck ;  a  pur^ 
suit  equally  calculated  for  the  comfort  and  happiness  of 
individuals,  and  for  the  general  good  of  mankind. 
.  In  1751 9  Thomas  Martin,  esq.  second  son  of  his  sister 
Frances^  came  over  to  Virginia  to  live  with  his  lordship ; 
and  a  circumstance  happeoed,  a  few  years  after  his  arri- 
Tal,  too  characteristic  of  lord  Fairfax  not  to  be  recorded. 
After  general  Braddock^s  defeat  in  1755,  the  Indians  in* 
the  interest  of  the  French  committed  the  most  dreadful 
jxiassacres  upon  all  our  back  settlements.  Their  incursions 
were  every  where  stained  with  blood ;  and  slaughter  and' 
devastation  marked  the  inroads  of  these  cruel  and  merciless 
savages.  Every  planter  of  name  or  reputation  became  an 
jobject  of  their  insidious  designs ;  -and  as  lord  Fairfax  had 
been  pointed  out  to  them  as  a  captain  or  chief  of  great 
renown^  the  possession  of  his  scalp  became  an  object  of 
their  sanguinary  ambition,  and  what  they  would  have  re** 
garded  as  a  trophy  of  inestimable  value.  With  this  view 
they  made  daily  inroads  into  the  vicinage  of  Green  way-, 
courts  and  it  is  said  that  not  less  than  3000  lives  were  sa* 
orificed  to  their  cruel  barbarity  between  the  Apalachian 
and  Alieghenny  mountains.  The  most  serious  apprehen« 
sions  were  entertained  for  the  safety  of  lord  Fairf«3t  and 
the  £amily  at  Greenway-court.  In  this  crisis  of  danger  his 
lordship,  importuned  by  his  friends  and  the  principal  gen«» 
try  of  the  colony  to  retire  to  the  inner  settlements  for  se- 
curity, is  said  to  have  addressed  his  nephew,  who  now 
bore  the  commission  of  colonel  of  militia,  nearly  in  the  fol<^ 
lowing  manner: — ^^  Colonel  Martin,  the  danger  we  are 
exposed  to,  which  is  undoubtedly  great,  may  possibly  eX'- 
cite  in  your  mind  apprehension  and  anxiety.  If  so,  I  am^ 
leady  to  take  any  step  that  you  may  judge  expedient  for 



,  our  common  safety,  I  myself  am  an  old  man^  and  it  if  of 
little  importance  whether  I  fall  by  the  tomahawk  of  an  In<- 
dian,  or  by  disease  and  old  age :  but  you  are  young,  attd^  - 
it  is  to  be  hoped,  may  have  many  years  before  you..  I  will 
therefore  submit  it  tp  your  decision,  whether  we  shall  re^ 
main  where  we  are,  taking  every  precaution  to  secure  our** 
selves  against  the  ravages  of  the  enemy,  or  abandon  our 
habitation,  and  retire,  withip  the  mountains,  that  we  may 
be  sheltered  from  the  danger  to  which  we  are  at  present 
exposed.  If  we  determine  to  remain,  it  is  possible,  QOt«- 
wjthstauding  our  utmost  care  and  vigilance,  that  we  may 
both  fall  victims :  if  we  retire,  the  whole  district  will  imme** 
diately  break  up;  and  all  the  trouble  and  solicitude  which 
I  have  undergone  to  settle  this  fine  country  will  be  fniSf- 
trated,  and  the  occasion  perhaps  irrecoverably  lost.''  Co« 
Jqnel  Martin,  after  a  short  deliberation,  determined  toire'* 
main,  and  as  affairs  in  that  quarter  soon  took  a  more  favour-  ^ 

able  turn,  the  danger  gradually  diminished,  and  at  length, 
f utirely  disappeared. 

Lord  Fairfax,  though  possessed  of  innumerable  good 
qualities,  had  some  few  singularities  in  his  character.  Early 
in  life  he  bad  been  disappointed  in  a  love-match,  and  this 
is  thought  to  have  made  a  deep  impression  on  lord  Fairfax's, 
mind ;  and  to  have  had  no  inconsiderable  share  in  deter^ 
inining  him  to  retire  from  the  world,,  and  to  settle  in  the 
wifaly'  and  at  that  time  almost  uninhabited,  forests  of  North 
America.     It  is  thought  also  to  have  excited  in  him  a  ge- 
neral dislike  of  the  sex,  in  whose  company,  unless  he  wai^ 
particularly  acquainted  with  the  parties,  it  is  said,  he  was 
reserved,  and  under  evident  constraint  and  embarrassment. 
!lBut  his  biographer  thinks  this  has  been  misrepresented. 
He  possibly  might  not  entertain  a  very  favourable  opinion 
of  the  sex ;  owing  partly  to  the  above-mentioned  circum** 
stance,  in  which  the  lady  behaved  very  treacherously,  per* 
initting,  the  carriages,  equipage,  &c.  to  be  prepared,  and 
flien  accepting  another  offer ;  apd  partly  to  the  treatmentr 
^e  had  experienced  from  the  ladies  of  Leeds  Castle ;  but 
this  does.npt  seem  to  have  influenced  his  general  behaviour 
to  them.     He  bad  lived  many  years  retired  from  the  worlds 
in  a  remote  wilderness,  s^uf^stered  from,  all  polished  ^  son 
ciety,  and  perhaps  might  not  feel  himself  perfectly  at  ease, 
when  he  came  into  large  parties  of  ladies,  where  ceremony. 
^)d  form  were  to  be  observed ;  but  he  bad  not  forgot  those- 
^pomplished  manners  which  he  had  acquired  in  his  early* 


60  Fairfax. 

youth ;  at  Leeds  Castle,  at  the  university^  and  in  the  arniyl 
His  motive  for  settling  in  America  was  of  the  most  noble 
and  heroic  kind.  It  was,  as  he  always  himself  declared,  to 
settle  and  cultivate  that  beautiful  and  immense  tract  of 
country,  of  which  he  was  the  proprietor ;  and  in  this  he 
succeeded  beyond  his  most  sanguine  expectations,  for  the 
Northern  Neck  was  bcftter  peopled,  better  cultivated,  and 
more  improved,  than  any  other  part  of  the  dominion  of 

-  Lord  Fairfax  lived  to  extreme  old  age  at  Qreenway- 
court,  universally  beloved,  and  died  as  universally  lamented, 
in  January  or  February  1782,  in  the  ninety-second  year  of 
his  age.  He  was  buried  at  Winchester,'  where  he  had  so 
often  and  so  honourably  presided  as  judge  of  the  court. 
He  bequeathed  Greenway-court  to  his  nephew  colonel 
Martin  ;  and  his  barony  descended  to  his  only  surviving 
brother  Robert  Fairfax,  to  whom  he  had  before  consigned 
Leeds  Castle,  and  his  other  English  estates.  This  Robert, 
seventh  lord  Fairfax,  died  at  Leeds  Castle  in  1791,  and 
bequeathed  that  noble  mansion,  and  its  appendages,  to  his 
nephew  the  reverend  Denny  Martin,  who  has  since  takeq 
the  name  of  Fairfax.  The  barony  or  title,  by  regular  de- 
scent, is  now  vested  in  the  reverend  Bryan  Fairfax,  the 
present  and  eighth  lord  Fairfax,  third  son  of  William  Fair* 
fax,  esq.  above  mentioned.  His  claim  on  the  barony  was 
confirmed,  in  1800,  by  the  house  of  peers.' 

FAITHORNE  (William),  a  very  celebrated  engraver^ 
was  born  in  London  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  He  was  the  pupil  of  Peake,  the  printer  and 
printseller,  who  was  afterwards  knighted,  and  worked  with 
him  three  or  four  years.  At  the  breaking  out  of  the  civil 
war,  Peake  espoused  the  cause  of  Charles  L;  and  Faithornet 
who  accompanied  his  master,  was  taken  prisoner  by  the 
rebels  at  Basing-bouse,  whence  he  was  sent  to  London, 
and  confined  in  Aldersgate^  In  this  uncomfortable  situa- 
tion  he  exercised  his  graver  i  and  a  small  head  of  the  first 
Yilliers,  duke  of  Buckingham,  in  the  style  of  Mallan,  was 
one  of  his  first  performances.  The  solicitations  of  his 
friends  in  his  favour  at  last  prevailed ;  and  he  was  released 
from  prison,  with  permission  to  retire  on  the  continent; 

1  For  this  interesting  account  of  the  enterprtiinf  and  patriotic  Tbomas  loed 
Fairfax,  we  are  indebted  to  Dr.  Burnaby's  ''  Travels  throagh.tbe  Mi4dle  Set- 
tlements in  North  Americai"  1798.  3d  edit,  4tO|  where  are  other  uartilcuiars  o| 
^  Fairto  family,  •^  V 


Tlie  story  of  bis  banishment  for  refusing  to  take  the  oath 
to  Oliver  Cromwell,  would  have  done  bim  no  discrediti 
bad  it  been  properly  authenticated,  but  that  does  not  ap- 
pear to  be  the  case.  Soon  after  his  arrival  in  France,  be 
f6und  protection  and  encouragement  from  the  abb4  de 
MaroUes,  and  formed  an  acquaintance  with  the  celebrated 
Nanteoil,  from  whose  instructions  he  derived  very  consi- 
derable advantages.  About  165P,  he  returned  to  Eng- 
land, and  soon  after  married  the  sister  of  a  person  who  is 
called  ^'  the  famous*^  captain  Ground.  By  her  he  bad  two 
sons,  Henry,  who  was  a  bookseller,  and  William,  an  en- 
graver in  mezzotinte* 

He  now  opened  ar  shop  opposite  the   Pa1sgrave*head 
tavern  without  Temple-bar,  where  he  sold  not  only  his 
own  engravings,  bpt  those  of  other  English  artists,  and  im- 
ported  a  considerable  number  of  prints  from   Holland, 
France,  and  Italy.     He  also  worked  for  the  bookseller^, 
particularly  Mr.- Roy^ton,  the  king's  bookseller,  Mr.  Mar- 
tin, his  brother-in-law,  in  St.  Paurs  church-yard,  and  Mr» 
William  Peake,  a  stationer  and  printseller  on  Snow-hill,  tho. 
younger  brother  of  his  old  master.    About  1680,  he  retired 
from  bis  shop,  and  resided  in  Printing-house-yard  :  but  be 
still  continued  to  work  for  the  booksellers,  and  painted  por- 
traits from  the  life  in  crayons,    which  art  he  learned  of 
Nanteuil,  during  his  abode  in  France.     He  also  painted  in 
miniature ;  and  his  performances  in  both  these  styles  w^re 
much  esteemed.     These  portraits  are  what  we  now  find 
with  the  inscription  "  W.  Faithorne  pinxit.^^     He  appears 
to  have  been  .well  paid  for  his  engravings,  of  which  lord 
Orford  has  given  a  very  full  list.    Mr.  Ashmole  gave  bim 
seven  pounds  for  the  engraving  of  his  portri^it,  which,  if 
i  not  a  large  one,  or  very  highly  finished,  could  not  at  that 
time  have  been  a  mean  price.    Unfortunately,  however, 
for  him,  his  j»on  William  dissipated  a  considerable  part  of 
his  property,  and  it  is  supposed  that  the  vexation  he  suf- 
fered from  this  young  man's  miscond^t,  tended  to  shorten 
his  days.     He  died  in  May  1^91,  a^  was  buried  by  the 
side  of  his  wife  in  the  church  of  St.  Anne,  Blackfriars.     In 
1662  he  published  "  The  Art  of  Engrailing  and  Etching." 
Portraits  constitute  the  greater  part  of  Faithorne's  en« 
graving.     He  worked  almost  entirely  with  the  graver  in  a 
free  clear  style.     In  the  early  part  of  his  life,  he  seems  to 
have,  followed   the    Dutch  and   Flemish   manner  of  en- 
graving ;  but  at  his  return  from  France  he  had  consider* 
Vol.  XIV.  G 

82  F  A  I  T  H  O  R  N  E:  , 

ably  improved  It.  Some  of  his  best  portraits  are  admirable 
prints,  and  finished  in  a  free  delicate  style,  with  mddn 
force  of  colour;  but  be  did  not  draw  the  human  figure 
correctly,  or  with  good  taste,  and  his  historical  plates  by 
no  means  convey  a  proper  idea  of  his  abilities.-— His' son 
scraped  portraits  in  mezzotinto,  and  probably  might  have 
acquired  a  comfortable  subsistence,  but  he  neglected  his 
business  before  he  had  attained  any  great  degree  of  excel- 
lence, and  died  about  the  age  of  thirty.* 
y*  FALCANDUS  is  ranked  among  the  Sicilian  historians 
of  the  twelfth  century,  but  his  personal  history  is  involved 
in  obscurity.  Muratori  mikes  him  a  Sicilian,  but  Mongi-' 
tori  says  he  was  only  educated  in  Sicily,  and  that  he  was 
more  of  a  Norman  than  a  Sicilian,  although  he  lived  many 
years  in  the  latter  kingdom.  The  editors  of  the  "  L'Art 
de  verifier  les  Dates"  are  of  opinion  that  the  true  name  of 
Falcandus  is  Fulcandus,  or  Foucault,  According  to  them^ 
Hugues  Foucault,  a  Frenchman  by  birth,-  and  at  length 
abbot  of  St.  Denys,  had  followed  into  Sicily  his  patron 
Stephen  de  la  Perche,  Uncle  to  the  mother  of  William  11. 
archbishop  of  Palermo,  and  great  chancellor  of  the  king- 
dom. Yet  Falcandus  has  all  the  feelings  of  a  Sicilian  ;  and 
the  title  of  alumnus^  which  he  bestows  on  himself,  appears 
to  indicate  that  he  was  born,  or  at  least,  according  to  Mon- 
gitori,  was  educated  in  that  island.  Falcandus  has  been 
styled  the  Tacitus  of  Sicily,  and  Gibbon  seems  unwilling* 
to  strip  him  of  his  title  :•  "  his  narrative,"  says  that  histo- 
rian, *^  is  rapid  and  perspicuous,  his  style  bold  and  ele^- 
gant,  his  observation  keen  ;  he  had  studied  mankind,  and 
feels  like  a  man."  There  are  four  editions  of  his  historj^ 
one  separate,  Paris,  1550;  a  second  in  the  Wechels*  col- 
lection of  Sicilian  histories,  1579,  folio;  a  third  in  Caru- 
sio's  Sicilian  library ;  and  a  fourth  in  the  seventh  volume 
of  Muratori's  collection.  Falcandus  appears  to  have  been 
living  about  1 190.  His  history  embraces  the  period  from 
1130  to  1169,  a  time  of  great  calamity  to  Sicily,  and  of 
which  he  was  an  eye-witness.  * 

FALCO,  a  historian  of  Benevento,  of  the  twelfth  cen-» 
tury,  was  notary  and  secretary  to  pope  Innocent  IL  and 
was  also  a  judge  or  magistrate  of  Benevento.  He  wrote  a 
curious  chronicle  of  events  strikingly  told,  but  in  a  bad 

*  Walpole*8  Anecdotes* — Strutt^s  Dictionary. 

9  Morer'u— Gibbon's  Hist,— Fabric.  BLbl.  Med.  et  lof.  Lat. 

F  A  L  C  O.  83 

atyle^  which  happened  from  1102  to  1140.  Miraeus  says 
that  Falco's  readers  are  as  much  impressed  as  if  they  had' 
been  present  at  what  he  relates.  This  chronicle  was  first 
printed  by  Aot.  Caraccioli»  a  priest  of  the  order  of  regular 
clerks,  .along  with  three  other  chroniclers,  under  the  title, 
'^  Antiqui  cbronologi  quatuor,"  Naples,  1626,  4to.  It  has 
since  been  reprinted  in  Muratori's  and  other  collections. ' 

FALCONER  (Thomas),  an  English  gentleman  of  ex* 
traordinary  talents  add  attainments,  was  the  son  of  William 
Falconer,  esq.  one  of  the  magistrates  of  Chester,  by  bis 
wife  Flizabetb,  the  daughter  of  Ralph  Wilbrabam,  esq.  of 
Townsend  in  Cheshire,  and  was  born  in  1736.  That  his 
education  bad  not  been  neglected  appears  evidently  from 
the  uncommon  progress  he  made  in  classical  learning  and 
antiquities,  to  which  he  appears  to  have  been  early  atr 
tached,  and  in  the  study  of  which  he  persevered  during  a 
long  and  painful  course  of  years.  He  had  a  permanent 
indisposition,  which  lasted  thirty-two  years,  and  which  he 
bore  with  pious  resignation.  Such  was  his  thirst  of  know** 
ledge  during  this  period,  that  he  used  to  read  in  a  kneeling 
posture,  the  only  one  in  which  he  had  a  temporary  respite 
from  internal  uneasiness,  from  which  he  was  never  entirely 
free.  He  was  a  man  of  taste  and  science,  of  extraordinary 
memory,  and  powers  of  application,  and  singularly  com? 
prehensive  in  his  reading,  and  judicious  and  communica^- 
tive.  He  was  particularly  acquainted  with  voyages  and 
travels,  and  retained  a  fondness  for  both  to  the  last.  His 
latter  days,  when  indisposition  permitted  him,  were  chiefly 
dedicated  to  the  preparation  of  an  edition  of  Strabo,  in 
which  he  had  made  a  considerable  progress  at  the  time  of 
his  deaths  Sept.  4,  1792.  He  was  buried  in  St.  MichaePs 
f:hurcb,  within  the  city  of  Chester,  where  he  died,  but 
there  is  a  marble  tablet  to  his  memory  in  St.  John^s  church, 
in  which  parish  he  resided  until  within  a  few  years  of  his 
death.  On  this  tablet  is  a  just  and  elegant  inscription  to 
his  memory  from  the  pen  of  his  brother  Dr.  William  FaU 
coner  of  Bath. 

.  As  Mr,  Falconer  had  little  ambition  to  appear  often  iu 
the  character  of  an  author,  his  works  bear  small  proportion 
to  the  extent  of  his  knowledge.  The  only  publications 
from  .his  pen  were,  ^^  Devotions  for  the  Sacrament  of  the 
Lord*s  Supper,  with  an  Appendix  containing  a  method  of 

>  Moreri.-— Fabric.  Bibl.  Med.  et  lof.  L«t, 

O  2 


digesting  the  book  of  Psaltns,  so  as  to  be  applicable  to  the 
common  occurrences  of  life.  By  a  Layman,*'  1786,  which 
has  often  been  reprinted;  "Observations  on  Pliny's  Ac- 
count of  the  Temple  of  Diana  at  Epbesus,"  inserted  in  the 
.  Archsologia,  vol.  XI.  of  which  a  very  close  examination 
and  analysis  may  be  seen  in  the  British  C^iic,  vol.  VIL'; 
and  **  Chronological  Tables  from  the  reign  of  Solomon  to 
the  death  of  Alexander  the  Great/'  Clarendon  press,  1796, 
4to.  This  was  found  among  his  MSS.  in  a  prepared  state; 
and  presented  to  the  university  of  Oxford  by  the  author's 
brother.  The  prefatory  discourse,  which  is  replete  witll 
elaborate  research  and  profound  erudition,  while  it  explains,  « 
in  a  very  satisfactory  way,  the  arrangement  of  the  tables, 
and  settles  many  dark  and  discordant  points  of  ancient 
history,  may  also  be  considered  as  a  dissertation  on  the  fine 
arts  during  the  aera  which  it  comprises ;  and  the  chrono- 
logical tables  will  be  highly  acceptable  to  those  who  adhere 
to  archbishop  Usher's  mode  of  computation.  His  very 
learned  and  elaborate  edition  of  Strabo,  after  being  many 
years  in  the  Clarendon  press,  was  finally  published  in  1807, 
^  vols,  folio,  by  his  nephew  die  rev.  Thomas  Falconer,  M.  A. 
of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford,  the  translator  of  H^no^s 
Periplus,  and  the  author  of  several  works  worthy  of  tb^ 
feme  of  his  father  and  uncle.  Of  the  merits  of  this  edi» 
tion  of  Strabo,  it  would  be  unnecessary  to  enlarge  in  this 
place,  as  they  have  bo  recently  been  the  subject  of  much 
critical  controversy,  which  the  work  will  outlive  with  last- 
ing reputation.  * 

FALCONER  (WilliAxM),  an  ingenious  poet,  was  born 
about  1730,  and  was  the  son  of  a  poor  but  industrious  bar- 
ber at  Edinburgh,  all  of  whose  children,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  our  author,  were  either  deaf  or  dumb.  William 
received  such  common  education  as  might  qualify  him  for 
some  inferior  emplojrment,  and  appears  to  have  contracted 
a  taste  for  reading,  and  a  desire  for  higher  attainments 
than  his  situation  permitted.  In  the  character  of  Arion^ 
unquestionably  intended  for  his  own,  he  hints  at  a  farther 
progress  in  study  than  his  biographers  have  been  able  to 

trace :  • 

'^  On  him  fair  Science  dawn*d  in  happiw  hour^ 
Awakening  into  bkMHo  young  Faacy's  flower : 
But  soon  Adversity,  with  freezing  blast 
The  blossom  withered,  and  the  dawn  o*ercastj 

1  Cbbrton's  Life  of  Dr.  Townson  prefixed  to  bii  Works,  p.  If  .—Brit.  Crit 
T#li.  VII.  and  IX 






Forlorn  of  hearty  and  by  severe  deoree 
Condeinn*d  reluctant  to  the  faithless  sea.** 

Tt  must  indeed  have  been  with  reluctance  that  a  boy  who 
had  begun  to  taste  the  sweets  ol(  literature,  consented  to 
serve  an  apprenticeship  on  board  a  merchant  vessel  at  Leith, 
which  we  are  told  be  did  when  very  young.  He  was  after- 
wards  in  the  capacity  of  a  servant  to  Campbell^  the  author 
of  Lexiphanes,  when  purser  of  a  ship.  Campbell  is  said 
to  have  discovered  in  Falconer  talents  worthy  of  cultivation } 
and  wheu  the  latter  distinguished  himself  as  a. poet,  used 
to  repeat  with  some  pride,  that  be  had  once  been  his 

Falconer,  probably  by  means  of  this  friend,  was  made 
second  mate  of  a  vessel  employed  in  ttie  Levant  trade, 
which  was  shipwrecked  during  her  passage  from  Alexan* 
dria  to  Venice,  and  only  three  of  the  crew  saved*  The 
date  of  this  event  cannot  now  be  ascertained ;  but  what  he 
saw  and  felt  on  the  melancholy  occasion  made  the  deepest 
impression  on  his  memory,  and  certainly  suggested  the 
plaa  and  characters  of  his  celebrated  poem.  Whether  be- 
fore this  time  he  had  made  any  poetical  attempts  we  are 
not  informed.  The  favours  of  a  genuine  muse  are  usually 
early,  and  it  is  at  least  probable  that  the  classical  allusions 
so  frequent  in  *'  The  Shipwreck,"  were  furnished  by  much 
previous  reading. 

In  1751  be  appeared  among  the  poets  who  lamented  the 
death  of  Fr^d^rick  prince  of  Wajes,  in  a  poem  published 
at  Edinburgh,  which  probably  gratified  the  humble  ex- 
pectations of  a  frieodly  circle;,  without  procuring  him  much 
encouragement.  He  is  said,  however,  to  have  followed  up 
bis  first  effort,  by  some  small  pieces  sent  to  that  accus* 
toraed  repository  of  early  talent,  the  Gentleman*s  Maga* 
zinp.  Mr.  Clarke  has  pointed  out  ^^  The  Chaplain^s  peti- 
tion to  the  Lieutenants  in  the  ward-room^"  the  ^^  Descrip- 
tion of  a  ninety-gun  Ship,"  and  some  lines  *^  On  the  un* 
common  scarcity  of  Poetry."  Mr.  Clarke  has  likewise  pre- 
sented his  readers  with  a  whimsical  little  poem,  descrip- 
tive of  th^  abode  ^nd  sentintents  of  a.  midshipman,  which 
was  one  of  Falconer^s  early  productions ;  -and  offers  some 
reasons  for  being  of  opinion  that  be  was.  the  author  of  the 
popular  song /f  Cease,  rude*  Boreas." 

Our  author  is  supposed  to  have  continued  in  thq  mer- 
chant service  until  he  gained  the  patronage  of  his  royal 
I^igba^ss  £dw^d.  duke  of,.yof}(|;  by  d^djcatiog  to.  him 


"The  Shipwreck,''  in  the  spring  of  1762 ;  and  it  is  much 
to  the  honour  of  his  highnesses  taste  that  he  joined  in  the 
praise  bestowed  on  this  poem,  and  became  desirous  to  place 
the  author  in  a  situation  where  he  could  befriend  him. 
With  this  view,  the  duke  advised  him  to  quit  the  mer- 
chant service  for  the  royal  navy  ;  and  before  the  summer 
had  elapsed.  Falconer  was  rated  a  midshipman  on  board 
sir  Edward  Hawke's  ship,  the  Royal  George,  which  at  the 
peace  of  1763,  was  paid  off;  but  previously  to  that  event,* 
Falconer  published  an  "  Ode  on  the  Duke  of  York's  se- 
cond departure  from  England"  as  Rear- Admiral."  His  high- 
ness had  embarked  on  board  the  Centurion  with  commo- 
dore Harrison,  for  the  Mediterranean  ;  and  Falconer  com- 
posed this  ode  '*  during  an  occasional  absence  from  his 
messmates,  when  he  retired  into  a  small  space  formed  be- 
tween the  cabje  tiers  and  the  ship's  side."  It  is  a  rambling, 
incoherent  composition,  in  which  we  discover  ^ittle  of  the 
author  of  the  Shipwreck. 

As  Falconer  wanted  much  of  that  complementary  time  of 
service,  which  might  enable  him  to  arrive  at  the  commis- 
sion of  Lieutenant,  his  friend's  advised  him  to  e?^change  the 
military  for  the  civil  department  of  the  royal  navy ;  and 
accordingly,  in  the  course  of  1763,  he  was  appointed  purser 
of  the  Glory  frigate  of  32  guns.  Soon  after  he  married  a 
young  lady  of  the  name  of  Hicks,  the  daughter  of  the  sur- 
geon of  Sheerness  Yard.  With  this  lady,  who  had  consi- 
derable taste,  he  appears  to  have  lived  happily,  although 
his  circumstances  were  reduced  for  want  of  employment. 
That  this  was  the  case  appears  from  a  whimsical  incident 
related  by  his  biographer.  "  When. the  Glory  was  laid  up 
in  ordinary  at  Chatham,  commissioner  Hanway,  brother  to 
the  benevolent  Jonas  Hanway,  became  delighted  with  the 
genius  of  its  purser.  The  captain's  cabin  was  ordered  to 
be  fitted  iip  with  a  stove,  and  with  every  addition  of  com- 
fort that  could  be  procured ;  in  order  that  Falconer  might 
thus  be  enabled  to  enjoy  his  favourite  propensity,  without 
either  molestation  or  expence.'* 

Here  he  employed  himself,  for  some  time,  in  various 
literary  occupations.  Among  others  he  compiled  an  *'  Uni- 
versal Marine  Dictionary,"  a  work  of  great  utility,  and 
highly  approved  by  professional  ipenin  the  navy.  In  1764, 
he  published  a  new  edition  of  the  Shipwreck,  in  8vo,  cor- 
rected and  enlarged,  with  a  preface  which  indicates  no 
|[reat  facility  in  that  species  of  composition.     In  the  fol« 

F  A  L  CO  N  E  R  S7 

lowing  year,  appeared  '*  The  Demagogue/'  a  political  sa- 
tire on  lord  Ciiatham,  Wilkes,  and  Churcbill,  and  intended 
as  an  antidote  to  the  writings  of  the  latter.  It  contains  a 
sufficient  proportion  of  the  virulent  spirit  of  Churchill,  but 
lord  Chatham  and  Wilkes  were  not  at  this  time  vulnerable, 
and  "  The  Demagogue'*  was  soon  forgotten. 

The  Marine  Dictionary  was  publishejd  in  1769,  before 
which  period  he  appears  to  have  left  his  naval  retreat  at 
Chatham  for  an  abode  in  the  metropolis  of  a  less  comfort- 
able kind.  Here,  depressed  by  poverty,  but  occasionally 
iSoothed  by  friendship,  and  by  the  affectionate  attentions 
of  his  wife,  he  subsisted  for  some  time  on  various  resources. 
In  1768  he  received  proposals  from  the  late  Mr.  Murray, 
the  bookseller,  to  be  admitted  a  partner  in  the  business 
which  that  gentleman  afterwards  established. 

No  reason  can  be  assigned  with  more  probability  for  his 
refusing  this  liberal  ofier,  than  his  appointment,  imme- 
diately after,  to  the  pursership  of  the  Aurora  frigate,  which 
was  ordered  to  carry  out  to  India,  Messrs.  Vansittart, 
Scrofton,  and  Forde,  as  supervisors  of  the  affairs  of  the 
Company.  He  was  also  promised  the  office  of  private  se- 
cretary to  those  gentlemen,  a  situation-  from  which  his 
friends  conceived  the  hopes  that  he  might  eventually  ob- 
tain lasting  advantages.  Dis  aliter  visum.  The  Aurora 
sailed  from  England  on  the  30th  of  September,  1769,  and 
after  touching  at  the  Cape,  was  lost  during  the  remainder 
of  the  passage  in  a  manner  which  left  no  trace  by  which 
the  cause  of  the  calamity  could  be  discovered.  The  most 
probable  conjecture  is,  that  she  foundered  in  the  Mosam- 
bique  channel. 

"  In  person,"  says  Mr.  Clarke,  "  Falconer  was  about 
five. feet  seven  inches  in  height;  of  a  thin  light  make,  with 
a  dark  weather-beaten  complexion,  and  rather  what  is 
termed  hard-featured,  being  considerably  marked  with  the 
small-pox  ;  his  hair  was  of  a  brownish  hue.  In  point  of 
address,  his  manner  was  blunt,  awkward,  and  forbidding ; 
but  he  spoke  with  great  fluency  ;'and  his  simple  yet  im- 
pressive diction  was  couched  in  words  which  reminded  his 
bearers  of  the  terseness  of  Swift.  Though  he  possessed  a 
warm  and  friendly  disposition,  he  was  fond  of  controversy, 
and  in<:lined  to  satire.  His  observation  was  keen  and  rapid ; 
his  crluqisms  on  any  inaccuracy,  of  language,  or  expression^ 
were  frequently  severe.;  yet  this  severity  was  always  in- 
t^ndcid  eventually  to  create  mirth,  and  nut  by  any  means 


to  show  bis  own  superiority,  or  to  give  the  smallest  offence. 
In  his  natural  temper  he  was  cheerful,  and  frequently  used 
to  amuse  his  messmates  by  composing  acrostics  op  their 
favourites,  in  which  he  particularly  excelled.  As  a  pro' 
fessional  man  he  was  a  thorough  seaman ;  and,  like  most 
of  that  profession,  was  kind,  generous,  and  benevolent* 
He  often  assured  governor  Hunter,  that  his  education  had 
been  confined  merely  to  reading  English,  writing,  and  a 
little  arithmetic;  notwithstanding  which  he  was  never  at  a 
loss  to  understand  eithler  French,  Spanish,  Italian,  or  even 

As  a  poet,  Falconer's  fame  must  rest  entirely  on  "The 
Shipwreck."  His  other  pieces  could  nev^r  have  survived 
the  occasion  which  produced  them,  and  could  have  ranked 
bim  only  among  the  versifiers  of  a  day,  while  the  Ship* 
wreck  bids  fair  for  immortality.  In  the  {)Owers  of  descrip- 
tion, he  has  scarcely  a  superior,  and  has  excluded  com« 
parison  by  choosing  a  subject  w^h  which  accident  only  can 
make  a  poet  acquainted,  a  subject  which  may  be  described, 
for  he  has  described  it  in  all  its  awful  dignity,  but  which 
surpasses  the  common  reach  of  imagination*  The  distant 
ocean,  and  its  grand  pheenomena,  have  often  .employed  . 
the  pens  of  the  most  eminent  poets,  but  they  have  generally 
produced  an  effect  by  indefinite  outlines  and  imaginary 
Incidents.  In  Falconer,  we  have  the  painting  of  a  great 
artfst  taken  on  the  spot,  with  such  minute  fidelity  as  well 
as  picturesque  effect,  that  we  are  chained  to  the  scene 
with  all  the  feelings  of  actual  terror. 

In  the  use  of  imagery,  Falconer  displays  original  powers. 
His  Sun-set,  Midnight,  Morning,  &c.  are  not  such  as  have 
desceitded  from  poet  to  poet.  He  beheld  these  objects 
under  circumstances  in  which  it  is  the  lot  of  few  to  be 
placed.  His  images  cannot,  therefore,  be  transferred  or 
borrowed ;  they  have  an  appropriation  which  must  not  be 
disturbed,  nor  can  we  trace  them  to  any  source  but  that  of 
genuine  poetry.  Although  we  may  suspect  that  he  had 
studied  the  iEneid,  there  are  no  marks  of  servile  imitation^ 
while  he  has  the  high  merit  of  enriching^  English  poetry  by 
a  new  train  of  ideas,  and  conducting  the  imagination  into 
.  an  undiscovered  country. 

The  principal  objection  to  this  poem  is  the  introduction 
of  sea-terms ;  and  although  it  most  be  confessed  that  he 
has  softened  these  by  an  exquisite  harmony  of  numbers, 
some  of  his  descriptions  okust  eY^^remain  uniotelligiMe't^ 


indolent  readers.  But  Falconer  did  not  need  to  be  told  of 
this  objection,  and  in  his  introduction^  he  deprecates  what 
be  had  full  reason  to  expect.  U\  however,  we  attend  to 
his  design,  it  will  become  evident  that  the  introduction  of 
sea- terms  was  absolutely  necessary.  "The  Shipwreck*' 
is  didactic,  as  well  as  desc^riptive,  and  may  be  recom- 
mended to  a  young  sailor,  not  only  to  excite  his  enthusi- 
asm, but  to  improve  his  knowledge  of  the  art.  Mr.  Clarke, 
whose  judgment  on  this  subject  may  be  followed  with 
Safety,  and  whose  zeal  for  the  reputation  of  the  Britisfa 
navy  does  honour  both  to  his  head  and  heart,  says,  that, 
the  Shipwreck  ^*  is  of  inestimable  value  to  this  country, 
since  it  contains  within  itself  the  rudiments  of  navigation  ; 
if  not  sufficient  to  form  a  complete  seaman,  it  may  cer- 
tainly be  considered  as  the  grammar  of  his  professional 
science.'  I  have  heard  many  experienced  officers  declare, 
that  the  tules  and  maxims  delivered  in  this  poem,  for  the 
conduct  of  a  ship  in  the  most  perilous  emergency,  form 
the  best,  indeed  the  only  opinions  which  a  skilful  niariner 
shonld  adopt." 

With  such  views  it  was  impossible  to  exclude  a  language 
which  is  uncouth  only  where  it  is  not  understood,  and 
vrhich  as  being  the  language  of  those  heroes  who  have 
elevated  the  character  of  theiir  country  beyond  all  prece- 
dent and  all  comparison,  inerits*^  higher  veneration  than  the 
technical  terms  of  comihon  mechanics;  nor,  upon  this  ac- 
count, ought  the  Shipwiieck  to  involve  the  blame  which 
attaches  to  the  "  Cyder"  of  Philips,  or  the  "  Fleece"  of 
Dyer.  No  ^rt  can  give  dignity  to  such  subjects,  nor  did 
they  demand  the  aid  of  poetry  to  render  them  more  useful 
or  m6re  pleasing.  Falconer^s  subject  was  one  of  the  most 
sublime  inflictions  of  Providence.  He  described  it  for 
those  who  might  be  destined  to  behold  it,  and  he  knew 
that  if  among  sailors  he  found  no  acute  critics,  he  would 
find  intelligent  and  sympathizing  readers.  When  there- 
fore we  consider  his  whole  design,  the  objection  may  ad- 
mit bf  sbme  apology  eveh  from  those  who  will  yet  regret 
that  k  po^t  of  such  genuine  skill  should  have  narrowed  his 
firtie  by  writing  for  a  class.  * 

FALCONET  (Camille),  born  at  Lyons  in   1671,  was 
bred  a  physician,  in  which  profession  his  family  had  long 

*  Johnson  and  ChalAieraU  English  Poets^  1810.—- Clarke's  edition  of  the  Ship* 



been  celebrated,  but  distinguished  himself  more  in  genend 
literature  than  in  qiedicine.  He  settled  ^Jt  Paris,,  became 
a  friend  of  Malebraucbe,  and  in  1716  was  elected  into  the 
French  academy.  He  bad  a  library  of  forty-five  thousand 
Tolumes,  from  which,  in  1742,  he  presented  to  the  royal 
library  all  those  that  were  wanting,  to  that  collection.  He 
died  Feb.  8,  1762,  at  the  age  of  91,.  being  supposed  (like 
Fagon),  to  have  prolonged  his  life  by  his  skill.  He  was  of 
a  lively  disposition,  with  a  ready  natural  eloquence ;  and 
though  he  was  not  so  famous  in  the  practice  of  medicine^ 
he  was  much  esteemed  in  consultation.  His  chief  works 
are,  1.  A  translation  of  Villemont's  ^^  Systema  Planeta- 
rum/'  published  in  1707.  2.  An  edition  of  the  Greek 
pastoral  of  ^'  Daphnis  and  Chloe,"  translated  by  Amyot^ 
with  curious  notes.  3.  An  edition  of  Desp6rier's  ^^  Cym- 
balum  Mundi,*'  with  notes.  4.  Several  dissertations  in  the 
memoirs  of  the  academy ;  and  some  medical  theses. — He 
was  uncle  to  Stephen  Falconet,  the  celebrated  sculptor,  of 
whom  we  regret  that  no  good  account  has  yet  reached  this 
country,  where  he  has  long  been  known  for  his  writings.  ^. 

FALCONIA  (Proba),  a  Roman  poetess,  who  flourished 
about  395,  under  the  emperor  Honorius,  was  a  native  of 
Horta,  or  Hortanum,  in  Etrurfa.  There  is  still  extant  by 
her,  a  cento  from  Virgil,  giving  the  sacred  history  from 
the  creation  to  the  deluge;  and  the  history  of  Christ,"' in 
verses  selected  from  that  poet,  introduced  by  a  few  lines 
of  her  own.  Authors  have  sometimes  confounded  her  with 
Anicia  Falconia  Proba,  the  mother  of  three  consuls :  aad 
some  have  said  she  was  that  Valeria  Proba,  who  was  the 
wife  of  Adelfius,  a  proconsul.  Her  poem  was  first  pub- 
lished with  Ausonius,  at  Venice,  1472,  under  the  title 
*^  Probae  Falconiae,  cento  Virgilianus, .  sen  Centimetrum 
de  Christo,  versibus  Virgilianis  compaginatum."  The 
last  ecUtion  is  that  of  Wolfius  in  the  ^^  Mulierum  GraBcarum 
Frag.*'   Hamb.  1734,  4to.' 

FALETTl  (Jeronimo),  an  Italian  poet  of  the' sixteenth 
century,  was  a  native  of  Savona,  in  the  state  of  Genoa. 
He  published  in  1557  a  poem,  in  ottava  rima,  on  the  wars 
of  Charles  V.  in  Flanders,  and  other  miscellaneous  poems; 
and  in  1559,  twelve  of  his  orations  were  published  at  Ve- 
nice by  Aldus^  in  folio.  He  wrote  on  the  causes  of  the 
German  war  under  Charles  V.  and  an  Italian  translation  of 

1  Diet.  Hist  *  Saxii  Onomast.— CIarl('s  Bibliograjpbical  Dictionaiy* 

F  A  L  E  T  T  I.  91 

Athenagoras  on  the  resurrection,  1556,  4to.  He  \vas  also 
one  of  the  authors  of  the  celebrated  collection  under  the 
title  of  "  Polyanthea."  He  was  distinguished  as  a  sWtes- 
inan,  an  orator,  and  an  historian,  as  well  as  a  poet,  and 
was  deputed  on  an  embassy  to  Venice  by  Hercules  Antes- 
tini,  duke  of  Ferrara.  * 

FALK  (John  Peter),  one  of  the  scientific  travellers 
employed  by  the  late  empress  of  Russia  to  explore  her 
vast  dominions,  was  born  in  Westrogothia,  a  province  in 
Sweden,  about  1727.  He  studied  medicine  in  the  univer- 
sity of  Upsal,  and  went  through  a 'course  of  botany  under 
the  celebrated  Linnaeus,  to  whose  son  he  was  tutor.  He 
publicly  defended  the  dissertation  (in  the  Linna^i  ^^  Amoe- 
nitates  Academicae")  which  that  famous  botanist  had  com- 
posed on  a  new  species  of  plants,  which  he  called  astrcme^ 
ria.  In  176*0,  he  was  so  deeply  affected  with  depression 
of  spirits,  that  Linnaeus,  in  order  to  amuse  bis  mind,,  sent 
him  to  travel  over  the  island  of  Gothland,  to  make  a  col- 
lection of  the  plants  it  produces,  and  the  various  kinds  of 
corals  and  coralline^  which  the  sea  leaves  on  its  shores ; 
but  this  journey  was  attended  with  no  diminution  t)f  his 
distemper,  which  found  a  continual  supply  of  aliment  in  a 
sanguine  melancholy  temperament,  in  a  too  sedentary  way 
of  life,  and  in  the  bad  state  of  his  finances. 
•  Professor  Forskael  having  left  Upsal  for  Copenhagen  in 
1760,  Falk  followed  him  thither,  in  hopes  of  being  ap- 
pointed his  assistant  in  his  famous  journey  through  Arabia, 
but  the  society  that  were  to  go  on  that  importatit  expedi- 
tion being  already  formed,  his  application  failed,  and  being 
obliged  to  return,  he  herborised  as  he  travelled,  and  en- 
riched the  Flora  Suecica  with  several  new  discoveries.  A 
man  in  office  at  St.  Petersburgh  having  written  to  Linnasus 
to  send  him  a  director  for  his  cabinet  of  natural  history, 
Falk  accepted  the  post,  which  led  him  to  the  chair  of  pro- 
fessor of  botany  at  the  apothecaries'  garden  at  St.  Peters- 
burgh, a  place  that  had  been  long  vacant ;  but  his  hypo- 
chondriac complaint  still  continued  to  torment  him.  When 
the  imperial  academy  of  sciences  was  preparing  in  1768 
the  plan  of  its  learned  expeditions,  it  took  Falk  into  its 
iservice,  though  his  health  was  uncertain.  He  was  recalled 
in  177 J,  but  having  got  only  to  Kasan  in  1773,  he  there 
obtained  permission  to  go  and  use  the  baths  of  Kissiar, 

92  F  A  L  K. 

from  which  he  returned  again  to  Kasan  at  the  end  of  thk 
year,,  with  bis  health  apparently  better;  but  his  disease 
soon  returned  with  redoubled  violence,  and  his  mind  being 
deranged  he  put  a  period  to  his  life  on  March  31,  17744 
His  fate  was  generally  and  justly  lamented.  His  papers 
were  found  in  the  greatest  disorder.  They  contained, 
however,  very  useful  and  important  relations.  He  parti- 
cularly made'  it  his  business  to  inquire  about  jbbe  Kirguises 
and  the  other  Tartarian  nations ;  and  as  he  frequently  re^ 
mained  for  the  space  of  nine  months  together  in  the  same 
place,  he  was  enabled  to  procure  satisfactory  reports  con- 
cerning the  objects  of  his  investigations.  The  imperial 
academy,  in  1774,  appointed  professor  Laxmann  to  ar- 
range bis  manuscripts  in  order  for  publication  ;  which  was 
done  accordingly,  but  they  were  not  published  until  1785, 
when  they  appeared  at  Petersburgh  in  3  vols.  Ito. ' 

FALKEN STEIN  (John  Henry),  a  voluminous  com- 
piler of  historical  documents,  was  born  in  Franconia  in 
1682,  and  died  in  1760.  In  1724  he  was  appointed  direc- 
tor of  the  university  of  Erlangen,  but  turning  catholic,  he 
entered  into  the  service  of  the  bishop  of  Eichstadt,  and 
after  the  death  of  that  prelate,  obtained  the  patronage  of 
the  margrave  of  Anspacb.  Among  other  compilations  of  a 
similar  kind,  without  taste  or  arrangement,  but  which  may 
be  useful  to  future  historians,  are  his  ^'  Antiquities  of 
Nordgau  in  the  bishopric  of  Kichstadt,''  3  vols.  fol.  * 


FALLE  (Phiuf),  a  learned  man,  was  born  in  the  isle  of 
Jersey  in  1655,  and  in  1669  became  a  commoner  of  Exeter 
college  in  Oxford ;  from  whence  he  removed  to  St.  Alban's 
ball,  and  took  both  his  degrees  in  arts,  that  of  master  in 
July  1676.  Afterwards  be  went  into  orders,  retired  to  his 
Dative  country,  where  he  was  made  rector  of  St.  Saviour's, 
and  was  afterwards  chosen  deputy  from  the  states  of  that 
island  to  king  William  and  queen  Mary.  He  was  also  rec- 
tor of  Shenley,  in  Hertfordshire,  where  he  built  an  ele- 
gant house  at  the  expense  of  lOOT)/.  King  William  re- 
commended him  to  a  prebend  in  Durham.  The  golden 
prebend  was  then  vacant,  but  the  bishop  removed  Dr. 
Pi<^kering  to  it,  and  gave  Dr.  Falle  the  fourth  stall,  of 
which  he  afterwards  complained.  The  repairing  of  the 
prebendal  house  jcost  bim  200/.     He  died  at  Shenley,  in 

'  Dr.  Qleig's  Suppl.  to  tbe  Encyclop.  Britan.— Diet.  H»t.        t  oict.  Hist. 

F  A  L  ]L  E.  93 

1742,  and  left  his  excellent  library  (excepting  a  collection 
of  sacred  music,  which  he  gave  ta  the  library  at  Durham), 
to  the  island  of  Jersey.  He  published  three  sermons;  one 
preached  at  St«  Hilary's  in  Jersey,  in  1.692 ;  another  at 
Wfaitehall  in  1694 ;  and  another  before  the  mayor  of  Lon* 
don  in  1695.  He  was  the  author  also  of  ^  An  account  of 
the  isle  of  Jersey,  the  greatest  of  those  islands  that  are 
now  the  only  remainder  of  the  English  dominions  in 
France:  with  a  new  and  accurate  map  of  that  isl^d,*^ 
1694,  8vQ.     This  is  much  quoted  by  bishop  Gibson. ' 

FALLOPIUS  (Gabriel),  a  most  celebrated  physician 
and  anatomist  of  Italy,  was  descended  from  a  noble  family, 
and  born  at  Modena,  most  probably  in  1523,  although  some 
make  him  born  in  1490.  He  enjoyed  a  strong  and  vigo^ 
rous  constitution,  with  vast  abilities  of  mind,  which  he  cuU 
tivated  by  an  intense  application  to  his  studies  in  philoso* 
phy,  physic,  botany,  and  anatomy.  In  thia  last  be  made 
some  discoveries,  and,  among  the  rest,  that  of  the  tubes 
by  which  the  ova  descend  from  the  ovarium,  and  which 
frpm  him  are  called  the  ^'  Fallopian  tubes.'*  He  travelled 
through  the  greatest  part  of  Europe,  and  penetrated  by 
his  labour  the  most  abstruse  mysteries  of  nature.  He  prac« 
tised  physic  with  great  success,  and  gained  the  character 
of  one  of  the  ablest  physicians  of  his  age.  He  was  made 
professor  of  anatomy  at  Pisa  in  i  548,  and  was  promoted  to 
the  same  office  at  Padua  in  1551 ;  at  which  last  place  he 
died  October  9,  1563,  according  to  the  common  opinion, 
in  the  prime  of  life,  but  not  so,  if  born  in  1490. 

His  writings,  by  which  he  very  much  distinguished  himr 
self,  were  first  published  separately,  at  the  time  they  wefe 
written ;  and  afterwards  collected  with  the  title  of,  ^^Opera 
genuina  -omnia,  tam  Practica,  quam  Theoretica,  in  itres 
tomos  distribttta.^'  They  were  printed  at  Venice  in  15B4, 
and  in  1606;  and  at  Francfort  in  1600,  ''cum  Operum 
Appendice,"  and  in  1606,  in  3  vols,  folio.  ^ 

FALSTER  (Ohristian),  was  a  celebrated  Danish  critic 
and  philoh)ger  of  Flensburg,  the  exact  time  of  whose 
birth  and  death  we  have  not  been  able  to  learn.  His  chief 
works,  which  are  all  of  a  curious  and  interesting  nature, 
^nd  published  between  the  years  1717  and  173 i,  are: 
1.  ^'  Sapplemeutum  Linguae  Latinss,''  consisting  of  obser* 

I  Atlk.Ox.  vol.  II.— Hutchinson's  Hist,  of  Durham,  vol   If.  p.  166. 
*  Gen.  Diet. — Moreri.-^iceroo,  ?ols.  IV.  and  X.— M»nget  and  Haller.—- 
Saxii  Onomatt. 

M  F  A  L  S  T  E  R. 

nations  on  Cellarius's  edition  of  Faber;  Flensburg,  1717. 
2.  ^^  Animadversiones  Epistolicae/'  of  a  similar  nature, 
published  at  the  same  place  and  time.  3.  *'  Quaestiones 
Romanx/*  containing  an  idea  of  the  literary  history  of  the 
Romans,  with  memorials  of  eminent  writers  and  works; 
Flensburg,  1718.  4.  <*  Cogitationes  Philologicae,'*  Lips, 
1719.  5.  ^^  Sermo  Panegyricus  de  variarum  gentium  bib-> 
liothecis/'  ibid.  1720.  6.  Vigilia  prima  noctium  Ripen<» 
sium^'^  containing  observations  on  A.  Gellius,  Hafnias, 
1721.  7.  "Araoenitates  Philologicse,"  Amst.  1739 — ^32^ 
3  vols.  And,  7.  ^^  A  Danish  translation  of  the  fourteenth 
satire  of  Juvenal,'*  Hafn.  1731,  in  4to,  the  rest  are  8vo.  * 

FALZ  (Raymond),  a  celebrated  medallist,  was  the  son 
of  a  jeweller,  and  born  at  Stockholm  in  \65S.  His  father 
dying  in  his  infancy,  he  was  sent  to  Stettin  to  the  care  of 
his  maternal  uncle,  and  afterwards  being  brought  back  to 
Stockholm,  employed  himself  in  goldsmith^s  work,  paint- 
ing, and  modelling  in  wax.  In  1680  he  went  to  Copen- 
hagen, and  thence  to  Lubeck,  Hamburgh,  and  many  other 
places,  for  the  sake  of  improvement  in  his  art.  At  Augs* 
burgh  he  learned  to  work  on  steel.  In  1683,  after  study- 
ing the  French  language,  he  went  to  Paris,  and  was  em- 
ployed  by  Cheron  the  French  king's  medallist,  and  having 
acquired  a  very  high  reputation  for  his  workmanship,  be 
began  business  on  his  own  account,  and  executed  a  great 
number  of  excellent  medals  illustrative  of  the  history  of 
Louis  XIV.  who  was  so  well  pleased  with  his  performances 
as  to  settle  a  pension  of  1200  livres  upon  him,  besides 
paying  him  liberal  prices  for  his  works.  In  1686  he  took 
a  trip  to  the  Netherlands,  and  thence  into  England.  After 
returning  to  the  continent,  he  re-visited  his  native  coun- 
try, Sweden,  where  the  king  gave  him  an  handsome  pen- 
sion ;  and  in  1688,  Frederic,  elector  of  Brandenburgb, 
invited  Falz  to  his  court,  and  appointed  him  his  medallist. 
After  increasing  bis  fame  in  Sweden,  at  Berlin,  and  at 
Hanover,  he  died  at  Berlin  May  26,  1703.* 

FANCOURT  (Samuel),  a  native  of  the  West  of  Eng- 
land,  who  may  be  termed  the  inventor  of  circulating  li- 
braries, was,  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  pastor 
of  a  congregation  of  protestant  dissenters  in  Salisbury, 
where  he  had  a  number  of  pupils  for  near  twenty  years. 
Professsing  a  creed  very  different  from  the  opinions  of 

1  $axli  Onomast.  <  Moreri. 

F  A  N  C  O  U  R  T.  95 

Calvin,  as  appears  by  his  numerous  publications,  he  in- 
curred the  displeasure  of  persons  of  that  persuasion,  aud  a 
controversy  arose  in  which  clergymen  of  the  establishment 
and  the  dissenters  had  an  equal  share.     It  turned  on  the 
divine  prescience,  the  freedom  of  the  human   will,  the' 
greatness  of  the  divine  love,  and  the  doctrineof  reprobation. 
Driven  from  a  comfortable  settlement  to  the  great  me* 
tropolis,  where  he  acquired  no  new  one  as  a  teacher,  Mr. 
Fancourt,  about  1740  or  1745,  established  the  first  circu- 
lating library  for  gentlemen  and  ladies,  at  a  subscription 
of  a  guinea  a  year  for  reading  ;  but  in  1 748  extended  it  to 
a  guinea  in  all^  for  the  purchase  of  a  better  library,  half 
to  be  paid  at  the  time  of  subscribing,  the  other  half  at  the 
ddivery  of  a  new  catalogue  then  in  the  press,  and  twelve 
pence  a  quarter  beside,  to  begin  from  Michaelmas  1754, 
to  the  librarian.     Subscriptions  were  to  be  paid  without 
further  charge  to  the  proprietors,  but  to  pay  only  from 
the  time  of  subscribing;  out  of  which  quarterly  payments 
were  to  be  deducted  the  rent  of  the  rooms  to  receive  the 
books,  and  accoinmodate  subscribers,  a  salary  to  the  libra* 
rian  to  keep  an  open  account,  and  to  circulate  the  books  ; 
a  stock  to  buy  new  books  and  duplicates  as  there  was  occa-* 
sion;  the  expence  of  providing  catalogues,  and  drawing 
up  writings  for  settling  the  trust.     This  trust  was  to  be 
vested  in  twelve  or  thirteen  persons  chosen  by  ballot  out 
of  the  body  of  proprietors ;  and  the  proposer,  Mr.  Fan* 
court  himself,  was  to  be  the  first  librarian,  and  to  continue 
so  as  loDg  as  he  discharged  his  office  with  diligence  and 
fidelity.     Every  single  subscription  entitled  the  subscriber 
to  one  book  and  one  ps^mphlet  at  a  time,  to  be  changed 
ad  libitum  for  others,  and  kept  ad  libitum^  if  not  wanted 
by  other  subscribers.     Mr.   Fancourt  advertised  himself 
also  in  these  proposals  as  a  teacher  of  Latin,  to  read,  write, 
and  speak  it  with  fluency  in  a  year's  time  or  less,  at  twelve 
guineas  a  year,  one  guinea  a  month,  or  twelve  pence  an 
hour,  allowing  five  or  six  hours  in  a  week.     The  great 
hypercritic  of  Mr.  Fancourt's  design  was  the  late  Dr.  C. 
Mortimer.     Not  to  trace  the  poor  librarian  through  every 
shifting  of  his  quarters,  he  fixed  at  last  at  the  corner  of 
one  of  the  streets  in  the  Strand,  where,  encumbered  with  a 
helpless  and  sick  wife,  turned  out  of  fashion,  and  out- 
planned  by  a  .variety  of  imitators,  and  entangled  with  a 
variety  of  plans,  not  one  of  which   could  extricate  him 
from  perplexities,  this  poor  man,  who  may  be  said  to  have 

96  F  A  N  C  0  U  R  T. 

first  circulated  knowledge  among  us,  sunk  under  a  load  of 
debt,  unmerited  reproach,  and  a  failure  of  bis  faculties, 
brought  on  bj  the  decay  of  age,  precipitated  by  misfor- 
tunes. His  library  became  the  property  of  creditors,  and 
he  retired  in  humble  poverty  to  Hoxton-square,  where 
sonfe  of  his  brethren  relieved  his  necessities  till  the  close 
of  his  life,  in  his  ninetieth  year,  June  8,  1768.  As  a 
preacher,  though  neither  what  is  now  called  popular,  nor 
pastor  of  a  London  congregation,  he  was  occasionally  called  , 
upon  to  fill  up  vacancies,  and  is  said  to  have  preached 
with  a  considerable  degree  of  manly  eloquence. 

He  published  three  or  four  occasional  sermons,  besides 
bis  tracts  against  Calvinistic  principles,  which  were  an-^ 
sw^red  by  Messrs.  Morgan,  Norman,  Bliss,  Millar,  and 
Eliot,  all,  or  mostly,  dissenting  ministers,  and  defended 
in  various  pamphlets  by  the  author.  ^  '         * 

FAN  N I  US  (Caius),  surnamed  Strabo,  was  consul  at 
Borne  in  161  B.  C.  with  Valerius  Messala.  The  law  called 
Fannia  was  made  during  his  consulate,  for  regulating  the 
eicpences  of  feasts,  and  empowering  the  pretors  to  drive  . 
the  rhetoricians  and  philosophers  from  Rome.  This  law 
prohibited  more  than  ten  asses  to  be  spent  at  a  common 
feast,  and  an  hundred  at  the  most  solemn,  such  as  those  of 
the  Saturnalia,  or  of  the  public  games ;  which  seems  al« 
most  incredible,  when  it  is  considered  that  a  sheep  at 
that  time  cost  ten  asses,  and  an  ox  an  hundred,  according 
to  the  opinio!)  of  several  learned  men.  Caius  Fannius,  his 
son,  distinguished  himself  by  his  eloquence,  and  was  consul 
120  B.  C.  He  opposed  the  enterprizes  of  Caius  Gracchus, 
and  made  a  speech  against  him,  which  is  praised  by  Cicero. 
Caius  Fannius,  cousin-german  of  this  latter,  was  questor 
139  B.  C.  and  pretor  ten  years  after ;  served  under  Scipio 
Africanus  the  younger  in  Africa;  and,  in  Spain,  under 
Fabius  Maximus  Servilianus.  He  was  the  disciple  of  Pane* 
tius,  a  celebrated  stoic  philosopher ;  married  the  youngest 
daughter  of  Lelius,  and  wrote '  some  annals,  which  are  . 
much  praised  by  Cicero.  • 

FANSltAWE  (the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Richard,  Knt.  and 
bart.),  a  statesman,  negociator,  and  poet  of  the  last  cen- 
tury, was  the  youngest  son,  and  tenth  child,  of  sir  Henry 
Fanshawe,  knt.  r^bnembrancer  of  the  exchequer,  and  bro^- 
ther  of  lord  viscount  F&nshawe,  of  Dromore,  in  the  king- 

1  dent.  Mag.  vol.  LIV,  ^  Geu.  Diet.  , 

ifcto  6f  tfeland,  and  was  bbcri  at  "VVare-part  Ji)  Hertford- 
shire, in  the  month  of  June  1608.     Being  only  seven  ye^jrs 
*  of  age  wh6n  his  fatfaijer  died,  the  care  of  hia  e,dqc.atiqn  6fi* 
Tolved  nAon'  his  mother,  who' placed  him  under  tlie  faroofis' 
scho^fmaSt^r  Thotnas  I^arnaby.     Npyemter  12,  ii523,  $e 
'  ivias'  ^daiitte'd  k  fellow-commoner  of  ile&u^.  coDege,  Caqi- 
'  6ndg€»,  uhder  the  tuition  *oif  t)r.  Beale,  vftk^vf  ne  prosf- 
cuted'hts  Studies  with  success,  anci  discovered  a  genius  for 
'ela^stcal  learning.    Irlience  he  was  removed  to  the  Inner 
*TeriipIe,  Jart.  2:2,  1^26  j  hut  at  his  mother's  dealt  he  r^- 
sofved  to  pursue  a  line  of  life  better  adapted  to  his  genius 
and  inclination,  and  accordingly  he  tra,velled  to  FrancCiand 
Spain,  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring  the  languages,  s^^d 
studvit)^  the  n'lanners  of  thosie  countries.     On  his  retuitn 
home  he  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  embassy  at.Mad rid, 
under  lord  Aston,   and  was  left  resident  there  froa),  the 
tiine  of  lord  Aston*s  resignation  to  the  appointpient  of  sir 
Arthur  Hopton  in  1638. 

Being  in  England  at  the  breaking-out  <j>f  the  civil  war, 
%e  declared  early  for  the  crown,  and  was  enpiployed  yi 
i^eVerat  important  matters  of  state.  In  1644,  attjending,  ]ti^ 
c'dbrt  at  Oxford,  he  had  the  degree  of  D.  C.  L,  conferred 
tipon  him,  and  was  appointied  secretary  at  ws^r  to  the. prince 
bf  Wales,  whom  he  attended  into  tb^.  western  parts  pf 
'Eajgland,  and  thence  into  the  islands  of  Scillyand  Jerse]^. 
In  1648  he  was  appointed  treasurer  to  the  navy  uqder 
Yiirince  Rupert,  which  office  he  held  till  1650,  when  he  waa 
created  a  baronet,  and  sent  to  Madrid  to  represent*  tb^ 
faecessitbus  situation  6f  his  master,  and  to  beg  a  temporary^ 
lui'^istince  from  Philip  IV.  He  was  then  sent  for  tp  Scptr 
land;  and  served  therie  in  the  capacity  of  secretary  Qjfs^ate 
to  the  great  satisfaction  of  sdl  parties,  although  he  took 
beith'er  cov'eh^nt  nor  engagement  *.  About  this  time  he, was 
j^ecooithended  by  the  king  to  the  York  jparty,  who  received 
hitii  With  gredt  kindness,  and  entrusted  him  with  the  broad 
^itl'i^hd  signet.  In  1651  he  was  taken  prisoner  at  th^ 
baittie'df  Worcester,  and  committed  to  close  cilstody  itf 
liondfdr) ;  but^  having  contracted  a  dangerous  sickness,  he 
had"  Iib'ertj^  allowed  him,  upon  giving  bail,  to  go  for  th^ 

*  When  lir  Richard  Fanshawe't  ill  meat ;  upon  which  Cromwell,  ^^ho  was 

tai^  ?^igf4thiai  to  apply  for  hii  «n-  prtseot,  replied,  that  be  nerar  kttew 

'gement  Jifter  the  battle  of  Worcester*  the  engagetneok  giT«n  as  a  medicme  $ 

^here  he  wag  taken  prifoner,  air  Hftuiff  his  libeity  was  Uwr  grantad  ob  4000f. 

Vaue  proposed,  as  one  of  the  condi*  bail, 

fibos,  that  he  should  take  tb«  fBgtfe-  ' 

Vol.  XIV.  H 

M  J"  A  N  S  !i  A  W  tU 

recovery  of  bis  health  to  any  place  be  $hou}d  cbuse^.pjro-* 
vided  he  stirred  not  five  miles  thence  without  leave  from 
Ae  parliament.  In  1654  he  was  at  Tankersley  park >  in 
Yorkshire,  which  place  he  hired  of  his  friend  lord  Stjn^- 
fordy  to  whom  he  dedicated  his  translation  of  the  '*  JLusiad 

'  of  Camo^ns/*  written  during  his  residence  there.  In  Fe- 
bruary 1659  (under  pretence  of  travelling  abroad  with  the 
eldest  son  of  Philip  earl  of  Pembrok^),.  he  obtained  his 

'  bail  to  be  returned,  and  repaired  to  king  pharles  IL^t 
Breda,  who  knighted  him  in  April  following ;  ao4  ip* 
pointed  him  master  of  requests,  and  secrej;ary  of  the  t>ajtia 
tongue.         '      ^  ,,..  i  .... 

Upon  his  majesty's  restoration  he  expected  tp  l^e.  ap« 
pointed  secxetary  of  state,  from  a  promise  which  had  for- 

'  n^erly  been  made  him  of  that  office ;,  ^ut  ^o  hi^  g^feat  diji- 
appointment,  it  was,  at  the  instance  o^tHe. duke  of  Alb^ 
marie,  gfven  to  sir  William  Morrice,  which  c^cumsta^c^ 
lady  Faushawe  states  thus :  ^^Tbe  king  promised  sir  Ijlipbaj^d 
that  he  should  be  one  of  the  secretaries  of  sUte  (jat  theJEi^to- 
tion),  and  both  the  duke  of  Ormond  and  lord  chancellor 
Clarendon  were  witnesses  of  it ;  yet  that  false  man.fnade 
the  king  break  his  word  for  his  pwn  accon)modatiQi^,,.  ajod 
placed  Mr.  Morrice,  a  poor  country  gentleman  of  about 
200/.  a  year,  a  fierce  presbyterian,  and  one  who  never  si^iy 

*  the  king's  face  ;  but  still  promises  w^re  made  of  the  reyen^ 
lion  to  sir  Richard/' 

He  wais  elected  one  of  the  representatives  of  the  ^niver(» 
i^il^  of  Cambridge*  in  the  parliament  which  met  ^tbe  $tb 
of  May  1661,  and  was  soon  after  sworn  a  privy  cqunsellor 
of  Ireland.  Having  by  his  residence  in  foreign  pourts 
qualified  himself  for  public  employments  abroafd,  .he  was 
sent  envoy  extraordinary  to  Portugal^  with  a  dormant  coi|9f> 
mission  to  the  ambassador,  which  he  ws^  to  inake.  ijise  of 
as  occasion  should  require.  Shortly  after^  he  yft^  9^ 
pointed  ambassador  to  that  court,  where  he  negqtja/^d  th^ 
marriage  between  bis  master  king  Charles  U.  and  the  \x\^ 
farita  donna  Catharina,  daughter  of  king  iJohn  VL  and 
Returned  to  England  towards  the  end  of  the  sameye^ur.  It 
appears  that  he  was  again  sent  ambassador  to  that  crown  in 
J662^,  and  was,  upon  his  return  to  England  the  following 

*  Sir  lUchard  bad  the  good  fbrtuoe  this  tsost  him  no  more  thta  t  letter  of 

to  W  tb0  Artt  eboseo,  mod  the  fint  thanks,  two  hract  of  bnchtf  had  twent|^ 

yetvrped   member. io  the  eommoas*  bf0od^pitc€t  for  wiooi  . 
hoiuK  after  tho  king  cane  home^  luA 

F  A  N  S  H  A  W  £.  99 

f^Tf^  'sWorti  df  his  maj^tj^'s  pWvy-councif.     His  iiitegrit^, 

libiiities,  and  industry,  became  so  well  known  in  Portug^^ 

that  he  was  recon^metided  and  desired  by  that  crown  to  be 

aent  to  ?paiti^as  the  fittest  jiersoh  to  bring  ibout  an,  accom- 

modatiot)  between  Spaiti  and  Portugal.  ^  Iti  the  beginning 

of  t664  he  was  sent  aalbassieid6r  to  Philip  IV.  king ,  of 

Spain,  and  arrived, '  February  the  29th^  at  Cadi^j  where 

he  was  saluted  iti-a  manner  tinexampl^d'to'bthersy  aiid 

received  with  sereral  circumstances  of  particular  esteem* 

'  It  appear*  from  one  of  sir  Ricb^rd*s  li^tters,  that  this  ex- 

tilraordtnary  respect  was  paid  him  not  only  lipoh  his  owti^ 

but  also  upon  his  master  the  king  of  Enghind^'S  account. 

Heaays,  *'  I  had  not  been  three  hours  on  shore  (at'  Cadiz) 

'  when  an  extraordinary  Messenger  arrived   from  IVIadrid 

with  more  particular  orders  than  formerly^  from  his  catholic 

Bfajesty,  importing  that  our  master's  fleet,  when  arri\^d^ 

jmd  his  ambassador,  should  be  pre- saluted  from  the  city  m 

a  manner  dnexampled  to  others,  and  which  should'  hot  be 

drawn  into  example  hereafter.     Moreover   (aiid  this  90 

^likewise),  that  I  and  all  my  company  must  be  'totalty  de- 

^frayed,  both  here  and  all  the  way  up  to  Matdrid,  upbfi'Bis 

catholic  majesty's  account;  with  several  other  circumstances 

of- particular  esteem  for  our  royal  master,  above  airthe 

'world  beside.''     From  a  passage  iii  another  letter  oThis^itis 

^evident,  that  the  hope  the  Spaniards  entertained^  of  haviiig 

Tangier  and  Jamaica  restored  to  them  by  England,  was, 

'<  that  Which  made  his  arrival  impatiently  Ibliged  for,  ^nd 

^so  magnificently  cetebrated."     During  his  residence  at  this 

court,  however,  after  all' that  apparent  good  will^  he  ei» 

^perieticed  such  frequent  mortifications  as  ministers  u^e  -^ 

^eet  with  in  courts  irresolute  and  perplexed  iti  their  own 

arid  had  made  a  journey  to  Lisbon  upon  the  earnest 

<ff  Sp^din,  and  returned  without  effect.    On  asudd^, 

trhett  tibe  recovery  of  Philip j IV.  grew  despei'ate,  a  project 

4bf -a  treaty  Was  sent  to  the  ambassador,  -  containitig  mor^ 

)ldi^ntages  of  trade  to  the  nation,  and  insisting  upon  feWefr 

iiieotivenient  conditions  thftn  bad  ever  been  in'  any  of  the 

%nBMJr,'  and  urging  theimmediate  acceptsCtidn  or  rejection 

%f  It,  <m  account  of  the  1tlng*s  Illness,  "  wbith,"  they  de* 

Minsdf  ^  ^*  might  make  such  ati  alteration  rh '  bdu nsels,  thaf, 

at  it-  w^re  ootdotie  in  his  life^^time^  they  khew  not  what 

^^V  happen  i  alter/'     The  ambassador,  '  surprised  with 

ttiis  ovei^ei  ifOifttpared  %htit  Was^offered  with  wh^t  he  w^c 

to  demand  by  Msjostirncitions ;  itii  what  Was  defective  in 

H  Q 


100  r  A  N  8  H  A  W  E. 

those  particplart  he  added  to  the  articles  piMented  'to  biaiy 

with  such  farther  additions^  as,  upon  his  own  obsetvMKMi 

and  conference  with  the  merchants,  occurred  to  hi«i ;  wbioh 

.  being  agreed  to,  he  signed  the  treaty,  with  a  secret  avticie 

respecting  Portugal,  and  sent  it  to  England.    The  treaty 

j  was  no  sooner  broqght  to  the  Jcingt  and  perused  in  councii^ 

jbut  many  faults  were  found  with  it,  and  in  the  end  the 

.Jih^g  concluded  that  he  would  not  sign-it ;  and  theiunbas- 

sador  was  recalled. 

.   SirRicbard waspreparingforbisreturntQEi^land; wiieb^ 

•lune  4, 1666,  he  was  seized  at  Madrid  with  a  vipLent  ferer, 

which  put  an  end  to  bis  life  the  16tb  of  the  same  montb, 

the  very  day  he  had  desigJied  to  set  out  on  hisjnetqro  faonse. 

,}lh  body,  beijpg  embalmed,  was  /conveyed  jay  his  lady, 

>yith  all  j^i$.  children  then  living,  by  land  to  Calais,  aiid 

afterwards  to  AU  Saints  cburch  in  HertTocdi  wbei^it  was 

jjlepc^Ued  jn  t;he  vault  of  bis  father*  in-*law,  sir  John  HaK«> 

^^on,.  till  May  IS,  167Ji,  and  then   wa^  reo^QA^ed  iBt9'<;a 

fiew  vault,  made  on  purpose  for  him  and  bis  family  in  the 

^parish-church  of  Ware.     Near  the  vaijilt  (here  isahand-* 

spoi^  monument  erected  to  bis  niemory. . .  He  was  remarb*- 

able  for  bis  meekness,  sincerity,  humanity,    and  : piety; 

and  ^so  ivas  an  able  state&man  and  a  great  9^b<riar^  being 

Jn;  particular  a  complete  master  of  sev;eral  modern  iaii- 

gW&^  especially  l^p^isb,  which  was  perfectly  familiar 

to  Jiim. 

Altboqgb  mnch  of  his  life  was  spent  in,  ac/tive  business, 

J^ie  iound  leisure  to  proifuce.the  CoUosfriug.wot^s.:   1.  Aa 

English  translation  in  rhyme  of  Guarini^s  ^^  IJl  Pallor  Fido^ 

,jqr.the  Faithful  Shepherd,"'  1646, 4to.  2. A  translation  from 

.J^^nglish  into  Latin  versfs  pf  Fletcher's  *^  Faithful  Shepr- 

jh^dess,"  I4»58.     3.  In  the  optavo  editipo  pf  <' The. Faiths 

ful  Shepherd,*'  are  inserted  the  following  poems  of  our 

-author;  An  Ode  pn^his  ip^e$ty's  Proclamatipn  in  l^iQf 

^commaifding  the  gentry  to  reside  upon  tbeis  eiH^tes  in  the 

(Country;  an  English-translation  of  *tbe  foiiith  book  qf  Vkv* 

^1*91  Jsineid;  Qdes  of  Hpr^ce,  translated  ipAo  English; 

«f^nd  a  summary  Discourse  of  the  Civil  Wars,  of  B/9mfU 

.4.  He 'translated  from  Poitugues^  ii||o»  English,  Can^oeoaT 

<^  I^usiad,  or  Portvigal'if  I^istoriaal  Poem,?'  i«5^  folip.    4. 

After  his  depf^ase  were  pub^ishod  tpfo  pieQes  ip  4to,  1671> 

"  Querer  per  solo  querer,'V" Tq love  only  f^love's  salie/' 

a  dramatical  romance,  r^pres^iHejiji  befiwe^  th^  )(iiig  aqi 

queen  of  Spain ;  and  *^  Fiesui^  df^  4j[^e.i|z/'  Fealiviil  at 

F  AN  SHAW  E.  iM' 

Af^jebUi     BcNih  wrtttcti  tn  Spftnisb  by  Antonio  de  Men- 
doga,  upon  celebrating  tbe  birth-day  of  Philip  VI.  in  1623, 
at  Aranj^ez;  and  tranriated  by  our  aothor  in  1654,  during 
his  coofiaeiaent.     6.  His  correspondence  was  published  in 
170ly  m  one  volume,  dvo,  under  this  tkle:   *^  Original 
Lettersof  his  excdieney  sir  Hichard  Fanshnvre  during  hi^  ; 
embassy  io  Spain  and  Portugal;  whicbi  together  with  di^' 
vers  lettcn  and  answers  froo»  the  chief  ministers  of  state  in  ' 
England,  Spain,  and  Portugal,  contain  the  whole  nego*  . 
tiattoBs  of  the  treaty  of  peace  between  those  three  crowiis.^*  ' 
The  publisher  received  these  letters  from  -the  hands  of  a 
daughter  of  sir  Richard,  who  had  them  in  he;r  possession. 
He  also  composed  other  tlungs,  remaining  in  manuscript j 
which   he  wrote  in  his  younger  years,  but  bad  not  th'e^ 
lebure  ta  complete.     Even  some  of  the  preceding  printed  - 
pieces  have  not  all  the  perfection  which  our  ingenious 
aatbor  could  have  given  them :  for,  as  his  biograpdder  obv 
serves,  '<  b^iig,  for  his  loyalty  and  zeal  to  his  master*s 
service,  tossed  from  place  to  place,  and  from  country  to  ■ 
country^  during  the  unsettled  times  of  our  anarchy,  some 
of  bis  manuscripts  falling  by  misfortune,  into  unskilful 
handv,  were  printed  and  published  without  his  consent  or 
knowledge,  and  before  he  could  give  them  his  last  finish- 
ing strokes.'*     But  that  was  not  the  case  with  his  transla^ 
tion  of  ^'  II  Pastor  Fido,*'  which  was  published  by  himself, 
and  procured  him  much  reputation. 

His  lady,  by  whom  he  had  six  sons  and  eight  daughters, 
of  whom  one  son  and  four  daughters  survived  him,  was  the ' 
dtfu^ter  of  sir  John  Harrison  by  Margaret  his  wife,  daugh- 
ter of  Robert  Fanshawe,  of  Fanshawe-gate,  esq.  great  uncle 
to  sir  Richard,  to  whom  she  was  married  in  Wolvercot 
churchj  near  Oxford,  May  18,  1644.     She  compiled,  for 
the  use  of  her  only  son,  ^*  Memoirs  of  the  Fanshawe  Fa« 
poiiy,"  containing  a  particular  account  of  their  sufferings  in 
the  royal  cause,  in  which  she  and  her  sister  Margaret  Uar« 
rison  (who  in  1654  married  sir  Edmund  Tumor,  of  Stoke* 
Rochford,  co.  Lincoln,  knt.)  bore  a  considerable  share,  be* 
ing  tbef  constant  companions  of  sir  Richard  in  tliose  peri* 
loua-  times.      The  description  of  her  and  her  husbahd*«  * 
taking  leave  of  Charles  I.  when  he  was  a  prisoner  at  Hamp- 
ton-court, is  a  very  affecting  specimen  of  these  Memoirs^  ' 
and  is  told  with  great  simplicity.     **  During  the  king^s  stay  "^ 
at  Hampton-court,  I  went  three  times  to  pay  my  duty  to/i 
him,  both  as  1  was  the  daughter  of  his  servant,  and  the  wife 

IW:  F  A  N  S  H  A  WE. 

of  his  serTaot;  the  last  time  I  ever  fftw  him  I  could  not ' 
refrain  from  weeping.     When  I  took  my  leave  of  the  king, 
lie  saluted  me,  and  I  prayed  God  to  preserve  his  majesty 
with  long  life  and  happy  years.    The  king  stroked  me  on 
the  cheek,  'and  said,  ''  Child,  if  God  pleasetb  it  shall  be 
SQ,  but  both  you  and  I  must  sabmit  to  God^s  will ;  and  you  •. 
know  in  what  hands  I  am  in/     Then  turning  to  my  hus- 
hed, he  said,  <  Be  sure,  Dick,  ta  tell  my  son  all  that  I 
have  said,  and  deliver  these  letters  to  my  wife.     Pray  God  > 
bless  her ;  and  I  hope  I  shall  do  well."     Then  taking  my 
husband  in  bis  arms,  he  said,  ^^  Thou  hast  ever  been  au  ^ 
honest  man ;  I  hope  God  will  bless  thee,  and  make  thee  a 
happy  servant  to  my  son,  whom  I  have<  charged  in  my  let««-  > 
ter  to  continue  his  love  and  trust  to  you  ;*  adding,  ^  And 
I  do  promise  you,  if  I  am  ever  restored  to  my  dignity,  I  . 
w}ll  bountifully  reward  you  both  for  your. services  and  suf-^  .  . 
feringg/ — ^Thus  did  we  part  irom  that  glorious  sun,  that . 
within  a  few  months  afterwards  was  extinguished^  to  the 
grief  of  all  Christians,  who  are  not  forsaken  of  their  Gic>d/' 

.  These  memoirs,  from  the  variety  of  interesting  matter  . 
they  contain,  might,  if  they  were  published,  prove  an  aic- 
ceptable  present  to  the  public.     The  excellent  writer  of 
them  was  no  less  disti^nguishedfor  her  strei^^tb  of  mind  and 
courage  than  for  her  piety  and  virtue.     When  the  vessel  . 
that  carried  her  from  Ireland  to  Spain  was  attacked,  she  put. 
on  men^s  clothes,  and  fought  with  the  sailors.     In  the  se-  • 
cond  volume  of  Mr.  Seward's  '^  Anecdotes*'  are  many  other 
curious  extracts  from  lady  Fansbawe's  Memoirs.^ 

.fANTONI  (John),  a  celebrated  physician,  was  born  at 
Turin  in  1675.  He  studied  philosophy  and  the  belles, 
lettres  in  the  university  of  bis  native  city,  with  distinguished  ; 
success,  and  then  passed  to, th^e  medical  classes,  in  which 
bo  gave  farther  evidence  of  his  abilities,  and  obtained  his  de~  . 
gi^f^e  of  doctor.  He  was  enabled,  through  the  liberality  of  bb 
prinpe,  (o  traverse  France,  Germany,  and  the  Low  Countries^ 
ev^ry  Yfb^ve  ipaking  valuable  additions  to  bis  knowledge, 

1  Biog.  Britt  qew  edit,  ao  article  contributed  by  Edmund  Tumor,  esq.     Tbe 
seeonnt  of  sir  Richard  in  the  preceding  edition  of  the  Biog.  Brit,  and  in  this  Die- 
tioMrf,  baiog  ta|(eo  from  the  Life  prefixed  to  hk  JLetter^,  wai  erroneow,  as  tft* 
facts.     An  adyertisement  app<>ared  in  the  London  Gazeltet  No.  3778,  aanoupc^ 
iag  thai  the  account  of  $\r  Richard  prefixed  to  his  Letteri,  was  added  by  the 
b(yHtM]left,  during  th^  absence  and  without  the  consent  of  >the  person  by  whose  ' 
^iiF^pt^pn  the  letters  «?ere  printed »  and  that  it  is  very  erroneous  :  but  as  to  ijhe   • 
letters  themselves,  "  the  reader  may  depend  on  the  truth  of  them,  setting  as^i^ 
tlM^erivrs  of  t)ie  ipir^Sf'^ 

FA  N  T  O  N  I.  lOa 

On  tits  return  to  Torin,  he  commenced  pubjic  teacher  of 
anatomy,  and  afterwards  was  successively  chosen  to  fill  the 
chairs  of  theoretical  and  practical  medicine.  In  the  interim 
the  king  of  Sardinia  appointed  him  physician  to  the  prince 
of  Piledmont,  his  son.  This  office,  however,  did  not  inter- 
fere with  his  labours  in  the  university,  where  he  was  stilV. 
distinguished  near  the  middle  of  the  succeeding  century, 
notwithstanding  his  advanced  age.  The  period  of  bis 
death  is  not  known. 

The  first  publication  of  Fantoui  was  entitled  '^  Disser- 
tationes  Anatomies^  XL  Taurini,   1701."     The  second^ 
^' 'Anatomia  corporis  humani  ad  usum  Theatri  Medici  ac- 
commpdata,  ibid.  1711.**     This  edition,  which  is,  in  fact,  a 
part  of  the  preceding  work,  relates  to  the  anatomy  of  the 
abdomen  and  chest  only.      3.  ^<  Dissertationes  duee  de 
atructura  et  usu  dursB  matris  et  lymphaticorum  vasorum,  ad 
Antonium   Pacchionum   conscriptse,    Romas,    1721.'*      4. 
*^  Dissertationes  duas  de  Thermis  Valderianis,  Aquis  Gra- 
danis,  Maurianensibus,  Genev®,'*  1725,  in  8vo,  and  1738,  , 
in'4to«     5.  '^  Opuscula  Medica  et  Physiologica,  Genevas, 
1738.**     This  contains  likewise  some  observations  of  his ' 
father.     6.  ^^  Dissertationes  Anatomicae  septem  priores  re-  ' 
DOvatas,  de  Abdomine,  Taurini,  1745.**     7.  ^' Commenta- ^ 
ridlum  de  Aquis  Vindoliensibus,  Augustanis,  et  Ansionen*  ^ 
sibus,  ibid.  1747.*'     His  £ather,  John  Baptist  Fantoni,  ' 
though  less  distinguished  than  his  son,  was  also  a  teacher 
of  anatomy  and  of  the  theory  of  medicine  at  Turin,  as  well  ~ 
as  librarian,  and  first  physician  to  Victor  Amadous  II.  duke ' 
of  Savoy.     He  died  prematurely  in  1692,  (having  only  at- 
tained the  age  of  forty),  in  the  vicinity  of  Embrun,  where/, 
^b'e  duke,  his  patron,  was  encamped,  during  the  siege  of 
Cherges.     He  left  several  unfinished  manuscripts,  which 
John  Fantoni  revised,  and  d(  which  he  published  a  coUep- ■'■■ 
tion  of  the  best  parts,  under  the  title  of  '^Observatiopes  ' 
Anatomico  medicae  selectiores,**  at  Turin,  in  1699,  and  at  ■. 
Venice  in  1713.    This  work  contains  some  useful  ob$erva*  ^ 
tions  relative  to  the  diseases  of  the  heart. ' 

FARDELLA  (Michael  Angelo),  a  celebrated . profess  , 
sor  of  astronomy  and  natural  history  at  Padua,  was  born  in 
1650^  of  a  noble  family,  at  Tripani  in  Sicily.     He  eqtered  '/ 
the  third  order  of  St.  Francis;  taught  mathematicsLai  Mes*  i 
8id9,  and  theology  at  Rome,  where  he  bad  takien  a  doctors  ; 

1  liioreri.— Diet.  Hist — Rees's  CydopttdiSi  from  Eloy. 

de^  the  college  della  Sapienza.  .  Francis  IK  4uke  «i{^ 

Modena  made  him  professor  of  philosophy  and  geometry, 
in  his  capital ;  but  he  gave  up  that  situation  to  go  to  Ye- 
nice,  where  be  quitted  the  Franciscan  habit  in  1693,  by. 
permission  of  the  pope,  and  took  that  of  a  secular  priest. 
He  was  afterwards  appointed  professor  of  astronomy  and 
physic  in  the  university  of  Padua,  and  died  at  Naples,  from 
a  second  attack  of  .an  apoplexy,  January  2,  1718.  J^ar- 
della  had  a  lively  genius  and  fertile  imagination,  but  be* 
came  so  absent,  by  a  habit  of  profound  thoug^ht,  that  be 
sometimes  have  lost  his.  senses.  He  left  se- 
veral works  on  literature,  philosophy,  and  mathematics ; 
some  in  Latin,  others  in  Italian.  The  principal  are,  ^^  Uni- 
versal Philosophiae  Systema,"  Venice,  1691,  12m6;  "  Uni-i 
verssB  Usualis  Mathematical  Theori a,''  12mo;  ^^  Animas 
humanae  Natura  ab  Augustine  detecta,^'  1698,  folio  ;  seye-; 
ral  works  in  favour  of  Descartes^s  philosopl^y,  &c»  ^ 

FARE  (Chahles  Augustus,  Marquis  de  la),  was  bora, 
in  1644,  at  the  castle  of  Yalgorge^  in  Vivarais.'  He  wasi 
captain  of  the  guards  to  the  duke  of  Orleans,  and  ,his  son, 
who  was  regent.  His  gaiety^  and  sprightly  wit,  made  hint 
the  delight  of  the  best  companies.  He  left  a  fevjr  songs,  . 
Md  other  poetical  pieces,  which  have  been  printed  ^yith 
thbse  of  his  friend  the  abb^  de  Chaulieu,  and  separately, 
with  his  Memoirs,  2  vols,  small  12mo.  They  ar^  full  of 
wtt  and'  delicacy ;  but  we  are  told  he  had  attained  the  age 
of  sixty  before  he  made  any  poetical  effort;,  and[  that  then 
bis  inspirer  was  rather  Cupid  or  Bacchus  than  Apollo*^  He 
also  wrote  the  words  of  an  opera,  called  ^^  Pantbea.^'  His 
^^  Memoirs'^  are  written  with  great  freedom  and  openness, 
and  show  the  dislike  which  their  author,  and  all  his  party, 
had  to  the  government.  We  do  not  find  when  they  were  , 
first  published,  but  an  English  edition  bears  da(e  1719. 
The  Author  died  at  Paris,  17 12.' 

TAREL  (Wiluam),  a  learned  minister  of  the  church, 
and  most  intrepid  reformer,  was  the  son  of  a  gentleman  of  . 
Pauphin6  in  France^  and  born  at  Gap  in  1489.  H^^stu- 
died  philosophy,  and  Greek  and  Hebrew,  at  Paris  with  great 
success,  and  was  for  some  time  a  teacher  in  the  college  oif. 
cardinal  le  Moine.  Bri9onnet,  bishop  of  Meaux,  being  in-* 
clined  to  the  reformed  religion,  invited  him  to  preach. in 
Ills  diOc^ei   in   1521;   but  the  persecution   raisejl  thei^ft 

1  Moreri.— NicerPQ^  toI.  XIL  *  Diet.  Hist,  iii  La  Fare. 

FAREL.  idh 

agmns^1ifv':e9JK)]i:|ftrotq9^aiit$  who  wtpre  styled  heretics;  ia^ 
1^23,  obliged  him  topfOFide  f or:  l>ia  secMrity  pot  of  Eraocei 
He  tb^  retired  to.  ScraM»bu;:gb,  where  Bucer.  and  Capilo^ 
admired  him  a#  a.  brother.;  a^nd  hc^  was  after ward^ireceii^ed. 
a^.si^b  b{y  Zwiaglius  at  Zurich^  by.Ijall^r  at  Berue^  and> 
by.  Oecol^i^PIEHlii^s  at  Ba^il^  •  As.he^  was  thought  well  qua- 
lified bj^  ^eal  a94  kpo^wledge-  for  such  a  ta^k).  be  was  ad« . 
vised  ta  andertake/thie  reformation  of  religipa  at^  Montbe«  - 
liard^  io. which  design  be  was  supported  by  the  duke  of 
Wittisnib^l'g^  wh9  wasiU>rd  of  that. place  ;  a^d  he  succeeded ^ 
iait  o^Qst  happily,     lie  was  a  man  on  so9>e  occasions  oft 
tqo.  q^l^  wilWth  and  enth'Usiasm  against  popery,  whicb| 
h9wever«  b^^.  te^ippe^ed  a  little^  by  tl^  advice  of  Oecolaob- 
p^ius.     OacQ^n.  a,pr9jCQssion*dayy  be  pulled  out  of  the 
prii^t>  bapd  the  imag^  of  St.  Antony,  and  threw  it  from  a . 
bridge,  initp  the  mer,  a  bpldness  and  imprudence  which 
was  unnecQssaryf  af^  might  :have  cost  him  his  life.     Eiras«^. 
rous  by  no .  means  liked  FareVs  temper,  as  appears  from 
what.hi^,.  wr/pte  of:  him  to  the  o^cial  of  Biesancon.     ^f  You 
h%v^/' sa^yp  he^  "in  your  neighbourhood  the  new.evan** 
gejiatx  F^re);;  th^n  whom  I  never  saw  a  man  more  falsey; 
more  yir^lent^  more  seditious.*'     Erasmus  has  also  givea  a 
^^TJ.  wf^ifQurable  character  of  him  elsewhere;  but  ha 
th|9^htFai;<ftl  h^d;  censured  .him  in  soipe  of  his  vviritiiigs^ 
and  therefore  is  not  to  .be.  altogether  believ)ed  tn  every 
ti^^ag  hf^pays.of  him  ;  nor  indeed  was.  a  man  of  decision 
and  .in^r^pidi^y  jik^Ly  tp  be. a  favourite  with  the  timid  and. 
timff-serving  j^asmus^ 

in.i^i^Sy  he  had  thi9  same  success  in  promoting  the  re«* 
fofmatio^  in  th^  city  of  Aigle,  and  soon  after,  in  the  baili«« 
wick  of  Morat  He  went  afterwards  to  Neufcbatel  in  1 529^ 
aqct'  di$pMt;ed  against  the  Roman  catholic  party  with  so 
much  stretig^h^  that  this  city  embraced  the  reformed  reli* 
gipB^  and  established  it  entirely  Nov.  4,  1530.  He  was 
sent* a  deputy  to  the. synod  of  the  Waldenses,  held  in  thf» 
valley , of  Angrogne.  Ifence  he  went  to  Greiieva,  where  h« 
lati^^^.fifg^tnst.  popery  :  but  the  grand,  vicar  ^and  the. 
oth§p*^l<^rgy  .resisted  him  with  so  much  fury, 'that  he  was 
obliged  to  r0tire.  -  He  was  called  back  in  1534  by  the  in* 
hi^l^ftaoto,>7laK>  had /enounced  the  Roman  catholic  religion} 
and  Wfis  tbe-cbi^f 'persota  that  procured  the  perfect  abdi^ 
tion  of  it  the  next  year.  He  was  banished  from  Gei^ema 
with  Calvin  in  1538^  and  retired  to  Basil,  and  afterwards 
to  Neufchate),  wjbiei'e.tfiere  was  gr^iat  probability  of  a  large 

106  FA  R  E'L^ 

evangelical  ban*est.    Ffooi  thence  be  wi^t  t6  Metz,  bht 
held  a  thousand  difficolties  to  encounter ;  and  was  obliged  ^ 
to  iietire  into  the  abbey  of  Gorze,  where  the  count  of  Fur*  * 
slemberg  protected  him  and  the  new  converts.     But  thej 
could  not  contki&e*  there  long ;  for  they  were  besieged  in 
the  abbeys  and  obliged  «at  last  to  surrender,  after  a  capitu- 
lation.    Farel  -vefy  happily  escaped,  though  strict  search. 
wcM  made  afner  biai/  having  been  put  in  a  cart  among  the  ' 
sick  and  infirm.   « He  took  upoti  him  fats  fbrmer  functious 
of  a  minister  at  Neufchatel,  whence  he  took  now  and  then 
a|ourney  to  Geneva.     Whc^n  he  went  thither  in  1^53^,  he  ' 
w|is  present  at  Servetus's  execution.  -  He-  went  again*  to 
Geneva  in  1564,  to  take  bis  last  leave  of  Calvin^  who  ivas  ' 
dangerously  HI.;'  He  took  a  second  journey  to  Metz  in  ' 
li65,  being  invited  hy  his  ancient  *flpck^  to  witness  the  - 
success  of  bis  labours,  but  tetumed  tb  Neufchaitel,  and  ' 
died  there  Sept  13^  or,  as  Dupia  says,  Deo*  3,  in  thesame  ^ 
year.  •      ^ '     . 

,He  married  at  the  age  of  si^sty-nin^,  and  left  a*  son,  who 
survived  him  but  three  years.  Though  be  was  far  better 
qi^^ified  to  preach  than  to  write /books,'  yet  he  was  i^e 
author  of  some  few  publications  of  the  controversial  kind, 
an^ng  which  are  a  treatise  ^'  Upon  the  true  use  of  the  ' 
CviisV  Paris,  1560,  and  another  ^*  Up(>n  the  authority  of  ' 
the  Word  of  God,  and  bumati  traditions.*'  ^ 

FARET  (Nicholas),  a  French  wit  and  poet,  was  bom 
in  1 600  at  Bourg  en  &*esse,  and  going  very  young  to  Paris,  * 
attached  himself  to  Vaugelas,  Boisrobert,  and  Coc^ffetau.; 
and  was  afteirwards  made  secretary  to  the  couht  d'Hareour^ 
and  then  steward  of  his  house.  Faret  was  one  of'  the  first 
members  of  the  French  academy,  and  employed  to  settle 
its  "Statutesi  He  was  very  intimate  with  St.  Amand,  who 
celebrates  him  in  his  verses,  as  an  illustrious  debauchee^ 
merely  to  furnish  a  rhyme  to  Cabaret.  He  was  at  length 
appointed  secretaiy  to*  the  king,  and  died  at  Paris  in  Sep- 
tember 1 646,  leaving  several  children  by  two  marriages. 
His  works  are,  a  translation  of  Eutropiiis;  ^<  L*Honniete  ' 
Homme,'*  taken  from  the  Italian  of  Castigiione,  12ma4 
**  Vertus  necessaires  a  un  Prince.;*'  and  several  poems  in 
the  coUecttpns  of  his  time.  He  also  left  a  life  of  Ren4  II. 
duke  of  Lorraine,  and  Memoirs  of  the  famous  eount  d*Har<» 
coort,  MS,*- 

<  Metchior  Adam.-^Geii.  Diet.— Dttpiv. 
'\  *      '  '    t  JBUWI.— Meerott,  vol:  XXIlL^^JMct.  HmI. 

PARI  A.  ld» 

ii  DE  SOUSA  (Emanuel),  one  of  the  mwi  eele* 
bfMed  bMstortatis  and  poets  of  bis  nation  in  the  seventeenth 
century^  was  born  March  18,  1J90|  at  Son  to  near  Cam- 
villa  in  Portugal^  of  a  noble  family,  both  by  his  father's 
apd  mother's  side.  His  father's  name  was  Amador 'Perez 
dlEiro^  and  his  mother's  Loaisa  Faria,  but  authors  are  not 
agreed  in  their  conjectures  why  he  did  not  take  his  father's 
name,  bat  preferred  Faria,  that  of  his  mother,  and  Sousa, 
wjiich  is  thought  to  have  been  his  grandmother's  name. 
In  hts  infimcy  he  was  very  infirm,  yet  made  considerable 
progress,  even  when  a  puny  child,  in  v^riting,  drawing,  and 
painting.  At  the  age  of  ten,  his  father  sent  him  to  school 
t<^  learn  Latin,  in  which  his  proficiency  by  no  means  ans- 
wered his.  CKpectations,  owing  to  the  boy^s  giving  the  pre- 
fensnce  to  the  Portuguese  and  Spanish  poetsl  These  he 
read  incessantly,  and  composed  several  pieces  in  verse  and 
t>ipse  in  both  Jaagnages,  but  he  bad  afterwards  the  good 
sense  to  destroy  his  premature  effusions,  as  well  as  to  per- 
ceive that  the  Greek  and  Roman  classics  are  the  foundation 
o£a  true  style,  and  accordingly  he  endeavoured  to  repair 
bis  error  by  a  eai;eful  study  of  them.  In  1604,  when  Ginf|r 
in  his  foarteenthyear,  he  was  received  in  the  rank  of  gen« 
tleoMtn.into  the  household  of  don  Gonzalee  de  Moraes, 
biibqp  ofPorto^who^wito  his  relation,  and  afterwards  made 
him  his  secretary;  and  during  his  residence  with  this  pre* 
late^.  which  lasted  ten  years,  he  applied  himself  indefati<» 
gablyr  to-  fais/studies,  and  composed  some  works,  the  best 
of  which  was  an  abridgment  of  the  historians  of  Portugal, 
"  JCpitome  de  las  historias  Portuguesas,  desde  il  diluvio 
hasta  el  anno  1628,"  Madrid,  1628,  4to.  In  this  he  has 
been  thought  to  give  rather  too  muph  scope  to  bis  imagi- 
nation, and* to  write  more  like  an  orator  than  a  historian. 
In.i612:he  fell  in  love  with  a  lady  of  Porto,  whom  he  calls 
AU>ajiii%  and  who  was  the  subject  of  some  of  his  poems  { 
butr.itia:  doubtful  whether  this  was  the  lady  he  married 
in.i'6'i4,  some  time  after  he  left  the  bishop's  bouse,  on  b6^ 
cottoi:  of  his  urging  him  to  go  into  the  church,  for  which  he 
hafi' DO..ij)oKoation«  He  remained  at  Porto  until  1618, 
when.'fae  ^paid'his  feilier  a  visit  at  Pombeiro.  The  year 
follbw^ngrbe  went  to  Madrid,  and  into  the  service  of  Peter 
Alvaria^irPereira^  'secretary  of  state,  and  counsellor  to 
Philip  the  III.  and  IV.  but  Pereira  did  not  live  long  enough 
to  give*  him  any  other  proof  of  bis  regard  than  by  procuring 
)iim  to  be  made;a)^kQi^t4of.the  order  of  Christ  in  Portagalv 

1«»     ^  F  A  R  I  A. 

In  1628  be  returned  to  Lisbon  with  bis  family,  hat  qmlted 
Pprtugal  in  1631,  owing  to  his  views  of  promotion  being 
disappointed.  Betuming  to  Madrid,  he.  was  chosen  se- 
cretary to  the  marquis  de  Castel  Rodrigo,  who  wais  about 
to  set  out  for  Rome  as  ambassador  at  the  papal  court.  At 
Rome  Faria  was  received  with  great  respect,  and  his  merit 
acknowledged ;  but  having  an  eager  passieo  for  study, .  he. 
visited  very  few.  The  pope.  Urban  VIIL  receive  hiin 
vctry  graciously,  and  conversed  femiliarly  with  him  on  the 
subject  of  poetry.  One  of  his  courtiers,  requested  Faria  to 
write  a  poem  on  the  coronation  of  that  pontiff,  which  we 
find  in  the  second  volume  of  his  poems.  In  16S4,  .having' 
some  reasi[>n  ,to  be  dissatisfied  with  his  master,  the  ambas« 
sador,  he  quitted  his  service,  and  went  to  Genoa  with  a. 
view  to  return  to  Spain.  The  ambassador,  piqued-at  his 
departure,  which  probably  was  not  very  ceremonious,  wrotei 
a  partial  account  of  it  to  the  king  of  Spain,  who  caused 
Faria  to  be  arrested  at  Barcelona.  So  strict  was  hb  con* 
iinement,  that  for  more  than  three  months  no  person  had 
access  to  him ;  until  Jerome  de  Villa  Nova,  the  protho- 
iK^ary  of  Arragon,  inquired  into  the  affair,  and  made  his 
innocence  known  to  the  king.  This,  however,  had  no 
dt\ker  effect  than  to  procure  an  order  that  be  should  be  a^ 
prisoner  at  large  in  Madrid ;  although  the  king  at  the  same 
time  assured  him  that  he  was  persuaded  of  his  innocence, 
and  would  allow  him  sixty  ducats  per  month  for  his  sub* 
sistence.  Faria  afterwards  renewed  his  solicitations  to  be 
allowed  to  remove  to  Portugal,  but  in  vain ;  and  his  con* 
finement  in  Madrid,  with  his  studious  and  sedentary  life, 
brought  on,  in  1647,  a  retention  of  urine,  the  torture  of 
which  he  bore  with  great  patience.  It  occasioned  his.deatbp 
however,  on  June  3,  1649.  He  appears  to  have  merited- 
an  excellent  character,  but  was  too  little  of  a  man  of 
the  world  to  make  his  way  in  it.  A  spirit  of  independence 
probably  produced  those  obstacles  which  he  met  with  in  his  *■ 
pr<)gress;  and  even  his  dress  and  maaner,  we  are  told,  were 
rather  those  of  a  philosopher  than  of  a  courtier.  Be* 
sides  his  History  of  Portugal,  already  mentioned,  and  of 
which  the  best  edition  was  published  in  1730,  folio,  he 
wtote,  1.  ^^  Noches  claras,**  a  collection  of  moral,  and  poli* 
tioal  discourses,  Madrid,  1623  and  1626,  2  vols.  12ma  2. 
*^  Fuetite  de  Aganipe,  o  Rimes  varias,**  a  collection  of  hit 
ppems^  in  7  vols.  Madrid,  1644,  &c.  S.  *^  Commentarioa 
8obnikui:Lu3iada8  de  Luis  de  Camo^ns,*'  an  immense  com* 

FAR  I  A.  109 

aientary  on  the  Liisiad,  ibid.  163.99  in  2  vols,  fotio.  He  is 
wd  to  have  began  it  in  16 14,  and  to  have  bestowed  twenty- 
five  years  upon  it.  Some  sentiments  expressed  hete  had 
^alarmed  the  Inquisition^  and  the  work  was  prohibited.  He 
ffras  permitted,  however,  to  defend  it,  which  he  did  in,  '4* 
**  Defensa  6  Information  por  los  Commentarios,  &c/'  Ma- 
drid, 1646  or  1645,  folio.  5.  <<  Imperio  de  la  China,  &c. 
and  a.n  account  of  the  propagation  of  religion  by  the  Je- 
suits^  written  by  Semedo :  Faria  was  only  editor  of  this 
work,  Madrid,  1643,  4to.  6.  '<  Nobiliario  del  Conde  D* 
Petro  tie  Barcelos,'^  &c.  a  translation  from  the  Portuguese, 
with  notes,  ibid.  1646,  folio.  7.  **  A  Life  of  Don  Martin 
Bapt.  de  Lanuza,''  grand  justiciary  of  Arragon,'*  ibid.  1650, 
4to.  8.  "Asia  Portuguesa,"  Lisbon,  1666,  &c.  3  vols, 
/olio,  9.  *^  Europa.  Portuguesa,"  ibid.  16,78,  2  vols,  folio. 
10.  "Africa  Portuguesa,*' ibid.  1^81,  folio.  Of  this  we 
have  an  English  edition  by  John  Stevens,  Lond.  1695,  3 
vols.  8 vo.'  11.  "  Ameri«i  Portuguesa.''  All  these  hiisto- 
rical  and  geographical  works  have  been  considered  as  cor- 
rect and  valuable.  Faria  appears  to 'have  published  some 
other  pieces  of  less  importance,  noticed  by  Antonio. ' 

FARINACCIO  (Prosper),  an  eminent  lawyer,  was  born 
October  30,  1554,  atBom^.  He  was'a  Roiiiad  advooltte^ 
imd  fiscal  procurator ;  took  pleasure  in  deifending  the  least 
-atipportabie  causes,  and  is  said  to  have  acted  with  extreme 
rigour  and  severity  in  his  office  of  fiscal  procurator.  This 
4»ndi]ct  drew  him  into  very  disagreeable  situations,  and 
would  hav^e  prov^  his  rain,  had  not  some  cardinals,  whd 
admired  >  bis  wit  and  genius,  interceded  for  him  with  Cle- 
ment YIIl.  who  said,  alluding  to  the  name  of  Farinaccid, 
that  "  thd  farina  was  excellent,  but  the  sack  which  con'^- 
tained  it  was  good  for  nothing."  Farinaecio  died  at  Rome 
October  3rO,  1618,  aged  sixty-four.  His  works  have  been 
printed  at  Antwerp,  1620 ;  and  the  following  make  13  vols. 
folio :  ^  Decisiones  Rotse,"  2  vols. ;  "  Decisiones  Rota 
novi^ftimse,"  1  vol. ;  "  Decisiones  RotSB  recentissima?,"  1 
vol;  **  Repertorium  Judiciale,*'  1  vol.;  "De  Haeresi,'*  I 
vol.;  *'  Consilia,*'  2  vols. ;  "  Praxis  Criminalis,"  4  vols,  j 
*^'Succus  praxis  criminalis,"  1  vol.  All  these  were  consi* 
dei^ed  as  valuable  works  by  the  Roman  lawyers.' 
.  FARtNATO  (Paul),  an  Italian  painter,  was  born  at 
Verona  in  1522;  his  diother  dying  in  labour  .of  bioi.     W^ 

■A  ClMafepte.-«ADtotti0  Bibl.  Htop.r-Kicer(my  T9l.  :tXXVI. 
^  Moreri.— EryUirasi  PiDa^otbeca. 


tJO  F  A  R  1  N  A  T  6. 

.w&»  a  dito)ple  of  Nicoio  Golfino, '  and  an  kdnsirable  de^ 
signer,  but  not  altogether  so  happy  in  his  colouring: 
though  there  is  a  piece  of  his  >  painting  in  St.  G^orge'^ 
ehurefa  at  Verona,  so  well  performecl  in  both  respects,  that 
it  does  not  seem  inferior  to  one  of  Paul  Veronese,  wbicii 
is  pFaced  next  to  it  He  was  famous  also  for  being  ^n  eli^ 
cellent  swordsman,  and  a  very  good  orator,  abd  Strutt 
mentions  some  engravings  by  him.  He  had  considerable 
knowledge  in  sculpture  and  architecture,'  espedally  th^t 
.  part  of  it  which  relates  to  fortifications.  His  last  moments 
are  said  to  have  been  as  remarkable  as  his  first,  on  account 
of  the  death  of  his  nearest  relation,  He  lay  upon  bi» 
death-bed  in  1606  ;  and  his  wife,  wbowas  sick  iii  the  sarne 
room,  hearing  him  cry  out,  "  He  was  going,**  told  him, 
^  She  would  bear  him  company  ;^^  and  actually  did  so,  'f» 
they  both  expired  at  the  same  minute.* 


FARINGDON  (Anthowy),  an  EngRsh  divine,  was  Mom 
at  Sunniivg  in  Berks,  1596.  He  was  admitted  i^holar  df 
Trinity  college,  Oxford,  in  161^,  and  elected  fellow  iii 
1617.  Three  years  after,  he  took  a  master  of  arts  degree-; 
.about  which  time  entering  into  orders,  he.  became  a  cele- 
brated preacher  in  those  parts,  an  eminent  tutor  in  thie  coT* 
lege,  and,  as  Wood  says,  an  example  fit  to  be  followed  hf 
:all.  In  1634,  being  then  bachelor  of  divinity,  he  was  madle 
vicar  of  Bray  near  Maidenhead  in  Berks,  and  soon  after 
4ivin.ity- reader  in  the  king's  chapel  at  Windsor.  He  eoi>- 
tiiipedat  the  first  of  these  places^  though  notwtthout  some 
trouble,  till  after  the  civil  commotions  broke  o^t;  arid 
then  he  was  ejected,  and  reduced  with  his  wife  and  family 
to  such  extremities,  as  to  be  very  near  starving.  'Lloyd 
says  that  his  house  was  plundered  by  Iretoh,  in  meah  re- 
venge, because  Mr.  Faringdon  had  reproved  him  for  some 
irregularities  when  at  Trinity  college.  At  length  iit  Jobi^ 
Robinson,  alderman  of  London,  related  to  archbishop  Laud, 
and  some  of  the  parishioners  of  Milk>street,  London,  iii* 
vited  him  to  be  pastor  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen  iu  that  city^ 
which  he  gladly  accepted,  and  preached  with  great  atorot 
bation  from  the  loyal  party.  In  1647,  he  published  a  foltQ 
volume  of  these  sermons,  and  dedicated  them  ,to  his  patron 
Robinson^  **  as  a  witnesse  or  manifesto,'*  says  he  to  him^ 
*^  of  my  deep  apprehension  of  your  many  noble  £afOtur% 

F  ^  B  I  N  G  D  O  N.  ^  111 

ind  great  charity  to  me  and  oiiiie,  ^en  the  •^ttrpneifi^'of 
the  weather^  and  the  roughnesse  of  the  times,  had  blg^wn 
all  from  U3»  and  wellrueer  left  us  naked/' 

\^  ' After,  hi^  death,  which  happened  at  bis  house  in  Mril^- 
«treet,  9ept.  1658^  his  executors  published,  in  1663#:a 
second  folio  volume  of  bis  sermons,  containing  forty,  and»a 
third  ii)  1673,  containing  fifty*     He  left  also  behind  hijon, 

^  in  MS.  memorials  of  the  life  of  John  Hales,  of  Eaton,  'his 
intimate  friend  and  ifeUow-sufierer ;  but  these  memorials 

.  have  never  come  to  light.  Some  particulars  of  bis  in^^ 
macy  with  Hales  will  be  given  in  our  accoufot  of  that  ei^- 
cellent  man.^  > 

FAHINGTON  (C^ORas),  an  English  artist  of  gr«fit 
projmise,  the  fourth  son  ojl  the  rev.  William  Farington,  B.  £)• 
rector  of  Warrington^  and  vicar  of  Leigh  in  Lancashif^^ 
was  born  in  1754,  and  received  his  first  instructions  in.  ti|e 
art  from  his  brother  Joseph^  one  of  the  present  roya)  acf- 
demicians ;  but  bis  incliqatiops  jading  him  .to  the  study  9^ 

,  historical  painting,,  he  acquired  farther  assistance  from.  Mf. 
West.  He  was  for  some,  tifne  eoaplpy ed  by  the.  late  alder- 
man Boydell^  for,  whom  he  executed  seyera)  ve;;[^y.excellje|9t 
drawings ,  from  the  Houghtqa .collection.  He  studied  long 
in  the  royal,  academy,  and  obtained  a  silver  m^dal  in  177^{; 
and  in  1780,  obtained  the  golden  medal  for  the  best  hiji- 
iorical  picture^  the  subject  of.  which  was  the  cauldron  scene 
in  Macbeth.  In  1782  be  left  England,.. and  went  to  the 
East  ^Indies,  being  induced  to  undertake  that,  voyage  hy 
some  advaptageous  offers.  In  .India  be  painted  many  pio- 
tures ;  but  his  principal  undertaking  was  .a  large  work,  r^ 
presenting  the  Durbar,  or  court  of  the  nabob,  at  Meiy- 
shoodabad.  Whilst  em^pyed  on  this  work^  he  imprudently 
exposed  himself  to  the  night  air,  tq  observe  some  ce^rei^ 
monies  of  the  natives,  in  order  to  complete  a  series  of 
drawings  begun  for  that  purpose,  when  he  was  suddenly 
seized  with  a  complaint,  which,  in  a  few  days,  un^fortur 

^ately  terminated  his  life  in  1788.  '  / 

FARMER  (Hugh),  a  learned  divine  among  the  protege 
tant  dissenters,  was  born  in  1714,  at  a  village  near  Shrews*' 
^ury,  where  his  parents  resided,  and  being  early  designed 
for  the  dissenting  ministry,  received  the.  first  .part  of  his 
grammatical  learning  in  a  school  in  Llanegrin,  near  Towy n^ 

-^  Atiu  t>x.  vol.  II.-— tteyd's  Memoirs,  fol.  p.  543.— Harwood's  Alumni  Eto- 


*  Idwsrds'*  Anecdotes  of  JPaintios. 

tli  F  A  R  M  E  &. 


Meridnettisfaire,  which  had  be^n  founded  by  two :  df  bi« 
Jprogemtors.     From  this  place  he  wiais  seiVt  -to  pei'fect  his 
classical  education  under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  OWen,'0f  W8t^-' 
-rington  ;   and  ill  1730,  began  hi«  '^cKdecttical' kiddies  at 
Nortfaampton,  under  the  care  of  Mt;  (afterwards  Dr.)  DoB-*: 
dridge,  being  one  of  the  doctor's  earHest  (hipils.     After' 
Mr.  Farmer  had  finished  his  academical  cdurse,  iife  becathe 
chaplain  to  William  Coward,  esq.  of  WailtfaMtii^'-Stowey  E^^ 
sex,  and  preacher  in  a  ineeting-lidfise  which  had  t>een  lately- 
-  elected  by  that  gentleman,  whose  name  h  '6f'  greiat  note 
"am^ng  the  -diasenten,  on  account  of^the*  laVge  bequesta- 
which  he  made  for  the  education  of  young  nyeh  fortHe- 
ininistry,  and  for  other  beneficent  purposed.     Mr/CoWard- 
watt  remarkable  for  the  pecttliatitftea  abd  oddities  of'  faia  - 
'  tbmpet ;  knd  in  tfai^  respect  tnany  pleasant  atoriea  kti  r6« 
Iftted  concerning  him.    Amongat  bia  other  whimsies,  His 
*{i6uae  was  shut  up  at  an  mrcommon  early  hotir,-  w^  b^ll^Ve 
-ataix  in  the  winter,  and  seven  in  the  summer;  iitid'wht>- 
ever,  whether  a  viaitalit  or  a  atated  resident,  tresJ3a$sed 
tipon  rtie  titoe,  was  denied  admission.     Mr.  Farmer  having 
one  evening  been  somewhat  too  late,  was  of  eotirs6*^5c- 
cluded;     In  this  exigence  be  fa^d  r^ourse  to  a  iieighbOui'^' 
ing  jfiahrily,  that  of  William  Snell,  esq.  a  solicitor,  in  which 
he  continued  more  than  thirty  years,  during  the  fives  Of  • 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sneil,  by  whom  he  was  tHeatedmot^  tile^  an  ' 
equiki  tbatv  kn  iitferior.     Here  he  enjoyieda  lotig^  jfe61ries  of  ^ 
peaceful  leisure,  which  he  employed  in  collecting  i  large 
fund  of  sacred  arid  profane  literature,  and  in  hia  dbfti^s  ab  I 
A  pastor.     His  congregation,  whicfa^   whien  he  accepted 
the  charge  of  ik,  was  very  aihall,  giiadually  became  one  of  -^ 
the  mo^  wealthy  dissenting  societies  in  or  near  the  city  bf - 
London.  •    *  . 

Mr.  Fahner^a  first  appearance  as  an  author  Was  ih  a  dis^  * 
toiirse  on  the  suppression  of  the  rebellion  of  1745.     It  ^A  ^ 
preached  on  the  day  of  public  thanksgiving  fkppolnted  up6n 
that  occasion  in  1746,  and  printed  in  the  same  year. '  TiSt^ 
was  the  only  sermon  that  we  recollect  his  hating  ev^r  cOm^  - 
mHted  to  the  press.     His  abilities,  though  they  nbight  h^t^  : 
been  usefully  displayed  in  that  way,  led  him  to  thoise  liovel 
opiniona  on  which  his  temporary  fame  was  fouhded.     16  ' 
17^1,  he  published  ^^An  Inquiry  into  the  nature  atid  dta^^  ' 
sign  of  Chriat-s  Temptation  in  the  Wildemeaa ;"  the  gen^ 
ral  intention  of  which  is  to  show,  that  this  part  of  the  even^ 
geiical  history  is  ibt  only  to  be^understt^od  as  a  rtlftitttlof 

r  A  R  M  £  R.  US 

vifionairy  l^pres^ntations,  but  that  the  wbole  was  a  dmnfe 
vision,  premotiitoiy  of  the  labours  and  offices  of  our  Lord^s 
ftttiiresdinistry.  An  interpretaiion  so  new  and  singular^ 
Gouid  not  pass  unnoticed^  In  1762  there  appeared  a 
pamphlet  against  the  Inquiry,  entitled  ^^  Christ's  Tecnpta^^ 
tionsi  real  focts  :  or,  a  Defence  of  the  Evangelic  History  ; 
shewing  that  our  Lord's  temptations  may  be  fairly  and  rea^ 
sonably  understood  as  a  narrative  of  what  was  really  trans* 
acted."  A  second  edition  of  Mr.  Farmer's  treatise  was 
soon  called  for ;  in  which  the  subject  received  additional 
iiiustration  from  a  considerable  number  of  new.  notes.  Be*^ 
sides  this,  he  published  in  1764,  an  appendix  to  the  ^Mn* 
quiry,"  containing  some  farther  observations  on  the  point 
in  debate,  and  an  answer  to  objections^  Another  tract,  the 
pubiieation  of  which  was  occasioned  by  the  ^'  Inquiry,"  was 
^titled  '^  Th^  Sovereignty  of  the  Divine  Administration 
vindicated,,  or  a  rationid  Account  of  our  blessed  Saviour's 
remarkable  Temptation  in  the  Wilderness ;  the  Possessed 
at  Capernaum,  the  Demoniacs  at  Gadara>  and  the  Destruc^^ 
tion  of  the  Swine :  with,  free  Remarks  on  several  other  im<^ 
portant  passages  in  the  New  Testament."  This  was  a  post-* 
humous  piece,  which  had  been  written  before  Mr.  Farmer's 
work  appisared,  by  Mr.  Dixon,  who  had  been  a  dissenting 
minister,  first  at  Norwich,  and  afterwards  at  Bolton  in 
Lancashire.  Mr.  Dixon  proposes  a  figurative  or  allego^ 
rical  interprdtation  of  our  Lord's  temptation.  A  third  edi-* 
tion,  with  largfs  additions,  of  Mr.  Farmer's  ^^  Inquiry'*  was 
published  in  1776..  In  1771,  he  published  ^^  A  Disserta^ 
tion  on  Miracles,  designed  to  shew  that  they  are  arguments 
of  a  divine  interposition,  and  absolute  proofs  of  the  mission 
and  doctrine  of  a:  Prophet,"  8vo«  Not  long  after  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  ^^  Dissertation,"  a  notion  was  propagated^ 
that  Mr.  Farmer  bad  made  considerable  use  of  a  treatise  of 
Le  Moine's  on  the  same  subject,  without  acknowledging  it^^ 
and  it  was  asserted,  that  his  book  had  the  very  same  view 
with  Mr.  Le  Mokie's,  and  was  a  copy  of  his  work.  Mr« 
Farmer  therefore  endeavoured  to  vindicate  himself  in  a 
pamphlet,  published  in  1772,  entitled  '*  An  Examination 
of  the  late  rev.  Mr.  Le  Moine's  Treatise  on  Miracles^"  in 
which  he  enters  into  a  particular  discassion  of  that  per^ 
formance,  and  a  defence  of  himself;  but  the  accusationf 
continued  to  be  repeated,  particularly  by  a  writer  iii  the 
London  Magazine. 

In  177;5,  Mr.  Farmer  gare  to  the  world  <*  Essay  on  tb« 

Vol.  XIV.  I 

114  FA  R  M  £  R. 


Demoniacs  of  the  New  Testament/*  in  which  bb  opi^ 
aliens,  were  too  far  remote  from  those  of  the  Christian  world 
^o  give  inucli  satisfaction.  It  was  ably  attacked  by  Dr& 
iWortfaington,  a  fesrned  clergyman^  who  had  already  fa^ 
soured  the  public  with  some  pious  and-  valuable  writings^ 
in  ^^  An  impartial  Inquiry  into  the  case  of  the  Gospel  De^ 
moniacs^  with  an  Appendix,  consisting  of  an  essay  on 
Scripture  Demonology/'  17.77.  There  were  some  things 
advanced  in  this  work,  whicl),  in  Mr«  Farmer's  opinion; 
deserved  to  be  considered ;  and  he  thought  that  ceitatif 
parts  of  the  subject  were  capable  of  farther  and  fuller  illus^ 
tration,  .  He  printed,  tbei^efore,  in  1773,  ^^  Letters  to  the 
rev.  Dr.  Worthington^  in  answer  to  his  late  publication, 
entitled  An  impartial  Inquiry  into  the  case  of  the  Gospel- 
Demoniacs."  Another  of  Mr.  Farmer's  antagonista  vft$^ 
the.  late  rev.  Mr.  Fell,  a  disseutii^  minister,  at  that  time  of 
Thaxted  in  Essex,  and  afterwards  one  of  the  tutors  of  tlie 
dissenting  academy  at  Homerton.  This  gentleman  pub* 
lished  in  1779,  a  treatise,  entitled^*  Dsemoniaes ;  an  in^ 
quiry  into  the  Heathen  and  the  Scripture  doctrine  of  Dae^ 
mons;  In  which  the  hypotheses  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Farmer,  and 
others,  on  this  subject,  ate  particularly,  considered;^'  la^ 
this  Mr.  Fell  deduces,  the  injurious  .consequences  to  natu*^ 
ral'-and  revealed  religion . which  he  apprehends  to  k^esuU 
fro;n  the  doctrines  advanced  in  the  ^^  Dissertation  on  Mi"< 
racles,'' and  the  ^^  Ess^y  on  the  Demoniacs,'',  but  aoqnits 
Mr.  Farmer  of  any.  evil  design,  and  allows  ^^  that  he  really 
meant  to  serve  the  cause  of  virtue,  which  he  thought  cowkkd 
|iot  be  more  effectually  done  than  by  removing  every  thingf 
which  appeared  to  him  in  the  light  of  superstition.' \  .- 

Mr.  Farmer's  last  work  appeared  in- 1-789,  and  was  eo^ 
titled  **  The  general  prevalencex>f  the  worship  of  HunMin 
Spirits  in  the  ancient  Heathen  Nations  asserted  and  prov.ed.'^ 
|n. this  work,  which  had  little  success,  there  are -a  numbeiB^ 
of  notes,  referring  to  Mr.  Fell,  and  which  shew  Mr.  Fantoer^r 
sensibility  to.  the  attack  that  had  been  made  uponibimiby 
that  writer.     Indeed,  says  his  panegyrist,  we  cannoiiap^i 
prove  of  ike  oblique  manner  in  which  some  of  these. noieflr^ 
are  cp^mposed.     It  would  have  beea  far  preferable  if^  oup . 
author,  either  not  to  have  taken  any  notice. of  Mr.  Fell  aft 
al],  or  to  have  done  it  in  a  more  open  at>d  •  rnqnly^  way^i 
Mr.  Fell  was  not  backward  in  his  own  vindicatian,    .  TJba9. 

'  .  •  " 

appeared  in  1785,  in  a  publication  entitled  ^^The  Idolatry 
^  Greece  and..  Rome  distinguished  from  that  of  .other. 

»AllM£lt.  lis 


lieitheti  nations  :  in  a  letter  to  the  reverend  ftagli  Farmer. 
At  tbe-iftafDe  time  that  in  this  tract  ample  retaliation  is 
made'  apon  Mr.    Farmer  for  his   personal    severities,    it 
appears  to  us  to  contain  many  things,'  which,  if  he  had 
contincied  to  pablish  on  the  subject,  ifould  have  been 
foand  desierving  of  eonsideratioh  and  reply. 
^  Ash  minister  Mr.  Farmer  received  everv  mark  of  honour 
from  the  di^e^iters  which  it  was  in  their  power  to  bestow. 
For  a  great  number  of  years  he  preached  twice  a  day  at 
Wahfaamstow:  but,  an  associate  being  at  length  provided 
for  him  at  that  place,  he  became   in    1761   afternoop* 
preacher  to  the  congregation  of  Salters-hall,  and  some 
timfe-aftei^'Wascfaoisen  one  of  the  Tuesday-lecturers  at  Sal- 
ter3«>halL     He  was^tso  a  trustee  of  the  rev.  Dr.  Daniel 
Williams's'  tat4ous  bequests ;  and  he  was  likewise  one  of 
Mn  C^wikrd^s  trustees-;  in  which  capacity  he  became  a 
dispenser  of  the  large  charities  that  had  been  left  by  the 
gentletAati  with  whom  he  had  been  connected  in  early  life. 
As  Mfi  Fanuer  advanced  in  years,^he  gradually  remitted 
of  his  employmehts  as  a  divine.    He  resigned  first,  in  1772, 
tfatt  baing  afternoon^preacher  at  Salters-hall ;  after  which, 
in  1780^  he  gave  up  the  Tuesday  lectureship  of  the  same 
piaoe;    'Iff  his  pastoral  relation  at  Walthamstow  he  con- 
tinued a  few  years  longer,  when  he  quitted  the  pulpit 
entirely.     In  these  several  cases  his  resignations  were  ac* 
cepted.  Witil  peculiar  regret*     After  he  had  ceased  to  be  a 
preaclier^  it  was  his  general  custom  to  spend  part  of  the 
winter  at  Badi.     Early  in  1785,  Mr.  Farmer  was  afflicted 
with  ialmofin  a  total  failure  of  sight,  which,  however,  was 
restored  by  the  skill,  first  of  Baron  Wenzel,  and  after- 
wards of  Mr.  Watben.     Infirmities,  however,  growing  upon 
him^  he  departed  this  life  on  the  6th  of  February,  1787^ 
in  the  seventy^third  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried  in 
Wtiltbamstow  church-yard,  in   the   same   grave  with  his 
fvieii<t8'Mr.  and  Mrs.  Snell.     On  Sunday,  the   18th,  his 
funeral  sefmon  was  preached  by  Mr.  Urwick,  of  Ciapham,' 
whose   dtecourse  was  printed.     In   his  last  will,   besides' 
providing  handsomely  for  his  relations,  and  remembering 
hit  servants,  he  l^ft  ^  hundred  pounds  to  the  fund  for  the 
widows  of  dissenting  ministers,  and  forty  pounds  to  the 
pool*  of  Walthamstow  parish.     His  regard  to  the  family' 
with  which  he  had  so  long  been  connected,  and  to.  which 
be  had   been  so  peculiarly  obliged,  was  testified  by  his 
bequeathing  pecuniary  legacies- to  every  member- of  that 

I  2 

lie  *^  A  R  M  EH; 

ffttnily.     Smaller  legacies  were  left  by  him  to  others  t>f  intt 
frteiids.     His  executors  were  William  Siiell,  esq*  of  Clap« 
ham,  and  William  Hood^  esq.  of  Chaacery-laney  barrister; 
the  first  the  son,  and  the  second  one  of  ,the  grandsons  of 
Mr.  Farmer's  great  patron.     To  another  grandson,  the  ten 
itobert  Jacomb,  our  author  bequeathed  his  library,  with 
the  exception  of  such  classic  books  as  Mn  Snell  might 
select ;  who  also  was  a  residuary  legatee,  in  conjutiction 
with  his  sister,  Mrs.  Hood.     In  this  will  he  also  made  his 
request  (for  that  is  the  term  used),   that  his  executors 
would  burn  his  sermons  and  manuscripts^  unless  he  should 
4irect  otherwise  by  a  separate  paper ;  and,  in  case  they 
should  not  do  it,  the  legacies  of  a  hundred  pounds  eticb^ 
which  he  had  left  them,  were  to  be  null  and>  void.     H^^  had 
nearly  completed  a  second  volume  on  the  demonology  of 
the  ancients ;  a  curious  dissertation  on  the  story  of  Balaam^ 
which  he  had  transcribed  for  the  press,  and  fordieprinttog 
of  which  he  had  given  his  directions,  and  had  made  pre^ 
parations  for  a  second  edition  of  bis  Treatise  on  Miracles^ 
by  which  it  would  have  been  considerably  enlarged,  and 
highly  improved;    all  which  were  destroyed^  as^  in  tbi 
opinion  of  the  executors,  coming  within  the  intent  of  bis 
will.    His  biographer  laments  bitterly  this  undistinguisbingf 
destruction,  which,  indeed,  seems  rather  too  much  to  re^ 
•emble  what  happened  in  Don  Quixote's  library* 

As  to  his  general  character,  we  are  told  that  he  was^ 
particularly  excellent  in  the  pulpit,  and  that  bis  sermons 
were  rational,  spiritual^  evangelical,  and  not  unfrequenitly 
pathetic ;  that  be  had  an  admirable  talent,  <wkhout  trim^' 
iping,  of  pleasing  persons  of  very  different  sentimfents^ 
Skud  that  when  he  was  speaking  of  the  dot;trines  of  the 
gospel,  th^re  was  a  swell  in  his  language  that  looked  as^if 
he  was  rising  to  a  greater  degree  of  orthodoxy  in  express 
sion  than  some  persons  might  approve^  but  U  never  came 
io  that  point.  In  conversation  he  was  lively  and  brilliants  to 
an  uncommon  degree ;  and,  like  Doddridge,  be  sometimes ' 
went  far  enough  in  his  complimentary  language  io  persons 
present.  He  was  likewise  very  backward  in  readily  de* 
daring  his  sentiments,  when  asked  them^  concerning^  par^- 
ticular  topics,  living  writers,  or  recent  publications.  -  Any 
question  of  this  kind  not  unfrequently  produced  from  htiUy 
what  has '  been  ascribed  to  the  quakers,.  another  questiaft 
in  return.  He  appears,  however,  to  have  been  no  philo« 
sopber,  for  we  are  told  that  it  was  probably  some'  feeling 

F  A  R  M  E  R^  lit 

eP  kis  last  work's  not  having  met  with  the  attention  h6 
expett^iy  which  dictated  the  order  concerning  the  burning 
of  his  manuscripts.  He  had  gre^t  generosity  of  disposi* 
tion,  and  in  his  distributions  to  charitable  designs  and 
^ects  went  to  the  utmost  extent  of  his  property.  * 

dF-ARMER  (Richard),  D.  D.  a  learned  critic  and  dis- 
Ithguished  scholar,  was  the  descendant  of  a  family  long 
seated  at  Ratclifie  Culey,  a  hamlet  within  the  parish  of 
Shepey,  in  the  county  of  Leicester.  His  grandfather 
(who  died  in  !  727,  aged  sixty-three)  is  described  on  his 
tomb  in  St.  Mary's  church  at  Leicester  as  "  John  Farmet 
of  Nuneaton,  gent.*'  His  father,  who  was  largely  en* 
gaged  in  Leicester  in  the  business  of  a  maltster,  married  iit 
I7S3-3,  Hannah  Knibb,  by  whom  be  had  fire  sons  and 
four  daughters.  He  died  in  1778,  at  the  age  of  eighty, 
atrd  bis  widow  in  1808,  at  the  advanced  age  of  ninety- 
seven.  The  subject  of  this  article  was  their  second  son^ 
and  was  bora  in  Leicester,  Aug.  28,  1735.'  He  received 
tthe  -early  part  of  his  education  under  the  rev.  Gerrard 
Andrewes  (father  of  the  present  dean  of  Canterbury)  in  the 
free  grammar-school  of  Leicester,  a  seminary  in  whicli 
many  eminent  persons  were  his  contemporaries.  About 
i7oS  he  left  the  school  with  an  excellent  character  for 
temper  and  talents,  and  was  entered  a  pensioner  at  Ema<* 
nuel  college,  Cambridge,  when  Dr.  Richardson,  the  bio*i 
grapher  of  the  English  prelates,  was  master,  and  Mr« 
fiidcham  and  Mr.  Hubbard  were  tutors.  Here  Mr.  Farmer 
applied  himself  chiefly  to  classical  learning  and  the  belles 
lettres,  with  a  predilection  for  the  latter,  in  which,  in  truth^ 
he  was  best  qualified  to  shine.  He  took  his  degree  of 
Bi.  A.  in '1757,  ranked  as  a  senior  optime,  and  gained  the 
silver  cup  given  by  Emanuel  college  to  the  best  graduate 
rf  that  year,  which  honorary  reward  is  still  preserved  with 
great  care  in  his  family.  His  only  Cambridge  verses  were 
a  poem'  on  laying  the  foundation-stone  of  the  public  library 
in  \^S5f  and  a  sonnet  on  the  late  king's  death  in  1760. 

In  1760  he  proceeded  M.  A.  and  succeeded  as  classical 
tutor  to  Mr.  Biekham,  who  was  at  that  time  presented  to  the 
eollege-rectory  of  Loughborough,  in  Leicestershire.  He 
proved  an  excellent  classical  *  tutor,  and  had  the  art  of 
gairiingthe  esteem  of  his  pupils;  but,  having  less  attach* 
flient  to  theology  and  mathematics,  he  is  thought  to  have 

1  BijQg<  J>ict.-'-)&S^iioH».byt|ic)atiiMicbac;lZ)odiQB|  6vo,  1805. 

lis  FARMER. 

been  less  zealous  in  recommending  those  studies,  altho^ii 
he  never  remitted  what  was  necessary  for  the  p^rposes  of 
initiation,  and  more  can  perhaps  seldom  be  achieved  by 
any  tutor  in  the  short  time  he  has  to  direct  the  pursuits  of 
bis  scholars.  At  what  time  he  took  orders  is  not  mentioned, 
but  during  his  being  tutor  he  served  the  curacy  of  Swave- 
sey,  a  village  about  eight  miles  from  Cambridge.  The 
bent  of  his  private  studies  being  to  ancient  literature  and 
antiquities,  he  was  in  1763  recommended  to,  and  elected 
a  fellow  of,  the  society  of  antiquaries.  In  1765  he  served 
the  office  of  junior  proctor  of  the  university.  In  May  of 
the  following  year  he  published,  from  the  university  press, 
proposals  for  a  history  of  the  town  of  Leicester,  "  originally 
collected  by  William  Staveley,  esq.  barrister  at  law,  now 
first  offered  to  the  public  from  the  author's  MS.  with  very 
large  additions  and  improvements,  &c.'*  It  is  somewhat 
singular  that  Mr.  Farmer  should  mistake  the  name  of 
Staveley,  which  was  Thomas,  both  in  these  proposals  and 
in  the  imprimatur  which  he  obtained  for  it  in  1767.  That 
however  he  set  about  this  work  with  full  intention  of 
pursuing  it  with  diligence,  is  evident  from  the  tenour  of 
many  of  the  letters  which  he  addressed  at  that  period  to 
some  eminent  antiquaries,  his  friends ;  but,  in  a  very  few 
months,  he  began  to  perceive  that  the  task  he  had  under* 
taken  was  much  more  laborious  than  he  had  at  first  ima- 
gined. He  clung  to  it,  however,  through  many  delays^ 
sometimes  flattering  himself,  and  sometimes  his  subscribers, 
that  it  would  be  completed,  until,  sit  length,  when  be  had 
actually  begun  to  print  it^  he  took  the  advantage  of  his 
promotion  to  the  mastership  of  Emanuel  college,  and 
urging  that  as  an  excuse  for  discontinuing  his  labours,  ad*- 
vertised  to  return  the  subscription-money,  which  was  punc- 
tually done  when  called  for;  He  then  presented  the  MSS. 
and  plates  to  Mr.  Nichols,  who  has  since  completed  the 
history  both  of  the  town  and  county  of  Leicester,  with  a 
degree  of  spirit,  ability,  and  industry,  perhaps  unprece* 
dented  in  this  department  of  literature. 

In  1766  Mr.  Farmer  published  his  justly  celebrated 
*^  Essay  on  die  Learning  of  Shakspeare,'^  a  thin  octavo 
volume,  which  completely  settled  a  much  litigated  question^ 
contrary  to  the  opinions  of  many  eminent  writers,  in  a 
manner  that  carried  conviction  to  the  mind  of  every  one 
who  had  either  carefully*  or  carelessly  reflected  on  the 
subject.    It  may  in  grutb  be  pointed  out  as  a  master-piece^ 

FA  R  M  E  R,  ua 

ip^ketber  we  eonsider  the '  sprigbtUness  and  vivacity  with, 
which  it  is  written,  the  clearness  of  the  arcangeaient,  the 
force  aiid  variety  of  the  evidence,  or  the  compression  of - 
scattered  materials  into  a  narrow  compass;  materials^which; 
inferior  writers  would  have  expanded  into  a  large  volume* 
A  second  edition  of  this  valuable  performance  was  called 
for  in  17,67,  in  which  are  a  few  corrections  of  style;  anda. 
third  was  printed  in  1.789,.  without  any  additions,  except  a 
note  at  the  end,  accounting  for  his  finally  abandoning  hisi 
intended  publication  of  the  Antiquities  of  Leicester.  It 
was  afterwards  added  to  the  prolegomena  of  Steevens's. 
Shakspeare^  1793, 1 5  vols,  and  in  the  two  subsequent  editions, 
of  21  vols,  by  Mn  Reed  in  1803,  and  Mr.  Harris. in  181^.  : 
In  1767  Mr.  Farmer  took  the  degree  of  B.  D.  and  ia 
1769  fvas  appointed  by  Dr.  Terrick,  then  bishop  of  Lon-; 
don,  to  be  one  of  the  preacher^  at.  the  chapel  rpyal.  White-?' 
hall.  During  the.  residence  in  London  which  this  office 
required,  he  lodged  with  the  celebrated  Dr.  Askevvv  ia 
Queen's  Square,  Bloomsbury,  and  became  himself  a  coir 
lector  (>f  bool^s  at  a  time  wheb.  such  as  are  now  thought 
invaluable  could  be  picked  up  at  stalls  at  the  most  trifling, 
prices.  In  1775,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Richardson,  he  w^$. 
chosen  master  of  Fnianuel  college;  Mr.  Hubbard,  the^e-« 
nior  fellow,  who  had  been  chpsen,  declining  it,  with,,  saysi, 
Mr«  Cole^  ^Vhis  wonted  moderation  and  disinterestedpjess,. 
and  g^iving  his  fijdl  suffrage  to  his  friend  Mr.  Farmer.'! 
He  pow  took  the, degree  of  D.  D.  and.  was  very  soon  suc- 
ceeded in  his  tutorship  by. Dr.  William  Bennet,  the  pre-v 
sent  very  {earned  and  amiable  bish*>p  of  Cloyne.  In^ 
1775-^j  Dr.  Farmer  served,  in  his  turn,  the  office  of  vice-j 
chanoejlor.  During  his  holding  ^his  office  an  event  oc- 
curred,, which  would  scarcely  be  wprth  mentipning  in.  ^ 
life  of  Dr.  Farmer,  not  been  grossly  misrep;'esented« 
.When  the  disturbances  in  Anaeric^  Jbad  become  ;seriou^„ 
jh^  university  of  Cambridge,  with  numberless  other  loya3| 
l)adiep^< .  voted  an  address  to  ^he  king,  approving  of  tbi^ 
measures  adopted  by  government  to  reduce  the  pqlpnief 
to  th€[ir  duty ;  the  address  however,  was  not  carried  Uipa- 
jninipu^iy,  and  was^  in  pfirticular,  opposed  by  Dr.  Jpbci 
^ebb,>)SO  .well  known  for  his  free  opinions  in.  pQ]itics.an4 
religion,  and  by  some  others,  of  whom,  one  man,  a^mein- 
ber  of.  the  caput,  carried  his  opposition,  so  far,,  a^  aptuallj 
^p  refuse  the  key  of  the  place  wiiiicb  contained  the  $ea| 
aecessary  gn  ^jxch  Qccasipn^.    In  this^emergency  th^  yig^^ 


«hafied}or,  Dr.  tatm^v,  is  said  4o  have  forced  open  &6 
door. with  a  sledge*baitiiners  and  ibis  aot  of  yioiente  is 
oalled  courtly  zeal,  and  all  his  subsequent  preferments  a^ 
attributed' to  it;  But  tbe  fact  is,  tbat  the  opening  of  this 
door  (of  a  chest)  was  not  an  act  of*  intemperate  zeal.  1^ 
sense  of  the  university  had  been  taken ;  the  senate,  by  its 
/vote,  had  given  its  sanction  to  the  measure  before  the  vice* 
eiiancellor  exerted  bis  authority,  and  gave  his  servant  tAs 
official  orders  to  break  open  the  chest. 

On  the  death  of  Dr.  Barnardiston,  master  of  Bene^t 
eollege,  Dr.  Farmer  was,  on  June  27,  1778,  unanimously 
elected  proto-bibliotbecarius,  or  principal  librarian  of  the 
university,  to  which  he  was  well  entitled  from  his  literary 
eharacter,  and  in  which*  office  he  afforded  easy  access  to 
tbe   public  library  to  men  of  learning  of  all  parties,  kn 
obligation  which  some  have  not  repaid  by  tbe  kindest  r^-* 
gard  for  Jiis  memory;     Not  so  the  late  Mr.  Gilbert -Wafee* 
c  field,  who,  besides  other  grateful  notices,  says,  in  p.  94—- 
B5  of  his  Life,  that  heis  ^^  acquainted  with  striking  instances 
:  of  liberality  in  Dr.  Farmer  towards  those  of  whose  integrity 
'  he  wais  convinced,  however  opposite  their  sentiments'*— |^ a 
.  character,  which,  although  Mr.  Wakefield  is  here  speakihg 
of  the.  mastership  of  the  college,  may  be  applied  to  Dr. 
Farmer  throughout  the  whole  progress  of  his  life.        *  ' 
:       In  April  1780,  Dr.  Farmer  was  collated  by  bishop  Hurd, 
then  bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  to  the  prebend  of 
^  Aldrewas,  and  the  chancellorship  annexed,  founded  in  fine 
^   cathedral  church  of  Lichfield.     In  February  1782  he  was 
t.  made  prebendary  of  Canterbury,  as  it  is  supposed,  through 
;  the  recommendation  of  the  then  first  minister,  lord  'North, 
.which  he  resigned  in  1788,  on  being  preferred  by  theikte 
^  I/lt.  Pitt  to  a  residentiaryship  of  St.  PauPs.     A  few  bolirs 
:.  after  this  appointment,  he  jocosely  said  to  his  fHend  Mr. 
i-  Nichols,  <^  I  could  now,  if  I  thought  proper,  cheat  the 
r  pninister,  for  I  have  in  my  pocket  an  appointment  t61he 
.    residentiaryship  of  St.  Paulas,  without  having  resigned  ^the 

(irebend  of  Canterbury."  ' 

y.  \  Dr.  Farmer  had  now  attained  the  utmost  of  his  wi^es; 
and  although  both  an  English  and  an  Irish  bishoprick  #ere 
offered  to  him,  he  declined  them,  for  which  various  reli^na 
:  have  been  assigned.  One  is  certainly  erroneous.  It  has 
..  been  said  ^^  that  in  early  life  he  had  felt  the  power  of  Idve, 
'  and  bad  suffered  such  a  disappointment  as  had  sunk  deep 
'    i»  ibia  mindi  and  for  a  time  threatened  his  undecstattdkig. 

F  A  B  U  E  S.  ISt 

JFtooi  tbat  period)  though  he  retained  his  faculties  entire^ 
.be  acquired  some  peculiarities  of  manner^  of  which  he  was 
MO  £»r  conscious,  as  to  be  sensible  that  they  would  bardty 
jbecome  the  character  of  a  bishop;  being  likewise  strongly 
^^lached  to  dramatic  entertainments  (which,  if  we  mistalie 
.  i^oty  the  English  bishops  never  witness),  and  delighting  in 
^  ^lubs  where  he  could  hanre  rational  conversation  without 
.  i^tate  or  ceremony  of  any  kind,  he  very  wisely  preferred 
his  residentiaryship  to  the  highest  dignity  in  the  church*** 
What  is  here  said  as  to  his  habits  being  incompatible  with 
the  character  of  a  bishop,  cannot  be  denied ;.  but  these 
Jiabits  were  partly  natural,  from  indolence  and  a  love  of 
ease>  and  partly  acquired  by  a  seclusion  from  polished 
^Qciety.     The  lady  to  whom  Dr.  Farmer  is  said  to  have 
Ji)een   attached,  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  sir  Thomas 
.  Jlattoo,  with  whom  he  became  acquainted  while  curate^of 
<§wavesey.    Cole  says,  sir  Thomas  refused  his  consent,  and 
this  refusal  appears  to  have  been  given  in  1782,  when  Dr. 
tFarmer  was  in  his  forty-seventh  year,  and  if,  as  Cole  af* 
jfirois,  the  lady  was  then  only  twenty-seven  or  twenty-eight 
years  of  age,  she  must  have  been  an  infant  when  Dr. 
'  Farmer  became  acquainted  with  her  father.    The  whole^ 
J|0)vever,  may  be  only  one  of  Cole's  gossiping  stories;  and 
whether  so  or  not,  Dr.  Farmer,    neither  at  this  or  any 
previous  time,  exhibited  any  symptoms  of  ^^  disappointed 
)ove,*'     It  is  more  rational  to  suppose,  with  bis  last  bto« 
f  rapfaer  (Mr.  Nichols),  that  when  be  arrived  at  that  situa* 
lion,  as  to  fortune,  which  gave  htm  a  claim  to  the  object 
of  his  affections,  he  found,  on  mature  reflection,  that  his 
habits  of  life  were  then  too  deeply  rooted  to  be  changed 
into  those  of  domestic  arrangements  with  any  probable 
.chanoe  of  perfect  happiness  to  either  party.     As  to  bia 
•promotion   to  a  bishopric,   it  may  yet  be   added,    that 
although  few  men  have  been  more  beloved  by  an  extensive 
.  qircle  of  friends  than  Dr.  Farmer,  there  was  not,  perhaps, 
,0Ae  of  them  who  did  not  applaud  his  declining  that  station, 
or  who  did  not  think,  with  all  their  respect  for  him,  that 
4>e  would  not  have  appeared  to  advantage  in  it.     It  is  not 
<a»  a  Divine  that  Dr.  Farmer  was  admired  by  his  contem* 
,    pararies,  or  can  be  known  to  posterity. 

Few  circumstances  of  Dr.  Farmer's  life  remain  to  ht 
noticed.  His  latter  years  were  nearly  equally  divided 
.between  Emanuel  college  and  the  residentiary -house  in 
Amen  Cprner,    His  town  residence  was  highly  favourable! 

FA  R  M  £  R. 

to  his  love  of  literary  soctely,  and  for  many  yeat!^  be  was  a 
member  of  diiFerent  clubs  composed  of  men  of  letters,'  by 
wbom  he  was  mucb  esteemed.  He  died,,  after  a  long  and 
painful  illness,  at  the  lodge  of  Emanuel  college,  Sept: 
8^  1797,  and  was  buried  in  thechapel.  His  epitaph  in  the 
cloisters  was  wrkten  by  Dr.  Parr,  who,  in  another  plec^ 
and  while  be  was  living,  said  of  him,  ^^  His  knowledge 
ia  various,  extensive,:  and  recondite,  with  mnch  seeming 
negligence,  and  perhaps  in  later  years  some  real  relaxation ;. 
he  understands  more,  and  remembers  more,  about  com- 
non  and  uncommon  subjects  of  literature,  than  many  of 
th^se  tvho  would  be  thought  to  read  all  the  day,  and  n>e^ 
ditate  half  the  night.  In  quickness  of  appiiehension,  ai^d 
acuteness  of  diserimination,  I  have  not  often  seen  his  equak 
Through, many  a  convivial  hour  have  I  been  charmed  with 
bis  vivacity ;  and  upon  his  genius  I  have  I'eflected  in  many 
a  serious  moment  with  pleasure,  with  admiration ;  but  not 
without  regret,  that  he  has  never  concentrated  and  exerted 
all  the  great  powers  of  his ;  mind  in  some  great  work,.  upoiJi 
spqie  great  subject.  Of  his  liberality  in;  patronizing  leaTiied 
men  1  could  point  out  numerous  instances.  Without  the 
smallest  propensities  to  avarice,  he  possesses  a  large  in^ 
ccM^e ;  and  without  the  mean  submissions  of  dependence^ 
)ie  is  risen  to  high  station.  Hia  ambition,  if  be  has  anyy 
|s.  without  insolence ;  his  munificence  is  without  ostenta*' 
lion ;  his  wit  is  without  acrimony ;  and  his  learning  without 
pedantry.''  The  value  of  this  elegant  character  is  its  li^ 
berality,  for  Dr.  Parr  avows  that  ^*  upon  some  ecclesias- 
tical, ai)d  many  political  matters,''  there  could  be  no  co^ 
incidence  of  opinion.  From  rooted  principle  and  ancient 
l^abit.  Dr.  Farmer  was  a  tory,  and  Dr.  Parr  is  a  whig  i  it 
|Dusl  be  a  third  character,  grown  out  of  the  corruption  of 
jjEill  principle,  that  would  injure  the  fair  fame  of  Dr.  Farmer 
j^y  attributing  his  rise  in  the  world  to  clerical  or  political 
jipbserviency.  »  \ 

:  Besides  the  very  liberal  and  faithful  discharge  of. his 
duties  as  master  of  his  college,  Dr.  Farmer  may  be  con^ 
s^dered  as  a  benefactor  .to  the  town  of  Cambridge,  for  by. 
Jbis  exertions  every  improvement  and  convenience  introN 
duced  for  the  last  thirty  years  of  his  life,  were  either 
originally  proposed,  or  ultimately  forwarded  and  carried 
into  execution  by  him.  The  plan  for  paviiig,  watching, 
and  lighting  the  town,  after  many,  ineffectual  atteuqpts, 
^as  accomplished  in  his  second  vice-phanpeUorsbip,  greatly 
to  the  satisfaction  of  all  parties.     As  a  magistrate,  he  was 

FA  R  M  E  R.  :  MS 

active  and  diligent ;  and  on  more  tiian  one  oooasion  of 
rioU,^  displayed  great  firmness  of  mind  in  dangerous  con«^ 
junctures.  In  bis  office  of  residentiary  of  St  Paul's,  if  he 
neas  not  the  first  mover,  he  was  one  oif  the  most  strenuoui 
.advocates  for  inUx)ducing  the  monoments  of  onr  illustrious 
heroes  and  men  of  talents  into  the  metropolitan  cathedral. ' 
His  libraryv  which  was  particularly  rich  in  scarce  tracts 
and  old  English  literature,  was  sold  by  Mr.  King  in  179S^ 
a  sale  (tf  thirty-five  days,  which  produced  2,210/;  aitbough 
jibe  books  are  supposed  to  have  cost  him  less  than  500/.-—* 
This  and  bis  other  property  he  bequeathed  to  his  brothev 
Joseph,  a  gentleman  many  yeavs  a  much  respected  resi^^ 
dent  at  Leicester,  who  died  in  1S13.  Such  was  his  indif*" 
£erenee  to  money  matters,  that  his  accounts  with  some 
of  his  pupils  were  never  settled  to  the  day  of  his  deatb^ 
Uader  such  circumstances,  it  became  neeessary  to  re^ 
mind  them  of  the  debts  they  had  early  contracted  witK 
their  worthy  tutor,  and  which  still  remained  uncancelled.. 
The  application  was  in  most  instances  attended  with  the 
dsesired  success.  The  debt  was  no  sooner  statedthan  dis- 
eliarged.  The  mention  of  Dr.  Farmer's  name  precluded 
the  necessity  of  further  inquiry*  His  life,  they  knew,  wa^. 
distinguished  by  the  most  disinterested  acts  of  generosi^ 
and  friendship.  Some  names  might  indeed  be  mentioned 
of  persons  who  were  disposed  to  controvert  the  justice  of 
these  claims,  and  to  prevaricate  rather  than  to  settle  j  but 
they  were  few.* 

.  FARNABIE,  or  FARNABY  (Thomas),  a  learned  grami 
mariao,  was  born  in  London  about  1575.  His  father  wai 
a  carpenter  in  that  city  ;  his  grandfather  had  been  mayor 
of  Truro  in  Cornwall ;  and  his  greats-grandfather  was  aii 
Italian  musician,  who  had  settled  in  England*.  After 
having  received  a  proper  grammatical  education,  hewai 
admitted  of  Merton-college,  Oxford,  in  the  beginning  of 
1590,  where  he  became  servitor  to  Mr.  Thomas  French^ 
fellow  of  that  college,  and  soon  distinguished  himself  as  a 
youth  of  lively  parts  and  great  hopes.  Being,  however,  of 
an  unse^ttled  disposition,  he  abruptly  quitted  the  university^ 
aad,  abandoning  both  his  religion  and  his  country,  passed 

'  *  There  was  a  Giles  Farnaby,  a  musician,  who  was  a  coDtemporary  wiUi  ouf 
author^  and  of  wham  some  notice  is  taken  in  oar  musical  histories,  but  could 
■St  be  the  person  mentioned  abo¥e.  " 

<  ^  Nidiola>8  Bowyer.-— Encyciop.  Britan.  Suppl. — ^Europ.  Mag.  FebJ  ISOa-^ 
Cole's  MS  AthesR  in  Sri(.  Mas.— ^Seward's  Biosraphiaaa.— >BgiwelVt  JM%  qH 

124  F  A  R  N  A  B  I  E, 


over  to  Spain,  and  was  for  smne  time  edticaied  ibere  in 
a  coUege  belonging  to  tbe  Jesuits.  At  length,  growins 
weary  of  the  severe  dtsciplioe  of  the  institution,  he  fouiia 
SI,  way  to  leavje  it,  and  went  with  sir  Francis  Drake  and  ski 
John  Hawkins  in  their  last  voyage,  in  i  595.  By  the  former 
of  these  great  naval  Gommanders  he  is  said  to  have  been 
held  in  some  esteem.  Mr.  Farn^bie  is  afterwards  repotted 
to  have  served  as  a  soldier  in  the  Low  Countries.  No  ad* 
vantage  was  gained  by  him  in  these  expeditions ;  for,  bav<» 
ing  been  reduced  to  much  distress^  he  landed  in  CornwaU, 
and  from  the  urgency  of  his  necessities  was  obliged  to  de-! 
fecend  to  the  humble  employment  of  teaching  children  thmr 
horh^iboak.  Whilst  he  was  iu  this  low  situation  he  did  not. 
cbuse  to  go  by  his  own  name,  but  changed  it  to  Thoma# 
Baiorafe,  the  anagram  of  Farnabie.  By  degrees  jbe  rosn 
to  those  higher  occupations  of  a  school-master  for  which 
he  was  so  well  qualified,  and  after  some  iime^  he  fixed  ait 
MaKtock  in  Somersetshire,  where  he  taught  a  grammar- 
^ool  with  great  success.  In  1646,  when  Mr.  Charles 
Darby  was  called  to  teach  the  same  school,  he  found  hi 
Ihat  town,  and  the  neighbourhood,  many  persons  who  had 
been  .Mr.  Farnabie^s  scholars^  and  -who,  in  their  grey  hairs^ 
were  ingenious  men  and  good  grammarians.  From  Mar«^ 
tock  Mr.  Farnabie  removed  to  London,  and  opened  S| 
school  in  Goldsmiths* -rents,  behind  Red-Cross-streetyiieai? 
Crippiegate,  where  were  large  gardens  and  handsoml^ 
bouses,  together  with  all  the  accommodations  proper  for 
the  young  noblemen  and  gentlemen  committed  to  his  care;. 
6o  established  was  his  reputation,  that  at  one  time  th^ 
number  of  his  scholars  amounted  to  more  than  three  hundreds 
Whilst  he  was  at  the  head  of  this  school,  he  was  created 
master  of  arts  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  and^in  thch 
64th  of  April,  1^16,  was  incorporated  to  the  same  degree 
»t  Oxford.  . 

,  After  a  course  of  years,  oa  account  of  some  diffeflenca^ 
with  his  landlords,  and  the  frequent  sicknesses  which  <h;«« 
curred  in  the  city,  Mr.  Farnabie  determined^  in  1636^  t5 
#]uit  London,  and  reside  at  Sevenoaks  in  Kent,  inth^ 
Beigh}>oi|rhood  of  which  town  (at  Otford)  he  had  purchase^ 
an  estate.  Here  he  renewed  his  former  occupation,  and, 
jTrom  the  jinmber  of  npbiemen^s  jand  gentlemen^s  .sons  wbp 
boarded  with  him,  grew  so  rich  as  to  add  considerably  to  him 
landed  property.  One  of  the  estates  purchased  by  him  waa 
'•ear  Horsham  in  Sussex.  His  works,  which  have  transmitted 

I"  A  H  N  A  B  I  E.  Ii25 


kk  fMime  wi&  honour  to  posterity,  were  not  only  well  re^- ' 
ceived  at  home^  but  abroad,  and  have  been  applauded  by 
several  eminent  foreign  scholars.  When  the  civil  comoio-i- 
tions  broke  out,  in  1941,  our  author  was  esteemed  to  be 
ilUaifected  to  the  parliament,  because,  on  occasion  of  the 
protestation's  being  urged  that  year,  he  had  said,  tliat  *^  it 
was  better  to  have  one  king  than  five  hundred."  Being 
afterwards  suspected  of  having  favoured  the  rising  of  the 
county  for  the  king  about  Tunbridge,  in  1643,  he  was 
imprisoned  in  Newgate,  and  thence  carried  on  shipboard* 
It  was  even  debated  in  the  house  of  commons  whether  he 
should  be  sent  to  America ;  but  this  motion  being  rejected^ 
he  was  removed  to  Ely-house  in  Holborn,  where  be  re-^ 
fnained  for  a  considerable  time.  It  is  insinuated  by  An- 
thony Wood,  that  some  of  the  members  of  both  houses^^ 
inrho  had  been  his  scholars,  were  amongst  those  who  urged 
his  being  treated  with  severity.  Mr.  Farnabie  departed 
this  life  on  the  twelfth  of  June,  1647,  aged  seventy-two, 
and  was  interred  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at  Sevenoaks. 
He  was  twice  married*  His  first  wife  was  Susanna,  daugh^ 
ler  of  John  Pierce,  of  Launcells,  in  Cornwall,  gent.  By 
ber  he  had  a  son  named  John,  who  became  a  captain  in 
king  Charles's  army,  and  inherited  his  father's  estate  in 
Sussex,  where  he  lived  in  good  esteem,  and  died  about: 
the  beginning  of  1673.  Mr.  Farnabie's  second  wife  was 
Anne,  the  daughter  of  Dr.  John  Howson,  bishop  of  Dur*^ 
ham,  by  whom  he  had  several  children.  One  of  them, 
Francis,  succeeded  to  bis  father's  estate  at  Kippington,  ill 
the  parish' of  Sevenoaks.  From  this  gentleman  Anthony 
Wood  derived  his  information  concerning  the  particulars 
of  our  famous  school-master's  life,  and  asserts  that  he  waa 
the  chief  grammarian^  rhetorician,  poet,  Latinist^  and  Gre^ 
tiBUf  of  his  time.  Wood  adds,  that  his  school  was  so 
much  frequented,  that  more  churchmen  and  statesmeft. 
issued  from  it,  than  from  any  school  taught  by  one  man  i» 

' .  His  works  are :  1 .  **  Notae  ad  Juvenalis  et  Persii  Saty* 
ras,"  Londi  1612,  ft^vo*  The  third  edition  was  printed  at 
London,  in  1620,  under  the  following  title :  ^^  Junii  Juveo 
nalis  et  Auli  iPersii  Flacci  Saryrse  :  cum  annotationibus  acl 
tnarginem,  quae  obscurissima  quseque  dilocrdare  possint*. 
Tertia  Editio,  prioribus  multo  emendatior  et  auctior."  Th^ 
book  is  dedicated  to  Henry  prince  of  Wales,  who  received 
the  author  very  kindly,  and  in  some  measure  coawtanded 

126  If'  A  R  irf  A  B  I  E: 

him  to  Write  siich  comments  on  all  the  Latin  poetis.'     2f. 
"  Notae  ai  Seiiecae  Tragoediaw,"  Loud;  1613,  8\o.    The' 
third  edition  was  printed  at  the  same  place^  in  1^34,  utider 
the  following  title :  *'  L.  et  M.  Annaei  Senecae  Tragcedia;. 
Post  omnes  omnium  editiones  recensionesque  editio  tertia 
auctior  et  emendatior,  operS.  et  studio  Thomae  Farnabii.'*^ 
To  this  edition  is  prefixed  a  privilege  granted  him  from  the 
king,  dated  October  1634,  for  the  sole  printing  of  th^t, 
and  several  other  of  his  works,  for  orie-and-twenty  years*' 
The  book  is  accompanied  with  commendatory  verses,  by 
Daniel  Heinsius,  Richard  Andrews,  M.  D.  Hugh  Holland, 
Laurence   Whitaker,    and  Na.  Tomkins.     3.  "  Nbtae   ad 
Martialis  Epigrammata,*'  Lond.  1615,  8vo.     Other  editions' 
in   12mo,  were  afterwards  printed,  both   at  London  and 
Geneva.     These  notes  were  dedicated  to  sir  Robert  Kille- 
grew.     4.  "  Lucani  Pharsalia,  sive  de  Bello  Civili  Csesaris* 
et  Pompeii  Libri  X.  Adjectis  ad  margiriem  notis  T.  Farna- 
bii,  quae  loca  obscuriora  illustrent,*'  London,   1618,  8vo/ 
Dedicated  to  sir  Francis  Stuartl     To  this  edition  are  pre-^ 
fixed  commendatory  verses  by  R.  A.  M.  D.and  Mr.  Selden/ 
5:  **  Index   Rhetoricus   Scholis   et   Institution!  tenerioris 
^tatis  aCcommodatus,**  Lond.  1625,  8vo.     To  an  edition 
published  in  the  same  city,  in  1646,  were  added,  "  For- 
miileeOtatdriae  et  Index  Poeticus."     The  fifth  edition  was 
printed  at  London,  in  1654,  under  the  following  title: 
**  Indeic  Rhetoricus  et  Oratorius,  Scholis  et  Institutioni 
tenerioris  JEtatis  accoinmodatus.     Cui  adjiciuntur  Formulae 
Oratoriae  et  Index  Poeticusl     Oper&  et  studio  I'homae  Far- 
nabiil     Editio.  quinta,  pfioribus  emendatior."     This  book' 
is  dedicated  to  Dominico  Molino,  Senator  of  Venice.     The 
Index  Poejticus,  annexed  to  this,  was  first  printed  at  Lon- 
dbn  in  t634.     In  the  preface  to  the  **  Index  Rhetoricus/* 
Mr.'Farnabie  informs  his  readers,  that  he  had  published, 
apput  t^<fehty  years  before,  his  Scheme  of  Tropes,  in  verse,, 
withptjt  his   name;    which,    meeting  with  success,    was 
clamed'  by  a  certain   plagiary ;  upon  which  our  author 
cbiiiJibsM  his  "  Index  Rhetoricus."     Mons.  Gibert  speaks 
of  this  work  w^ith  commendation,  and  observes  tliat  Mons. 
BaiUet  has  passed  a  favourable  judgment  upon'  it.     Father 
VaVass^'ur,  though  he  affirms  that  Mr.  Farnabie's  Latin  is 
^otiietimes  exceptionable,  allows  him,  nevertheless,  to  have 
been  a  diligent  and  learned  writer.     6.  **  Florilegium  Epi- 
grammatum  Graecorum,  edrumque  Latino  versu  a  variis 
redditorum/*  London,  1629,  8va,  &c.     7.  "Notae  ad  Vir- 

P  A  R  N  A  B  I  R  trf 

giliuiDy'^  London,   1634,  8td.     8.  <<  Systema  Grammati-^' 
cuQiy^'  London,  1641,  8vo.     King  Charles  the  First  ordered 
Mr.  Farnabie  to  write  a  Latin  grammar,  for  the  use  of  alt 
the  schools,  when  that  which  had  been  established  by  law,' 
and  against  which  many  complaints  had  been  made,  was  U» 
he  reformed*     9.  "Notae  in  Ovidii  Metamorphoses,"  Paris, 
1637,  folio;  and  London,  in  12mo,  1677,  &o.     10.  ^^  Pbra« 
siologia  Anglo-Latina,''  London,  8vo.     11."  Tabulae  Grae-^ 
cae  Linguae,"  London,  4to.     12.  "Syntaxis,"  London,  8vo. 
13.  ^<  Notae  in  Terentium."     Our  author  had  finished  bis 
notes  upon   Terence  only  as  far  as  the  fourth  comedy^- 
when  he  died.     But  Dr.  Meric  Casaubon  completed  the: 
two  last  comedies,  and  published  the  whole  at  London, 
lt€5i,  l2mo.     Anthony  Wood  hath  added  lo  the  catalogue, 
**  Epistolae  variae  ad  doctissimos  Viros.'*     But  this  article 
^oes  not  refer  to  a  distinct  publication,  but  to  the  letters 
occasionally  written  by  Farnabie  to  learned  men,  and  par* 
ticularly  to  Vossius.  * 

'  FARNEWORTH  (Ellis),  distinguished  by  translating; 
some  capital  authors,  was  born  (as  is  presumed)  at  jBonte-r 
shall  in  Derbyshire,  where  his  father,  of  the  same  names, 
was  rector.     He.  was  bred  first  at  Chesterfield  scIiqoI  undev; 
Mr.  William  Burrow^  a  celebrated  master,  and  afterwards, 
removed   to   Eton.     He  was  admitted  of  Jesus  college, 
Cambridge;  and  matriculated  Dec.  17,  173X).     In  1734  he. 
took   his  degree  of  B.  A.  and  in  1738  that  of  M.  A.     In: 
1762  he  was  presented  by  Dr.  James  Yorke,  dean  of  Lin- 
coln^ to  the  rectory  of  Carsington  in  Derbyshire;  but  did 
not  enjoy  it  long,  as  he  died  March  25,   1763.     His  pub-^ 
lications  were,  1 .  "  The  life  of  Pope  Sixtus  V.  translated 
from  the  Italian  of  Gregorio  Leti^  with  a  preface^  prole- 
gomena, notes,  and  appendix,  1754,^'  folio.     2.  ^^  Davila^S: 
History  of  France,'*  1757,  2  vols.  4to.     3.  "A  translaiioa 
of  the'  works  of  Machiavel,  illustrated  with  annotatioas^ 
dissertatiofis,  and  several  new  plans  on  the  art  qf  war/* 
V76I,  2  vols.  4to:,  reprinted  in  1775,  4  vols.  8va  .4.  **A 
stibrt  history  of  the  Israelites,  from  the  French  of  the  abjb^ 
d^  Fieury,^V  1756,  8vo,  has  been  attributed  to  him,  but  it 
was  hii  only  by  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Thomas  Bedford  (son 
of  Hilkiah),  who  gave  him  the  translation,  in  hopes, that  he- 
might  raise  some  money  by  it,  as  he  was  then  poor.     Nona 

•"■•'•.'  .  " 

1  Btog.  Brit.— «Aih.  Ox.  vol.  H.-^rGeo.  Di«t  where  hi»  Life  was  first  inserted^ 
«<-Niceron«  toI.  XVI. 


indeed  of  his  works  itppear  to  hitve  been  ^ofitable^  A*- 
though  bis  translation  of  Machiavely  which  be  literally 
'^  hawked  round  the  town,"  now  sells  at  a  very  high  price« 
On  one  occasion  Dr.  Addenbroke,  dean  of  Lichfield,  re- , 
eomntended  him  to  translate  Spelman's  Life  of  Alfred  from 
the  Latin  into  English,  and  Farneworth  was  about  to  have 
begun,  when  Dr.  Pegge  luckily  informed  him  that  the  Lifd 
of  Alfred  was  originally  written  in  English,  and  thence 
translated  into  Latin.  Mr.  Farneworth  is  supposed  to  have 
been  the  author  of  a  ludicrous  and  pleasant  account  of 
l^owell,  the  fire-eater,  in  Gent.  Mag.  1755,  signed  Philo- 
pyrpbagus  Ashburniensis.  He  was  at  that  time  curate  tor 
the  rev.  John  Fitzherbert,  vicar  of  Ashbourne.  * 

FARQUHAR  (George),  an  ingenious  comic  writer^ 
was  the  son  of  a  dergyman  in  Ireland,  and  born  at  Lon- 
donderry in  1678,  where  he  received  the  rudiments  o£ 
education,  and  discovered  a  genius  early  devoted  to  the 
muses.  When  he  was  very  young,  he  gave  specimens  of 
his  poetry ;  and  discovered  a  force  of  thinking,  and  turn 
of  expression,  much  beyond  his  years.  His  parents,  bav^* ' 
log  a  numerous  issue,  xould  bestow  on  him  no  other  for- 
tune than  a  liberal  education :  therefore,  when  he  wa» 
qualified  for  the  university,  he  wa^  sent  in  1694  toTcinity*. 
college,  in  Dublin.  He  made  great  progress  in  his  stodiesy 
and  acquired  a  considerable  reputation :  but  bis  gay  and 
volatile  disposition  could  not  long  relish  the  gravity  and- 
retirement  of  a  college  life,  and  therefore,  soon  quitting 
it^  he  betook  himself  to  the  diversions  of  the  stage,  aod 
got  admitted  into  the  company  of  the  Dublin  theatre.  He 
bad  the  advantage  of  a  good  person,  and  was  well  received 
%%  an  actor,  though  his  voice  was  somewhat  weak:  for 
which  reason  he  resolved  to  continue  on  the  stage,  till 
something  better  should  offer.  But  his  resolution  was  sooi^ 
broken  by  an  accident :  being  to  play  the  part  of  Guyo*^ 
ndar,  who  kills  Vasquez,  in  Dryden's  "  Indian  Emperor/* 
and  forgetting  to  exchange  his  sword  for  a  foil,  in  the  en-* 
gUgement  he  wounded  his  brother  tragedian,  who  repre-^ 
sented  Vasquez,  very  dangerously ;  and  though  the  wound 
did  not  prove  mortal,  yet  he  was  so  shocked  at  it,  that  be 
determined  never  more  to  appear  on  the  stage. 

Sqpn  after  this,  having  now  no  inducement  to  remain  at 
Dublin,  he  went  to  London,  where,  in   1696,  the  qele- 

*  Nichols'!  Bowyer* 

F  A  R  a  U  ft  A  It  15& 

l»rate<t  actor  Wilks  pre vaifed' upon  him  to  write  it  play,*  and, 
kiifO^ng  his  humour  and  abilities,  assured  him,  that  he 
was  considered  hy  all  as  fitter  to  furniah  compositions  Ant 
the  stage,  thab  to  act  those  of  other  writers.     Another  en- 
couragement, tvhich  suffered  him  to  exercise  his  genius  ait 
leisure,  he  owed  to  the  earl  of  Orrery,  a  patron  as  w^H  ds  ' 
a  master  of  letters,  who  conferred  a  Iteutenant^s  comniis- 
sion  upon  him  in  his  own  regiment  in  Ireland,  which  Fai^  '' 
qubar  held  several  years,  and  gave  several  proofs'  both  cfl 
c6urage  and  conduct.     Tn  1698,  his  first  coTn<idy,  callefl 
'VLove  in  a  Bottle,''  appeared  on  the  stage;  and  for  il& 
spfightly   dialogue  and   busy  scenes,  was   wed  receiveA 
by  the  audience.     In  1700  he  produced  his  ^<  Cpnstaftt 
Oouple,  or.  Trip  to  the  Jubilee,"  it  being  then  the  jubilee 
year  at  Rome,    when  persons  of   all  countries  flocked 
tRither,  for  pardons  or  amusements.     In  the  character  of 
nif  Harry  Wildair,  our  author  drew  so  gay  and  airy  a  cba^ 
racter,  so  suited  to  Wilfcs^s  talents,  and  so  aniiiiated  by  hie 
gesture  and  vivacity  of  spirit,  that  the  player  gained  almost ' 
as  n)uch  reputation  as  the  poet.    Towards  the  eud  of  this  ' 
year,  Farquhar  was  ifi  Holland,  probably  upon  his  military- 
duty:  and  be  h^s  given  a  very  facetious  description  of'' 
those  places  and  people,  in  two  of  his  letters,  dated  frorft 
the  Brill  aiid  from  Leyden^  in  a  third,  dated  from'  the' 
Hague,  he  very  humourously  relates  how  merry  he  wais 
therie,  at  a  treat  made  by  the  earl  of  Westmorelamd ;  while' 
not  only  himself,  but  king  William,  and  others  of  his  sub-  \ 
jeVts,  were  d(6tained  there  by  a  violent  storm.     There  i$ 
also  among  his  poems,  an  ingenious  copy  of  verses  to  his 
mistress  upon  the  same  subject.     Thiij  mistress  is  supposed 
tb  have  been  Mrs.  Oldfield,  whom  he  first  recommended 
td  the  fl^age.     In  1 70 1  he  was  a  spectator,  if  not  a  mobmer, 
at  Dryden's  funeral;  for  the  deacription  he  has  giten  of  it 
iQ^bne  of  his  letters,  affords  little  indication  of  sorrow. 

Encohra^ed  by  the  gi^at  success  of  his  last  play,  he ' 
wr^te  a  continuation  of  it,  in  1701,  called,  •*  Sir  Harrv 
\V*iIdair,  ^f.  The  Sequel  of  the  Trip  to  the  Jubilee?" 
iii  wbUh  Mrs.  Oldfield  obtained  as  much  reputation,  and 
Was  as  greatly  admired  in  her  part,  as  Wilks  was  in 
his..  In  1702  he  published  his  ^*  Miscellanies,  or,  OoL- 
lection  of  poems,  letters,  and  essays,"  which  contm  a 
Tariety  of  humourous  and  pleasant  sallies  of  fatrcy.  It' 
.  is  said^  that  some  of  the  letters  were  published  ftom 
copies  returned  to  him^  at  his  request^  by  Mrs.  OlctKdd. 

Vol.  XIV.  K 

186  *-  A  a  a  U  H  A  R. 

There  is  at  Ae  end  of  them^  ^*  A  discourse  upon  Come^^ 
in  reference*  to  the  English  stage  ;^'  and  in  one  of  the  let* 
-iers,  **  The  Picture/*  containing  a  descripfcion  and  cba* 
•i^aoter  of  himself,  irom  which  we  learn  that  be  vms  very 
ingenuous,  very  good-liatured,  and  very  thoughtless,  in 
,1703  he  brought  out  another  lively  conoedy  called  ^'  The 
Inconstant^  or,  the  way  to  win  him  f  but  the  fashion  now 
Jurning  towards  Italian  arid  French  operas,  this  comedy, 
although  not  inferior,  wasr received  more  coldly  than  .the 
former.  Farqubar  was  married  this  year,  and,  as  was  at 
•'first  reported,  to  a  great  fortune ;  which  indeqd  he  ex*- 
ipectedf  but  was  miserably  disappointed.  -The  lady  had 
imlien  in  love  with  him,  and  so  violent  was  her  passion, 
that  she  resolved  to  have  him  at  any  rate :  and  ^s  she  knew 
be  was  too  much  dissipated  to  fall  in  love,  or  to  think  of  ma- 
:trimony,  unless  advantage  was  annexed  to  it,  she  first 
x^atised  a  report  to  be  spread  of  her  being  a  great  fortune^ 
.end  then  had  him  persuaded  that  she  was  in  love  'with 
bim.  He  married  her :  and  though  he  found  himself  de« 
xeived,  his  circutastances  embarrassed,  and  his  family  in- 
creasing, he  never  once  upbraided  her  for  the  imposition, 
but  behaved  to  her  with  all  the  delicacy  and  tenderness  of 
an  indulgent  husband. 

Very  early  in  1704,  a  farce  called  "  The  Stage-coach,'^ 
dUi  the  composition  of  whidi  he  was  jointly  concerned  with 
another,  made  its  first  appearance,  and  was  well  received. 
!His  next  comedy,  named  '^  The  Twin-Rivals,''  was  played 
in  1705;  and  in  1706,  his  comedy,  called.  "The  Recruit- 
ing Officer."  He  dedicated  this  "  to  all  friends  round  the 
.Wrekin,''  a  noted  hill  near  Shrewsbury,  where  ho'^bad 
been  to  recruit  for  his  company ;.  and.wbere,  from  h\»  ob- 
iervations  on  country  life,  the  manner  in  which  Serjeants 
dinteigle  clowns  to  enlist,  and  the  loose  behaviour  of  .the 
officers  towards  the  milk-maids,  and  country  girls,  he  col^ 
lected  matter  sufficient  to  form  a  comedy  which  still  holds 
Its  place  on  the  stage.  His  kst  comedy  was  "  The  Beaux 
fitvatagem,"  of  which  be  did  not  live  to  enjoy  thefuU  suc- 
cess. ■  The  characters  in  this  play  w^e  all  said  to  have 
.been  taken  fron^  originals  then  living  in  or  near  the  city  of 
Xitchfield }  and  the  last  of  them,  Thoma^Boodi  a  secyant 
.in  ^e  fiamily  of  sir  Theophilus  Bidjlulpb,  diefl  in  176^. 
:He  was  the  Scrub*  ^  .Tbis^perhapAofjall  his  pieces  baa  na- 
.mained'  longest,  and  is  oftenest  acted  on  tlie  stage.  To- 
.wards  the  clo^e  of  bis  short  life,  be  was  unhappily  oppresse<3 
with  some  debts :  and  this. obliged  him  to  ma^^e  application 

^ASaUHAR.  Itl 

/4(9Pt«oiiitier|  wbo  b«d  formerly  made  him  many  professions 
^'ef  tfiiendsli^.  His  pretended  patron  adtised  bim  to  con- 
-▼ert  his  eoauaaission  into  the.inon^  he  waAtedy  aad 
'l^tedged  his  honour  that  in  a  short  time  he  would  pro^dde 
•him  another.'^  This  cireomstseiice  lippearing  favottraUe, 
fand  unable  tO'-bear  the  thougins  of  want»  be.  sold  his 
;  commissioh :  but' when  ^e  tenewed  bis  applicdAion»  afad 
'i«presented  hiff' distressed  situatioti,  his  noble  patroo  had 
r  forgot  his  promise^'  or  rather,  perhaps^  bad  nev^ei^  the  least 
iiiise^tkm  to.  fulfil  it.  This  distracttng  dbappointment  so 
-  preyed  updn  his  miiid^  as  to  occasion  his  d^atby  April,  1  !70!7, 
f before  he  was  thirty  yeais  of  age.  Sood^  after^  the.  foUow- 
ingflettisr  to  Mr.  Willis  was  found,  among  hia  pikers: 
'.<<  Dear  Bob,  I  have  not  any  thing  to  leave  thee  to  perpe* 
rtvale  may  miemory  but  two  lielpless'  girls ;  look  upon  them 
/semetiroes,  and  think  of  him  that  was  to  the  last  moment 
'Jof  his  life,  thine,  George  Farqubar.^'  I'his  recoooimende- 
tion,  vwhich  resemUed  -  the  celebrated  testament  of  Euda-^ 
onidasy'^'was  duly  regarded  by  Wilks;  and  wbea  the  girls 
becaoie  of  an  age  ;to  be:  put  out  into  the  world  in  business, 
jte  proottred  a  benefit  ^or  eaeh  o£  them,  to  suppjytbe^  ne- 
cessary reocfurces^       .       . 

»    The  suocess  of  Farqubar's  comedies  is  said,  in  general, 

''#ar  to  have  exceeded  his  own  expectations;  and  of  bis 

meritr  as  a  writer,  various  opinions  have  beeo-  entertained. 

^itysia^beaUpwed,  however,  that  he  was  usually  happy  in 

tkie^liaiee  of  his  subjects,  and  adorned  theaai  witb.a  great 

jfwAev^  -of  tcharaeters  and  incidents :.  that  his  style  impure 

'and  nmffeioted:;  bis  wit  natural  and  flowing ;  and  his  plots 

genemlly  well  coniswed. .  Licentiousness  has  been  justly 

objeetewto  hia  obmedies,  whieh.was  the  vice  of  the  times. 

Ifops  Jisedt^'Cati  him  a  farce- writer ;  but  his  produictmia 

'Were  so  pleasing, .  that  many  years  ago  his  works  had.  gone 

through  eight  editions-;  and  to  this  day  bis  comedies  Jceep 

-' their  tank  upon  theataga 

*■  'Of  Us  iamily,  his  wife-died  in  circumstances  of  the  ut- 
most ia^hgenoe:  one*  of  his  daughters  was  married  to  an 
inferior  tradesman, '  and  died  soon  after.  Tbe  other  in 
I1ld4  was  living,  in  indigent  circumstances^  without  any 
kmmdedge  of  refinement  ia  rsentiments  or  expences ;  she 
seemed  to  take<tio  pride  !iti  her  father's  fame^  and  was  in 
swery  lespeot  fitted  lo  ber  hmiibk  atatiou.  ^  ■ 


.  >  Btojs.  Biit»— Biof .  JPirai&.«^ibber'<  (•hrei.<— Spence't  Aoecdotes  MS. 

%  9 

ife  t*  A  R  fiL 

FARR  (Samubl),  an  eminent  physician  at  Taunton,  ttaf 
born  in  1741,  of  parents  who  were  protestant  dissenten, 
and  was  first  educated  at  the  dissenting  aeadetny  at  War- 
tington,  from  whence  he  removed  to  Edinburgh,,  and  these 
and  at  Leyden  pursued  his  medical  studies^  talcing. his 
degree  at  the  latter  university.  Re  afterwards  settled  Mt 
Taunton,  where  he  was  highly  esteemed  for  his  skill*  and 
|>ersonal  character.  To  the  learning  which  peciUiafty 
qualified  him  for  his  profession,  he  united  a  coiisidefabie 
acquaintance  with  general  literature  and  science ;  and  with 
liedica]  knowledge  and  judgment,  be  possessed  die  powers 
of  instructing  and  entertaining,  as  the  lively  and  sensible 
eompanioti  of  the  social  hoor«  He  died  Match  II,  1195, 
at  the  bouse  of  John  Fisher,  esq.  Upeott,  near  Taunton. 
His  publications^  in  most  of  which  he  discovers  outeb 
original  observation,  extensive  experience^  and  conrecs 
Aeory,  were,  1.  "An  Essay  on  the  medical  viitiaea  of 
Acids,"  1769,  ]2mo.  2.  ^'  Apherismi  de  Manmno,  ex 
summis  medicis  collect!,*'  1772,  (dmo.  His  atientioD.te 
the  subject  of  consumption  produced  again,  S.  ^  Inquiry 
into  the  propriety  of  Blood-letting  in  Gonsomption/'  1775, 
Svo.  Although  he  does  not  absolutely  probibit  blood* 
letting,  he  seems  to  place  little  reliance  on  it  in  this  cruel 
disorder.  4.  ^  The  History  of  Epidemics ;  by  Htppocsates^ 
in  seven  books,  translated  into  English  from  the  Greek, 
with  notes  and  observations,  and  a  preliminary  disserta* 
tion  on  the  nature  and  cause  of  infection,'*  iMi,  4to,  I» 
this  work  are  not  a  few  errors  in  judgment,  proceedings 
]9robably,  from  a  too  great  aitachment  to  the  aothoeity  of 
Hippocrates.  Dr.  Farr  acquired  more'  vepatation  b]^  his 
last  work,  5.  <<  The  Elements  of  Mimical  Juri^mdeoce  f 
to  which  are  added,  directions  for  preserving  liie  Pnblie 
Health,**   1788,  8vo.* 

FAiRRAR.     See  FERRAR. 

FASSOLO  (B£UKarihko),  of  Pavia^  aq  artist  w1k» 
flourished  about  1518,  was  a  popil  oridiiiator  of  Lionaida 
da  Vinci,  and  the  most  suceessfol  of  all  his  imitators^  Ltmo 
perhaps  excepted,  if  be  be  judged  by  di«  cMily  picture^ 
which,  without  hesitation,  may  be  asorihed:tohkii«-  Thi&. 
pieture^  which  belonged  to  the  gallery  of  prince  Braschi^ 
was  carried  by  the  French  to  that  of  ^e  Loowe^  and  ve« 
presents,  in  a  grrape  of  Batiural  siM>  the  Madonna  with  tba 


r  A  S  S  O  L  O.  1)| 

tefittit  on  bet  hp  :  the  mother  in  qniet  repose,  with  botit 
eyes,  and  absorbed  in  meditation ;  her  simple  attitude  ii 
conlMuit^d  by  the  lively  one  ctf  the  child,  who  seems  to 
take  refuge  at  her  neck  and  breast  from  some  external 
objetit.  The  picture  is  inscribed  ^'  Bernardinus  Faxolus 
de  Papia  fecit,  1518,''^ 

FASTOLFF  (John),   knight,   and  knigbt-banneret,  a 
valiant  and  renowned  general,  governor^  and  nobleman  in 
France,  during  our  conquests  in  that  kingdom,  under  king 
Henry  IV.  V.  and  VI.  of  England,^  and  knights-companion 
I  of  the  most  noble,  order  of  the  garter,  has  been  supposed^ 
from  the  title  of  his  French  barony,  and  from  his  name 
.  being  so  often  corruptly  mentioned  in  the  French  histories^ 
owing  to  his  long  residence*,  and  many  engagements  in 
the  wars  there,  to  have  been  born  in  France,  at  least  of 
French  extraction.     Others,  allowing"  him  to  have  been 
a  native  of  England,  have  no  less  erroneously  fixed  bis 
birth«>p[aee  in  Bedfordshire ;  but  it  is  well  known  that  he- 
was  descended  of  an  ancient  and  famous  English  family  in 
the  county  of  Norfolk,  which  had  flourished  there  and  in 
other  parts  of  the  kingdom,  in  very  honourable  distinction^ 
before  the  conquest :  and  from  a  train  of  illustrious  an<r 
cestors,  many  of  them. dignified  with  tlie  honour  of  knight* 
hood,  invested  with  very  eminent  employments,  and  pos* 
sessed  of  extensive  patrimonies.     But  one  of  the  principal 
branches  being  seated  at  Castre  in  Fleg  near  Great  Yar^ 
mouth  in  that  county,  which  estate  descending  to  these 
ancestors,  he  afterwards  adorned  with  a  noble  family  seat^ 
it  is  presumed  he  was  born  there,  or  in  Yarmouth.    His 
frther  was  John  Fastolff,  esq.  of  that  town,  a  mian  of  con« 
fiaderable  account,  especially  for. his  public  benefactions^ 
pi6#s' foundations^  &c«     His  mother  was  Mary,  daughter 
of  Nicholas  Park,  esq.  and  married  to  sir  Richard  Mortimer^  * 
of  Attleburgfa ;  and  this  their  son  was  born  in  the  latter 
eod  of  king  Edward  the  Illd^s  reign.    As  he  died  ac  the 
^e  of  eighty,  in  1459,  his.  birth  could  not.  happen  later 
than  137S.     It  may  faiiiy  be  presumed  he  was  grounded 
^a^well  in  that  learning  and  other  aocompHshnjents  which 
aftlsrwards,  improved  by  his  expqrtence  and  sagacity,  ren- 
dered kim  so  &mou8  in  war  and  peace,  as  in  those  virtuous 
and  relfgious  prlndples  which  governed  his  actions*  to  j^he 
ktit.    His  ££^ther  dying  before  be  was  of  agCj  the  carec^ 

in  F  A  S  T  O  L  F  r. 

his  person  and  estate  were  committed  to  John  duke  of 
Bedford,  who  was  afterwards  the  most  wise  and  able  regent 
of  France  we  ever  had  there ;  and  he  was  -the  last  ward 
Which  that  duke  had :  others,  indeed,  say  that  he  waa 
trained  up  in  the  Norfolk  family,  which  ^yill  not  appear 
improbable  when  we  consider  that  it  was  nq^  unusual  in 
those  times  for  young  noblemen  whilst  under  wardship'  to 
be  trained  under  others,  especially  ministers  of  state,  in  ' 
^eir  houses  and  families,  as  in  academies  of  behaviour,  and 
to  qualify  them  for  the  service  of  their  country  at  home 
or  abroad.  Bi^t  if  be  was  under  Thomas  Mowbray  duke 
of  Norfolk,  while  he  enjoyed  that  title,  it  pouldbebu^. 
one  year,  that  duke  being  banished  the  kingdodd  by  king 
Bichajcd  11.  in  1398,^  though  bis  younger  son,  who  was 
restored  to  that  title  many  years  after,  might  be  one  of  At 
John  Fastolff^s  fecjrffees.  And  it  is  pretty  evident  that  he 
was,  but  a  few  years  after  the  banishment  of  that  duke,  in 
some  considerable  post  under  Thomas  of  Lancast^r^  after^ 
wards  duke  of  Clarence,  and  second  son  of  the  succeeding 
king  Henry  IV.  Thjs  Thomas  was  sent  by  his  f^^tber  sq 
^arly,  according  to  some  writer^,  as  the  second  year  of  his 
reign,  which  watS  in  1401,  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland.  And 
it  is  iiot  improbable  that  Fastol  if  was  then  with  him;  ifor 
we  fii^e  informed  by  William  of  WyrQestre>  that  in  the  sixth 
and  seventh  years  of  the  said  king  Henry,  that  is,  in  1405 
and  140j6,  this  John  FastolflF,  esq.  w^  conti^iually  with 
bim.  And  the  same  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland  w^s  again 
ihere  in  I40B,  IQ  Henry  IV.  and  almost  to  the  beginning 
of  the  next  year,  when  it  is  no  less  probable  that  Fastol$ 
was  stillwith  him;  for,  in  the  year  last  mentioned,  w^ 
find  that  he  was  married  in  that  kingdom  to  'a  rich, 
young  widow  of  quality,  named  Milicent,lady  Castlecomb^ 
daughter  of  Robert  lord  Tibetot,  and  relict  of  sir  Stephen 
iScrope,  knight ;  the  same,  perhaps,  who  is  nie.ntionedj^ 
though  not  with  the  title  of '  knighthood,  by  sir  P;  Ley- 
cester,  .to  have  been  the  said  lord  lieutenant^s  deputy  of 
trelaild,  during  most  of  the  intervals  of  his  return  to  Eng- 
land ;  which  deputy-lieutenant  died  in  his  office  the  same, 
year.  This  marriage  was  solemnized  in  Ireland  on  the 
feast  of  St.  Hilary^  1403,  and  FastolfF  bound  himself  iQ\ 
the  sum  of  lOOOl  to  pay  her  1002.  a  yefar,  for  pin-money 
during  life  i  and  she  received  the  same  to  the  24tb  year  of 
king  Henry  VI.  The  lands  in  Wiltshire  and  Yorkshire 
^hicb  came  to  Fastolff  by  this  marriage  with  the  said  lady, 

J  A  S  T  O  L  F  J?.  13« 

da^cemled  to  Stephen  Le  Scrope^  her  son  and  heir.    Wa 

miky  .reasonably  believe  that  this  marriage  in  Ireland  en-^ 

gaged  bis  settlement  in  that  kingdom,  or  upon  his  estate 

in  Norfolk,  till  his  appointment  to  the  command  of  some 

forces,  or  to  some  post  of  trust  under  the  English  regency 

in  France,  soon  after  required  his  residence  in  that  king*- 

dom.     For,  according  to  the  strictest  calculation  we  can 

make  from  the    accounts  of  his  early   engagements  in 

:France,  the  many  years  he  was  there,  and  the  time  of  his 

final  return,  it  not  long  after  his  marriage  that  he 

left  either  England  or  Ireland  for  that  foreign  service ; 

being  employed  abroad  by  Henry  IV.  V.  and  VI.  in  the 

wars  in  France,  Normandy,  Anjou,  Mayne,  and  Guyenne, 

upwards  of  forty  years  ;  which  agrees  very  well  with  what>  . 

Caxton^has  published,  in  his  concise,  yet  comprehensive 

c^iaracter  of  him',  little  more  than  twenty  years  after  his 

death,  where  he  speaks  of  his  ^^.  exercisyng  the  warrys  ih 

the  royame  of  Fraunce  and  other  countrees,  &c.  by  fourty 

yeres  enduryng."    So  that,  we  cannot  see  any  room,  either 

in  the  time  or  the. temper,  in  the  fortunes  or  employmenta 

of  this  knight,  for  him  to  have  been  a  companion  with,  or 

follower  and  corrupter  of  prince  Henry,  in  his  juveniie 

4nd  dissolute  courses ;  nor,  that  Sbakspeare  had  any  View 

of  (^rawing  his  sir  John  Falsiaff  from  any  part  of  this  sir 

John  FastolfTs  character;  or  so  much  as  pointing  at  any 

indifferent  circumstance  in    it  that. can  reflect  upon  hW  " 

memory,  with  readers  conversant  in  the  true  history  of 

hioi..    The  one  is  an  old,   humourous,  vapouring,    and- 

eowardly,  lewd,  lying,  and  drunken  debauchee,  about  the 

princess  court;  when  the  other  was. a  young  and  grave, 

discreet  and  valiant,  chaste  and  sober,  commander  abroa4; 

Qoptinualiy  advanced  to  honours  and  places  of  profit,  for 

^is  brave  and  politic  atchievement^,  military  and  civil  ;;f 

continually  preferred  to  the  trust  of  one  govcjrnment  or 

Qtjier;   of  countries,  cities,  towns,  &c.  or  as  a  g^nerail^ 

and  commander  of  armies  in  martial  expeditions  while  * 

abroad ;  made  knight-banneret  in  the  field  of  battle ;  baron 

ijii  fr^nf^e,  and  kni&;bt  of  the  garter  in  England ;  and,  par-^. 

tiPi^larly,  when  finally  settled  at  home,  constantly  ,ex^rcised 

in  acts  of  hospitality,  muniBcence,  and  charity  ;  >  founder 

of  religions  buildings,  and  other  stately  ediBces  ornamental. 

ta  his  country,  as  their  remains  still  testify ;  a  geiieroua; 

patron  pf  worthy  ^nd  learned  men,  and  a  public  benefactor 

40  th^/nious  aod  the  poor,    Jn  short,  the  mora  we  gow^. 

136  £  A  3  T  O  L  E  F. 

piire  the  circmnttances  in  this  historical  character,  witli 
thost  in  that  poetical  one,  we  can  find  nothing  discredit- 
able in  the  latter,  that  has  any  relation  to  the  former,  or 
that  would  mislead  an  ignorant  reader  to  mistake  or  con- 
found them,  but  a  little  quibble,  which  makes  some  con- 
formity in  their  names,  and  a  short  degree  in  the  time 
whereiu  the  one  did  really,  and  the  other  is  feigned  to  live. 
And,  in  regard  to  the  prince  of  Wales,  or  oar  knight's 
being  engaged  in  any  wild  or  riotous  practices  of  his  youib^ 
the  improbabilities  may  also  appear  from  the  comparison  of 
their  age,  and  a  view  of  this  prince's  commendable  en- 
gagements till  that  space  of  time  in  which  he  indulged  bis 
interval  of  irregularities,  when  the  distance  of  our  knight 
will  clear  him  from  being  a  promoter  of,  or  partaker  ir» 
them.  For  it  is  apparent,  that  he  had  been  intrusted  with- 
a  command  in  France  some  time  before  the  death  of  king. 
Henry  IV. ;  because,  in  1413,  the  very  first  year  of  his  son, 
trho  was  now  grown  the  reformed,  and  soon  after  proved 
the  renowned,  Henry  V.  it  appears  that  FastolfF  had  the. 
eastle  and  dominion  of  Veires  in  Gascoigne  committed  to 
his  custody  and  defence :  whence  it  is  very  reasonably  in^ 
ierred,  that  he  then  resided  in  the  said  duchy,  which  at 
that  time  was  possessed  by  the  English.  In  June  1415^. 
FastolfF,  then  only  an  esquire,  was  returned,  by  indenture, 
with  ten  men  of  arms,  and  thirty  archers,  to  serve  the  king 
at  his  arrival  in  France.  Soon  after  king  Henry  was  ar- 
rived in  Normandy,  in  August  following,  with  above  30,000 
men,  the  English  army  having  made  themselves  masters  of 
Harfleur,  the  most  considerable  port  in  that  duchy,  Fastolff 
was  constituted  lieutenant  thereof,  with  1500  men,  by  the 
earl  of  Derby,  as  Basset  in  his  MS  history  informs  us ; . 
but,  as  we  find  it  in  others,  the  king,  upon  this  conquest^ 
constituted  his  said  uncle  Thomas  Beaufort,  earl  of  Dorset 
and  duke  of  Exeter,  governor  of  Harfleur,  in  conjunctiot^ 
with  sir  John  FastolfF;  and,  having  repaired  the  fortifica- . 
tions,  placed  therein  a  garrison  pf  two  thousand  select 
men,  as  Titus  Livius  numbers  them ;  or  of  fifteen  hundred 
men  at  arms,  and  thirty-five  knights,  according  tc^'  HalPs  . 
account ;  to  which  number  M onstrelet  also  adds  a  thousand' 
archers.  Towards  the  latter  end  of  October,  in  the  year  . 
last  mentioned,  he  was  dangerously  engaged  in  the  ever^ 
memorable  battle  of  Agincourt,  where  it  is  said  that  Fas-» 
tolfF,  among  others,  signalized  himself  most  gallantly  by 
faking  the  duke  of  Alen^on  prisoner  |[  though  otb^bis-  . 

F  A  S  T  O  L  FF.      ^  187 

tdrinns  t^  that  duke  was  alaifi  after  la  desperate  encouoter 
with  king  Henry  himself^  in  which  he  cut  off  the  crownedl 
crest  of  the  king's  helmet.  The  fact  is,  that,  in  a  sue-* 
oeeding  battle,  FastolfF  did  take  this  duke's  son  and  suc^ 
cessor  prisoner.  In  the  same  year,  1415,  he,  with  the 
duke  and  3000  English,  invaded  Normandy,  and  pencr 
trated  almost  to  Rouen ;  but  on  their  return,  loaded  with 
booty,  they  were  surprised,  and  forced  to  retreat  towards 
Harfleur,  whither  the  enemy  pursuing  them,  were  totally 
defeated.  The  constable  of  France,  to  recover  his  credit^ 
hiid  siege  to  Harfleur,  which  made  a  vigorous  defence 
under  sir  John  FastolfF  and  others  till  relieved  by  the  fleet 
linder  the  duke  of  Bedford.  He  was  at  the  taking  of  the 
castle  of  Tonque,  the  city  of  Caen,  the  castle  of  Courcy,. 
the  city  of  Sees,  and  town  of  Falaise,  and  at  the  great 
fijege  at  Rouen,  1417.  For  his  services  at  the  latter  be 
was  made  governor  of  Conde  Noreau ;  and  for  his  eminent 
services  in  those  victories,  he  received,  before  the  29th  of 
JmiUftry  following,  the  honour  of  knighthood,  and  had  the. 
manor  and  demesne  of  Fritense  near  Harfleur  besto\yed. 
upon  him  during  life.  In  1418  he  was  ordered  to  seize 
upon  the  castle  and  'dominion  of  Bee  Crispin,  and  other 
manors,  which  were  held  by  James  D^Auricher,  and  several 
other  knights;  and  had  the  said  castle,  with  those  lands, 
granted  him  in  special  tail,  to  the  yearly  value  of  200Q. 
scutes.  In  1420  be  was  at  the  siege  of  Monsterau,  as  Peter 
Basset  has  recorded ;  and,  in  the  next  year,  at.  that  of 
Meaulx-en-Brie.  About  five  months  after  the  decease  of 
king  Henry  V.  the  town  of  Meulent  having  been  surprized 
in  January  1422,  John  duke  of  Bedford,  regent  of  France, 
and  sir  John  Fastolff,  then  grand  master  of  his  household, 
and  seneschal  of  Normandy,  laid  siege  to  the  same,  and 
re-took  it.  In  1423,  after  the  castle  of  Cravent  was  re- 
lieved, our  knight  was  constituted  lieutenant  for  the  king 
and  regent  in  Normandy,  in  the  jurisdictions  of  Rouen,^ 
£vreuii,  Alen^on,  and  the  countries  beyond  the  river. 
Seine:  also  governor  of  the  countries  of  Anjou  and  Maine, 
and  before  the  battle  of  Verneuil  was  created  banneret* 
About  three  months  after,  being  then  captain  of  AIen9on,( 
and  governor  of  the  marches  thereof,  he  laid  siege  to  the 
castle  of  Tenuye  in  Maine,  as  a  French  historian  informsi 
U9,  which  waift  Surrendered  to  him;  and,  in  1424,  he  wa^ 
sMt  to  oppose  the  delivery  of  Alengon  to  the  French,  upoi| 
aditticotery  kiuude  that  a  Gascoigner  had  secretly  contracted 

138  F  A  S  T  a  L  F  F. 

to  betray  4be  same.    In  September  1425,  he  laid  siege  to 
Beaumont  le  Vioompt,  which  surrendered  to  him.     Then 
tho  be  took  the  castie  of  S«ilie-le*Guillem»  fron^  whidh  he 
was  dignified  with  the  title  of  baron  :  but  this,  revolttng> 
afterwards  again  to  the  French,  was  assaulted  by  the  earl 
of  Arundel,  and  retaken  about  seven  years  after.     In  the 
year  last  mentioned^  our  active  warrior  took  also  St  Ouen 
D'Estrais,  near  Laval,  as  likewise  the  castle  of  Gravelle, 
with  other  places  of  strength,  from  th^  enemy  }  for  which 
dangerous  and  indefatigable  service  in  France  he  was  about 
the  same  time  elected  in    England,  with  extraordinary 
deference  to  his  merits,  knight  companion  of  the  order  of 
tbe   garter.     In    1426  John  lord  Talbot    wa3   appointed 
governor  of  Aojou  and  Maine^  and  sir  John  FastolfF  was 
removed  to  another  place  of  command,  which,  in  ail  pro- 
babiUty,  might  be  the  foundation  of  that  jealousy,  emula*« 
ttoD,  or  competition,,  between  them,  which  never  was  cor- 
dially reconciled.     JLp  October  1428,  he  had  a  protection 
granted  him,  being  then  going  into  France;  and  there  he 
performed  an  enterprise  of  such  bravery  and  conduct  as  is 
scarcely  thought,  to  have  been  paralleled  in  ancient  at 
modera  history^    The  English  army,  at  the  siege  of  Or- 
leans, being  iu  great   want  of  provisions,  artillery,  and 
Qther .  necessaries,  sir  John  FastolfF,  with  some  other  ap-* 
proved  commanders,  was  dispatched  for  supplies  by  WH^ 
lium  de  la  Pole  duke  of  Suffolk,  to  the  regent  at  Paris ; 
who  not  only  provided  him  plentifully  therewith,  but  aU 
lowed  him  a  strong  guard  at  his  return,  that  be  might  coni; . 
?ey  the  same  safely  to  the  siege.    The  French,  knowing 
^be  importance  of  this  succour,  united  two  armies  of  very 
superior  numbers  and  force  to  meet  him;  but,  either  in. 
different  encounters,  or  in  a  pitched  battle,  as  the  French, 
themselves  allow,  he  totally  overthrew  them ;  slew  greater- 
iiumbers  than  he  had  under  his  command,  not  to  mentioa 
tpe  wounded  and  the  prisoners;  and'conducted  his  oonvoy 
$ȣe  to  the  English  caonp.    And  because  it  was  in  the  time 
qf  Lent,  and  he  had,  among  his  other  provision,  several 
of  his  carriages  laden  with  many  barrels  of  herrings,  which 
He  applied  to  form  a  fortification,  the  French  have  ever 
since  called  this  victory  ^^  The  battle  of  herrings."     But 
m  the  fortune  of  war  is  precarious,  the  English  army  wa& 
si^on  after  obliged  to  raise  the  siege  of  Orleans,  and  though  • 
they  received  recruits  from  the  duke  of  Bedford,  they  werci- 

ia  W  degree  strop^  euou^h  ^  ^n^uoteir  tb^  fxewh  wm^r 

F  A  S  T  O  L  F  P,  1S» 

WL  t^Xst^.  AV  the  battle  wbich  happened  tberrin  JuM 
1429,  many  of  the  English,  who  were  of  most  experienced 
4^d  approTed  valour,  seeing  themselves  so  unequal,  and 
the  onset  of  the  French  so  unexpected,  made  the  best 
retreat  they  could ;  and,  among  them  who  saved  them^ 
selves,  as  it  is  said,  was  sir  John  Fastolff ;  who,  with  suck 
as'  eouid  escape,  retired  to  Corbeil ;  thus  avoiding  being 
killed,  or,  with  the  great  lord  Talbot,  lord  Hungerford^ 
and  sir  Thomas  Rampston,  taken  prisoner  of  war.  Here 
the  French  tales,  which  some  English  historians  have  in** 
<?onriileraiely  credited,  contradict  or  invalidate  themselves; 
for,  after  having  made  the  regent  most  improbably,  and 
without  any  examination,  or  defence,  divest  Fastolff  of  bw 
honours,  they  no  less  suddenly  restore  hiin  to  them,  for, 
as  they  phrase  it,  ^*  apparent  causes  of  good  excuse] 
though  against  the  mind  of  the  lord  Talbot;"  between 
tsHliom  there  had  been,  it  seems,  some  emulons  contests^ 
and  therefore  it  is  no  wonder  that  Fastolff  found  him  upon 
this  occasion  an  adversary.  It  is  not  likely  that  the  regent 
ever  conceived  any  displeasure  at  this  conduct,  because 
FastolfF  was  not  only  continued  in  militairy  and  civil  em>^. 
ployments  of  the  greatest  concern,  but  appears  more  in 
favour  with  the  regent  after  the  battle  of  Patay  than  be* 
fore.  So  that,  rather  than  any  dishonour  here  can  ba 
allowed,  the  retreat  itself,  as  it  is  told,  must* be  doubted* 
It  was  but  in  14S0  that  be  preferred  him  to  the  lieutenaney 
of  Caen  in  Normandy,  In  1432  he  acoompanied  him  into 
France,  and  wa^  soon  after  sent  ambassador  to  the  council 
of  Basilj^  and  chosen,  in  the  like  capacity,  to  negociata 
4  final  or  temporary  peace  with  France.  And  thatyear^ 
FastolfF,  with  the  lord  Willougbby,  commanded  the  army 
which  assisted  the  duke  of  Bretagne  against  the  duke  oi^ 
Alengon.  Soon  after  this  he  was  for  a  short  space  in  £ngw 
land ;  for,  in  1433,  going  abroad  again,  he  constituted 
John  Faistolff,  of  Qltnn,  probably  a  near  relation,  his  ge- 
neral attorneyw  In  1434,  or  the  beginning  of  the  year 
after,  sir  John  was  again  with  the  regent  of  France ;  atid^ 
in  1435,  be  was  again  one  of  the  ambassadors  to  conclude 
a  peace  widi  France.  Towards  the  latter  end  of  thia  year 
the  Yegent  died  at  Rouen,  and,  as  the  greatest  proof  be 
could  give  of  his  confidence  iix  the  honour  and  integrity  o^ 
sir  John  FastolfF,  he  made  him  one  of  the  executors  of  hk 
last  will.  Richard,  duke  of  York,  who  succeeded  iu  the 
Htg^cy  of  France^,  made  Faatolff  a  g^rant  of  an  annuity  of 


twenty  pmtnds  a  year  of  his  own  estate,  '^  pro  notabiH  €t 
laudabili  servicio,  ac  bono.consilio;'*  which  is  suQcient  t6 
abew  this  dake*8  sentiments  also  of  his  merits.    In  1436$ 
and  for  about  four  years  longer,  he  seeiri%  to  have  betm 
well  settled  at  his  government  in  Normandy ;  after  wbicb^- 
in    1440,   he  made  bis  final  return   home,  and^  loaden 
with  the  laurels  he  had  gathered  in  France,  became  as  il^- 
lustrious  in  his  domestic  as  he  had  been  in  his  foreign^ 
character.    The  late  Mr.  Gough,  by  whom  this  article  wat> 
much  enlarged,  had  an  inventory  of  all  the  rich  jewels,- 
plate,  furniture,  &c.  that  he  either  had,  or  left  in  France^ 
at  his  return  to  England*     In  1450  he  conveyed  Co  John 
Kemp,  car^linal  archbishop  ofJYork,  and  others,  hismanop- 
of  Castre  in  Fleg,  and  several  other  lands  specified  in  the 
deed  of  conveyance.     The  same  year,  Nov.  8,  the  king, 
by  writ  directed  Richard  Waller,  esq.  David  John  William 
Keedham,  and  John  Ingoldsby,  to  cause  Thomas  Danyelly 
esq.  to  pay  to  sir  John  FastolfF,  knight,  the  100/.  that  he* 
was  indebted  to  him  for  provisions,  and  for  his  ship  called 
the  George  of  Prussia,  alias  DanyelPs  Hulk,  which  ship 
the  said  Danyell  took  on  the  sea  as  a  prize,  and  never  had- 
itcpndemned;  tso  that  the  king  seized  it)  ordered  it  to  be- 
s^d,  and  sir  John  to  be  paid  out  of  it.    At  length  being  * 
arrived,  in  1459,  beyond  the  age  of  fourscore  years,  he- 
says  of  himself,  that  be  was  ^^  in  good  remembrance,  alfaeit- 
I  am  giTetly  vexed  with  sickenesse,  and  thurgh  age  in-* 
febelyd."     He  lingiered  under  an  hectic  fever  and  asthma^ 
for  an  hundred  and  forty-eight  days ;  but  before  be  de- 
parted he  made  his  will  on  the  fifth  of  November  in  that 
vear,  and  died  at  his  seat  at  Castre  the  next  day  after^ 
being  the  festival  of  St.  Leonard,  or  the  eve  before,  as 
appears  in  the  escheats,  in  the  39th  or  last  year  of  king 
Henry  the  Vlth's  reiga,  and  no  less  than  thirty-six  year^ 
beyond  the  extravagant  period  assigned  by  ^Fuliet.     He' 
was  buried  with  great  solemnity  under  an  arch^  in  a  chapel 
qf  our  lady  of  his  own  building,  on  the  south  side  of  tjher 
irhoir  at  the  abbey -church  of  St.  Bennetin  the  Holm,  in 
Norfolk,  which  was  mined  at  the  disscdution  ;  «nd  so  miich' 
W|w  he  respected  «fter  bis  decease,  that  John  Beauckatnp> 
lord  of  Powyke,  in  his  last  will  dated  the  15thof  Edwani 
IV.  appointed  a  chantry,  more  eapedatly  ftir  the  soul  ci& 
sir  John  Fastolff. 

The  ruins  of  bis  house  at  Castre  still  remaining,  abew^^  it- ; 
^K  bi^ve  be^  alike  ci^pacieua  and  atrong.   it  was  awxtetf^ 

FA  ST  O  L  F  r.  141 

rpand;  ^Imt  Ihe  tnoat  is  i  now  for  the  most  part  filled  up. 
Tiie  graad  entrance  was  on  the  West.  The  house  formed 
%'feotai^led  parallelogram;  the  south  and  north  sides 
logger  than  east  and  west;  the  stables  in  front;  the  best 
rooms  on  the  right  Innd  of  the  sqoare^^  under  which  side  is 
a^sohle  vatrft,  and  over  itpiohably  the  hall.  The  embattled 
hiick  tower  at. ihe  Qortb  wesit  comer  is  standings  abo?w 
one  hundred  feet  high ;  and  over  one  of  the  windows  were 
carved  his  arms  in*  the  garter  as  above  described,  supported 
by  angel8,>  now  removed;  on  one  of  the  doors  asalttre 
engrailedc  T»it  adjoined  &  dining* parlour^  .fifty-nine  feet 
long,  and"lwenky*eight  broad.  East  from  the  castle  stood 
the  college,  fomdng  three  sides  .of  a  square  larger  tbaa 
the  former,,  with  two  round  towers;  the  whole  converted 
into  bams  and  stables.  Tlie .  eastle  moat  is  said  to  havis 
communicated  with  a  4iavigable.creeh,  andJn  a  farm  bous^ 
north  west  of  the  ^manaioni,  tivlled^the  bargei^hoMis^,  is  shewn 
a  large  -arch,  capable- of  receiving  a  boat  of  considerable 
barthen.  Vl^ver  says  he  jiad  licence  fixMn  Hefwy  VI.  t» 
build  his  house  castle-wise  as  a  fortification  on  tbat  side  of 
Yarmootl^  to  which  pi^rbaps .  relates  the  iioeitbe  grsnted 
him  1443,  22  Hen.  VI.  to  employ  some  of  the  Mng^s  ships 
to  carry*  materiab  for  building,  and  furnishing  one  of  his 
maosidn^houses:  The  current  tradition  is,  that  this  house 
was  erected  by  a  French  nobleman,  who  was  taken  prisoner 
by  our  femoiAs  knight,  according  to  the  model  and  archi-^ 
teccure  of  his  own  castle  in  France,*  as  the  price  of  his 
ransomu    • ' 

Sir  John  Fastolff  Imi  by  bis  will  appointed  John  Paston^ 
esq^- eldest  son  and -heir  of  sir  William  Paston,  thejudge^ 
one  of  has  execntoes ;  and  h^d  given  to  them  all  his  manors^ 
laads)  &c.  in  trust,  to  found  the  college  of  the  sev^en 
priests,  and  seven  poor  men^  in  the  manor-house  at  Castrej 
&c«  ^^  Fop  the  singular  trust  and  love,^  says  sir  Johny 
'Vtbat  I  have  to  my  cousin  John  Paston  before  all  others^ 
being  in  evevy  h^M  that  he  will  execute  this  my  last  will.'* 
Edward  IV.  1464,  for  300  marks,  100  in  hand,  and  the 
reaMModer  when  due  fbtmdatian  takes  ^piace,  granted  John 
Fasten^  sen^  esq.  licence  to-found  the  college ^before  man« 
tioaedy  'AimI  bis  favour  and  proteotion  against  Yelverton^ 
Jemvey,  and  others ;  but  it  appears  tiwt  &is  John  Paston, 
esq.  haii  entered  on  this  manor  of  Castrfe,  and  was  impri^ 
soned  iu  the  Fleet  of  London  by  Nevill,  bishop  of  Exeter, 
{m  Nov.  3,  1464,)  theo  cbanoelioc.    On  his  death,  in  1464^^ 

Us  .    F  A  S  T  O  L  F  I*. 

-    > 

he  left  ttito  his  eWestson  sir  Jobn  Paaton.    July- .69  i4B0f 
the  king  .granted  bim  a  warftot  under  hurshandaBri  juiv^ 
fieal^  tatake  possession  of  all  the  lands  aad  inheritance  of 
his  late  father,  or  of  Agnes  his  grandmother,  .or  of  Mavr 
garet  falsi  mother,  or  of  William  Pastoo,  and  Cteotoeat 
JPaston,  his  uncles;  also  the  manor  and  place  ofiCintre, 
or  of  any  other  estate  which  bis  &tfaer  had,  by:  way  of  gsft^ 
»r  purchase,  of  the  late  sir  John  FastolfF;  which  laads  had 
ibeen  seiised  by  the  king,  on.  evil  surmises  made  .to  hu»» 
against  his  deceased  fsther,   himself  and  unQlds,'Qf  all 
^bich  they  were   sufficiently, .  openly,   and  worsbipfoUy 
jcleared  before  the  king.     *^.  So\diafc  all  yee  nc^. being  ia 
lrbe:said  place  of  Caster^  or  ia  any  liflahode,. late  tfae»ir 
John  Paston^s,  by  way  of  gifk  or  .purchase,  of^theiate.sir 
jfehn '  Fastolff,  that  was  seized  into  our  bauds, -aToididw 
.fK>asessaon  of  the  same,  and  aufferour  traly  audiweU.h^* 
Aored; knight,  air  John  Paston,  to  eejoy  the^isofita-tfaereofi 
ivrith  all  the  goods  and  chattels  there,  and  pay  aU  the  issnea 
^nd  prohts  thereof,  as  yee  did  unto  his  fadier,  at  any  itime 
in  bis  life.?  ■  ■    : .    r.x. 

.  Soon  .afi^r  this,  on  Monday  before  St.  Bartholentfiw!^ 
day,  1469,.  John  Mowbray,  duke  of  Norfolk,  la^d  .{Keleft^ 
sioas  to  it ;  and  sent  sir  John  Heveningham,  .a couain of 
m  JohnFastolfTs,  to  require  John  Paston^  esq«..gOKeiiiiar 
0/  it»  beiiig  a  castle  well  fortified,  in  the  ab^eoceiof  ihia 
eldest  brother  air  ,h>bo  Paston,  to  deliver  it  up^  to  hun ; 
maintaining  that  the  said  .duke  had  purchased  the  said 
castle  of  William  Yelverton  (that  cursed  Norfolk  jn^lice^ 
*  as  Worcester  styles  him),  whereas  sk  John  had  ordeiied  it 
^ot  to  be  sold,  but  to  be  a  college  for  priests,  and  an  hes« 
pital  for.  poor  men.  The  said  John  Paston  refusing  «lfco 
fjucrender  it,*  the  duke  came  before  it  with .  3000  acmed 
teen,  and  with  guns^  culverines,  and  other  artillery^  and 
laid  siege  to  it  immediately.  The  siege  continued  &ve 
weeks  and  three  days*  <      .  « 

February  IQ,  1474,  IS^Edw.  IV.  an  indentmre  waa  made 
between  sir  William  YeU^ton,  William  Jenny,.-  Serjeant 
at  law,  and  William  Worcester,  executors  of  sir  John  oti 
one  part,  and  Thomas  Cager  and  Robert  Kyuon  oo^th^ 
other,  whereby  the  said  Robert  was  appointed  aurreyor  of 
the  lands  and  tenements  in  Southwark,  and  other  places  iti 
Surrey,  late  sir  John's,  to  perform  his  last  will,  and  alap 
receiver  of  the  rents  ;  who  was 'to  have  six  marks  per  an^ 
Duu),  and:  to  be  allowed,  besides  all  reasonable  costs,  that 

f  A  S  T  O  L  f  F,  l«f 


hd  shall  dd  in  the  defence  and  koeptiig  aut  John  Paston^ 
esq«  and  of  all  others  daiming  by  him*  Anthony  lord 
vScales^  at  another  time,  took  possesfiion  of  it  in  the  name  of 
king  Ed^irard  IV..  under  pretence  that  Paston  wa«  the  king's 
villaa  (thpugb  absolotely  false),  atl  v«rhich  proved  a  gneat 
destrhotion  to  the  geods  and  effects  in  the  saose  ;  hot  sir 
John  Paston,  through  the  {mowr  and  protectioo  of  king 
Edward  iV.  had  afterwards  possession.  Anoih^i:jraisfQrtune 
also  happened  to  pr  castle  about  the  saioie  tiihe^ 
Jawing  I  to  the  negligetice  of  a-  girl,  .who  in  making  a  bed 
set  fire  to  it  by  her  candle,,  and  did  considerable  daaoage* 
Sir  John  FastolfF  hud  a  house  at  Nofwich  in  Pokethmrp 
opposite- St  Jameis's  cbuvoh,  called:  Fastolff's  place;!  in  the 
windowa  of  which  Mr..  Bloreefietd  saw  aev^ml  paintings  of 
saints  and  scriptare.  worthies,  and.  two  Imights  fightiitg, 
which  he  imaigined  represented,  sir  John  and  his  Frendi 
prisoner.  He  likewise  built  a  splendid  seat  in  Yarmouth^ 
and  a  palace  in  South wark.  * 

As  sir  John/Falstoff's  <Tsdour  made  him  a^  terror  in  war, 
his  humanity  made  him  a  blessing  in  peace :  all  we  can 
.find  in  his>  retirement  beifig*ekgant,  hospitable,  artd- ge- 
nerous, eith^  as  to  the  pisjces  of  bis  ahode,  or  those  per« 
^«ons  and  foundations  on  which  he  showered  bis  bounty* 
At  bis  death  he  possessed  lands  and  estates  in  Novfoik, 
sSuflblk,  Yoi^kshire,  and  Wiltshire*  He  -was  a  bene&Qtor  to 
both  the  univeisities;  bequeathing  a  considerable  legacy 
to  Cambridge,  for  building  the  schools  of  philosophy  and 
law,  for  which  the  first  order  under  tbeic  chancellor  Lau« 
rence,  bishop  of  Durhaoi,  is  dated  in«Jufie  1468  ;  and,  a€ 
Oxford,  he  was  so; bountiful^  Magdalsn-coUege,  through 
the  affection  he  had  for  bis  friend  WilUam  Wain6eet,  thfe 
founder  thereof  two  years  before,  that  his  name  is  coot* 
meniorated  in  an  anniversaiy  speech ;  and  though  the  pair- 
tidulars  of  bis  boutity.are  not.  now.  vemembered,  because 
he  erifeqffed  the  said  founder  in  his  life-time,  yet  it  is  known, 
that  th^  boar's  head  in  South  wark,  pow  divided  into  tene* 
ments,  yielding  one  hundred  and  fifdy  pounds  yearly,  to* 
getber  with  Caidecot  manor  in  Suffolk,  were  part  of  the 
iatids  he  bestowed  thereon ;  ai|d  Lovingland  in  that  county 
is  conceived  also  toihave  been  another  part  of  his  donation* 
There  had  been  an  ancient  free  ohapel  of  St.  John  the 
Baptist  in  the  manor  house  at  Castre,  the  ancient  seat 
<jf •  his  family,  as  early  as  the  reign  of  Edward  I.  Sir 
'John  intended*  to  havie  erected  a  coHege  for  seven  mantsi 

M«ecular  pridsu  (dMi  of^wboYii  t0  be  b^tld},  Md  «eve^  |)6or 
net) ;  ^andto  endoorat  vritli  12a«iairki  rent  charge,  ^otif  of 
ueimai  iliaiiors  ivfaiqb  he  gftve  or  sold  to  his  coiHin  John 
Boston^  senior,  esq;  charged  wkbthiii  ehurity.  Mr.  Paiktbti 
UKniredto  establifsb  tbitf  piotls  foundation'  tiH  bis  de^tti> 
€  Bd.  IV.  as  did  bii^  8«iiv  sW  Jolto  Pftslon,  Icnight^  bm  vi^e^ 
tber  it  wag  ei^er  mcotfiotat^d'lindfuUy^eU^^  Tan^ 

ner  doobcsi  as^tbere  h  no-  farther  meiition  of  it  in  ihe 
rolla:  or  ^die  bishop  of  Norwich^  re)^ry.  Oiily^n  thfc- 
i^laatien,  ^6  Hem  VfIL  tbefte  is  said  to  bavebeeft  in  Castte^- 
hall  a  chantry  t^f  the  foundaiibn  of  si¥  J6hn  FasfoUP,  knight,^ 
werdi  2^L  l%s.4A  per  annum.  6  Ed'.  3V.  froth  recetpts4t 
ajppears  that  the  pHe^ts  had  in  monej^y  besides  their  diet; 
40^.  pevjanniin))  and  the  poor  men  40^.  |)er  annnch  ^ch. 
Tbe  fotindation-  v^as' oertainly  not  completed  ttit  '  after 
his  decease;  f»r  WUltam  Worcester,  in  a  Ibtter  to'Mar- 
gavet  l^ascoti  in  '14€6,  i^\U  her  be  hadHcommuned  mfh  her 
son  whether  it  sliotild  not  be  at  Cambridgef  in  case  it  sbaH 
aorbe  at^6as«re;  neither  at  8t.  Bienet^s  (in  the  Holme),  ^ 
and -that  ^the  bishop  of  Winebester  (Wamflete)  was  dis- 
fiasdd-eo-foaad  a  college  in  O^x^d  ibr  his  sayd  niayster  tOr 
bci  prayed ibe,  yet  With^ach  lest  cost'he  might  make som6 
c^bor  ttiemorial  in  Cambridge.*^         '  *         '    * 

.  FATIO.I   See  FACGIO.     ' 

.:  FAUCHETr  (Claitde),  a'FrencT^dntiquAry  of  great  fattie^ 
whose  laborious  researob(^s  ituo  the  earlier  and  most  ob^ 
acure  parts  of  the  history  of  bis  country,  obtained  him  more 
eelebinty  than  profitf,  #as'borii  at  Paris  m  1529/  Havrrig 
gone  toltaly  w4th  eardinat  de  Totirnoti/  his  eminence  bfien 
aeotbim  with  di^pat^ben  to  the  Frisnch  cotirt,  which  served 
toinlti^ud^  him  theref  #fl9i  advantage,  arid  procured  him 
the  planseof  first  presid^l'of  the  Gour  Abs  Monnoies ;  aAd 
be  issaid  by  some  to  hat^obtfained  a  pension  from  Hehrr 
iV.  with  the  title  of  historiograpfeer.  Ht  died  iti  l€bi; 
ovei^ekned  with  debts.  -His  Work^  were  qollected  in  ito 
at  #feirfe,  4h-l€ta.  Tbfe  principal  of  them  are,  1.  His 
^^-Gaufeb  aAd'^Ft^ncb  anttqnitres,**  thcf  ftrst  part  of  which 
treaas  cbiefiy  of  matters  anterior  to  the  aVrival  of  the  Franks; 
the  .second  id  extended  to  Htigb  Capet  2.  **  A  treiitisfe 
on  thfe  Liberties  of  the  GaHican  church.**  8.  •*Ori  thd 
origio  of  knighes,  armorial  bearings,  and  heralds.**'   4. 

1  Biog.  drit.  macli  enlarged  by  Mr.  iSougb,  from  Um  aecoont  given  by  01d]r» 
in  tbe  first  editioD  of  tbe  Biog.  Brit.  Mr.  GoQgb  bad  ail  Oldjs's  manuscripu 
aa  the  aubjecu 

F  A  U  C  H  E  Ti"  145 


**.  Origin  of  dignitiea  and  magistracies  in  France.!^  -Ali 
these  contain  oinch  curious  matter,  not  to  be  found  else^ 
where,  biit  are-written  in  a  harsh,  inconect,  and  tedious 
style*  Saxias  mentions  an  edition  of  his  works  printed- at 
Paris  in  i7 10,  2  vols.  4tO|  which  we  conceive  to  l>ie  a. mis* 
take  for  1 6 1 0.  It  is  said^  that  ^  perusal  of  his  French 
Antiquities  gave  Louis  XIII.  an  inv^icible  distaste  toreading/ 
FAUCHEUR  (Michel  i^e),  a  French  protestant  preacher 
of  the  highest  estimation  in  bis  time.  He  preached  oragi* 
nally  at  Montpellier,  then  at  Charentop,  and-  afterwards  at 
Paris;  where  his  eloquence -was  not  less  .admired  tbaa  in 
the  provinces.  He  preached  one  day  against  daels  in  a6 
persuasive  and, forcible  a  style,  and  with  so.  much  energy^ 
that  the  marecfaal  de.  la  Force,  who  was  present^  declared 
ta some  brave  officers  who  were  near  him,  that,  sbonld  a 
challenge  be  sent  him,  he  would  not  accept  it.  Le  Fau* 
cheur  was  not  less  esteemed  for  his  integrity  than  for  his 
extraordinary  talents  as  a  preacher.  He  died  at'  Pads,  in  a 
very  advanced  age,  April  1,  16^7,  leaving  several  volumes 
6f  sermons,  8vo;  **  Trait6  de  I' Action  de  rOmteur,"  Ley- 
den,  1686,  12mo^  an  excellent  work,  which  appeared  first 
under,  the  name  of  Conrart ;  <^  Recueil  de  Prieres  fit  de 
Meditations  Chr^tiennes,*'  and  a  '^Trait^^sur  rEucharisUe,'* 
Geneva,  1636,  folio,  against  cardinal  du  Perron.  This 
work  was  so  much  admired  by  the  protestant  churches, 
that  it  was  printed  at  their  expence,  by  order  of  a  natjioi^al 

.  FAULKNER  (Georoe),  a  worthy  printer  of  no  mean 
celebrity,  is  rather  recorded  in  this  work  for  the  goodness 
of  his  heart,  than  from  his  excellence  as.  an  author.  It  is, 
bovf{(Bver,  no  small  degree  of  praise  to  say  of  him,  that  he 
was  the  first  man  who  carried  his  profession  to  afaigh  de« 
gree  of  credit  in  Ireland^  He  was  the  confidential  printer  ^ 
of  dean  Syirift ;  and  enjoyed  the  friendship  and  pa)xonage 
of  the  earl  of  Chesterfield,  whose  ironical  letters  to  Faulk*  . 
lier,  comparing  him  to  Atticus,  are  perhaps  the  finest  parts 
of  his  writings.  He  settled  at  Dublin  as  a  printer  and 
bookseller,  soon  after  1726  (ia  which  year  we  find  him  in 
Londoa  under  the  tuition  of  the  celebrated  Bowyer),  and 
raised  there  a  very  comfortable  fortune  by. bis  well- known 
.^yournal,"  and  other  laudable  undertakings.    In  1735,  he 

1  GeiiKDict-^Mareri.«r-JiiceroD,  vol.  XXV.-^Dict.  Hist.— Saxii  Osomast 
«  Gen.  Pi5t.— Mprerur-Oi^t.  Kisi. 

Vol.  XIV.  L 

Ut  rAtfLKNEtlt 


mts  ordered  into  ciuiNMly  by  tbe  house  of  cominonii  in  Ir^«» 
Iftndy.  fi»r  baving-puiilkbed  ^A  prapoaal  for  the  fetter  resgt3S^. 
iMJdon  and  improvement  of  quadrille  ;*'  an  ingenious  trealiae 
by  bisbop  Hort ;  wkich  pmxioeed  irom  Swift  ^*Tbe  l^on 
club/'  Having  bad  die  misfortune  to  break  his  l^i  be  was 
satirically  introduced  by-.Foote^  wfao  spared  nobody,  in  tbo 
libaractcr  of  <*  Peter  Paragraph,^'  in  ^  Tbe  Orators,  1762.^ 
He  €t>miiiesyeed  a  suit  against  tbe  mimic ;  and  bad  tbe  bo* 
nour  of  lord  Townsbend's  interference  to  arbitrate  tbe  dif-^ 
ferenee/  He  died  an  alderman  of  Dublin,  Aug.  28,  1775. 
His  style  and  nAoner  were  finely  ridiculed  in  ^'  An  Ejustle 
to  Gorges  Edmaod  Howard,  eaq.  witb  notes,  explanatory, 
critical',  and  bislorical,  by  George  Faulkner,  esq.  and  ald^v 
UMin,''  reprinted  in  Dilly's  "  Repository,"  vol.  IV.  p.  175, 
But  a  lairer  specimen  of  bis  real  talents  at  ^tstle-writinrg 
may  be  seen  in  tbe  ^'  Anecdotes  of  Mr.  Botvyer,'^  or  in  tlie 
second  volume  of  tbe  ^  Supplement  to  Swift ;''  whence  it 
appears  that,  if  vanity  was  a  prominent  feature  in  bis  (sba** 
racter,  bis  gratitude  was  no  leas  conspicuous. ' 

FAUNT  (Arthur,  or  sometimes  Laurence  Arthur), 
an  Englisb  Jesuit,  was  bora  in  1554,  -at  Foston  in  Leicester^ 
sUre,  and  entered  a  student  in  Mertan  coUege,  in  1569^ 
under  tbe  tuition  of  Jobo  Potts,  whom  Wood  calls  a  noted 
pbilosopber.  In  1  ^70,  Potts,  who  was  a  cqjiicealed  papisir, 
being  detected,  conducted  bis  yoitiig  pupii>  wbose  parents 
were  of  that  perstiasioD,  to  tbe  Jesuits^  college  at  Louvain. 
In  this  seminary  be  continued  till  be  bad  taken  a  bachelor 
oi  arts  degree,  and.  then  went  to  Paris.  From  tbc^ice  be 
tra«!«Ued  to.  Munich  in  Banraria,  wliere  duke  Wiliiam  al« 
lowed  bifma  bandsouKe  salary  to  prosecute  bis  studies^  and 
where  be.  took  the  degree  of  M.  A^  In  1575  be  proceeded 
tor  Rome, .  and  beeanie  a  member  of  the  English  Jesuits* 
college^  of  which  he'waa  soon  after  appointed  divinity* 
reader*  He  was  much  dtstinguisbed  and  favoured  by  sere'* 
ral  princes,  and  particularly  by  pope  Gregory  Xill.  who^ 
as  fk  token  of  his  afiiection  and  confidence,  gave  bimn  seal 
wbicb  empowered  him  to  grant  a  pass  to  any  of  his  eountry** 
men  travelling  through  the  catholic  dominions^  In  15M 
he  -was  appointed  president  of  the  Jesuits'  college  at  Posna 
in  Poland,  in  which  conntry  be  i^nt  tbe  lem^underof  his 
iife«    He  died  at  Utna,  in  the  province  of  Lithuania,  Feb. 

>>  >?t«N?«'s  9Q^«r^<-'$«^ift>  WorVft,  passim.  See  }fidex.-«*See  a  CKricfttor* 
•f^aalkner,  by  Cumberland^  Id  bis  Life,  p«  113,  4to  edit. 

FACN.T.     ■  t4t 


)tfA59}^  mucb  mgfiett^  by  bif$  fimterAitjr,  among^  wbom 
be  bad  the  cbaraoter  of  a  prudent,  learned^  and  pjooa  dii 
Tine.     Hi8wori»are:  I.  ^*  Dci  Cbristi  io  terrU  ecdesiai^ 
Po«fia,  i584y  4to^    2.  '^  CoQtra  AotooHiin  Sadeelem  Caivi^ 
nmam,  libri  III.'*   3.  ^^  Theses  devarik  fidei  coDtroveraiis,'^ 
Ppsna,  .1584,  1590. .   4^  *^  Doctrina  oadbtolica  de  Sanctoruni 
lovocatiooe,  &c/^  ibid.  15J4,^  8vo.     5.  *' Apologia  Libii 
snide  Invocatione,&c.  contra  Danialem  TossaimtQ/' Coloiu 
15S9,  8vo.     6,  *^  Cosum  Lutberana;  et  C«Jmist9  oppugn* 
natio/'  Posna,  1586,  4to.  7.  **  Apologia  Tbesium  de  Costm 
Lutberana,  &c.''  ibid.  1590,  4to.     8.  ^'Qratio  de  causis 
Hseresis,  &€."    -9,  ^'  Tractatus  de  Contro?e«siis  i«ter'  or<^ 
^ineai  Eccles.  et  Se^ularemia  Polonia,"  1^^2,  4to.  ^' 
.   FAUR  (Gui  de),  lord  of  Pibrac,  by  ivbtoh  name  he  i« 
much  better  known,  was  born  at  Tonlouae  in  1528,  and 
distinguished  himself  at  the  bar  in  tbat  city.    He  peili^ted 
'  his  knowledge  of  jurisprudence  in  Italy,  and  then  returned 
to  be  advanced  to  honours  in  hi#  own  country.     In  1^60  be 
was  deputed  by  his  native  city  to  the  states-gteeral  held 
a^  Orleans,  and  there  presented  to  the  king  its  petition  of 
grievances,  which  he  bad  himself  drawn  up.     By  C|>arleii 
IX.  be  was  ^eot  as  one  of  his  acnbassadors  to  the  co]»Qcil  oi 
Trent,  where  he  eloquently  supported-  the  interests  of  the 
crown,  and  tb^AJiberties  of  the  Gallican  church.     In*  1565 
the  chancellor  de  V  Hopital,  appointed  bim  advocate-gene^ 
ml  in  the  parliament  of  Paris,  where  he  revived  the  in* 
iluence  of  reason  and  eloquence.     In  1570,  be  was  made 
ai^ouuseilor  of  state,  and  two  years  afterwards,  pi'obably 
constrained  by  his  superiors,  wrote  his  defence  of  ibe  mas«* 
sacre  of  St.  Bartholomew,  published  in  4to,  an4  en  tided 
'*  Ornatissimi  cujusdam  viri,  de  rebus  Galltcas,  efHstoIa,  et 
ad  haae.  de  iisdem  rebus  reftponsio  $'-   but  this 'barbarous 
measure  was  too  repugnat^  to  the  mildness  of  Pibrac*s  eha- 
racter-to  be  approved  by  bim*    For  this,  after  the  actes*  ' 
sion  of  Henry  IIL  he  made  the  best  ameiids  in  his  powisr^ - 
by  proposing  and  bringing  to  a  conclusion,  a  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  court  and  the  protestants*    White  tbat 

{)rin'ce  was  duke  of  Anjou,  and  was  elected  king  of  Po<« 
and,  he  attended  him  as  minister  in  that  country ;  but 
when  the  suceession  to  the. crown  of  France,  on  the  death 
of  his  brother^  tempted  Henry  to  quit  thi^  kingdom  elan-r 

■iTkiiiiier.— Pits.— Ath.  Oi;  vol.  h^ljod^t  Ch;  Hfot-p^KlilM^'c  8i«i  •t 

Leicestershire.  -      .    .        .         .^  ' 

L  2 

U8  F  A  U  K. 

destinely^  Pibrao  was  in  danger  of  falling  a:  sitctifie^  to 
the  resentment  of  the  people.     He  afterwafds  tiied  in*  'rain 
to  preserve  that  crown  to  his  master.     His  services  were 
rewarded  by  being  created  one  of  the  chief  presidents  of 
the  courts  of  law.    He  died  in  1534,  at  the  age  of  fifty -six. 
The  story  of  his  falling  in  love  with  Margaret  wife  .of 
Henry  IVt  is  supposed  to  be  chiefly  owing  to  the  vanity  of 
that  lady,  who  wished  to  have  the  credit  of  such  a  cqq^ 
quest.     Pibrac  published,  besides  his  letter  on  ;the  mas- 
sacre^ "which  was  in  Latin,  pleadings  and  speeches,  '^  Le^ 
plaisirs  de  la  vie  rustique,"  Paris,  1577,  8vo,  and  a  dis- 
course on  the  soul  and  the  sciences.     But  the  work  by 
which  be  is  best  known,  is  his  *^  Quatrains,^'  or   moral 
stanzas  of  four  lines,  which  were  first  published  in  1574% 
The  last  edition  we  know  of,  is  that  of  1746.    They  have 
been  e^j^lravags^tly  admired,  and  translated  into  almost  ail 
languages,    even   Greek,,. Turkish,   Arabic,   and  Persian. 
Th^  were  rendered  into  English  by  Sylvester,  the  trans^ 
Mtof  of  da  Bartas,  in  a  manner  not  likely  to  give  an  ad* 
vantageous  notion  of  the  original,  which^  though  now  anti- 
quated^ still  preserves  graces  that  recommend  it  to  readers 
of  .ta9t0f    Pibrac  w^s  a  classical  scholar;  and  to  the  tasfbe 
Jto  <farew- from  that  source,  bis 'V^^^^i*^^®*^  ^^^  much  of 
tbeir  >?^celleuce.     The  subjects  of  some  of  them  be  took 
:lrom  the  book  of  Proverbs,  which  he  used  to  say  contained 

all  the  good  sense  in-  the  world.  ^ 
:-   FAUST.    See  FUST. 

•:  :FAUSTUS^  an  English  monk  of  the  fifth  century^  was 
.  created;  abbot  of  a  monastery  in  the  Levin  islands  abont  the 

year. 41^3,  and  afterwards  bishop  of  Riez  in  Proi«enee, 
.  about  the  year  466r  •  The  time  of  his  death  is  uncertain. 

^0  wi9ote«  homily  on  tbii^  life  of  his  predecessor  in 'the  see^ 

Miqiiiigius;  which  is  extant  among  tholie  attributed  to  £u- 
>  aebitusf  {^misenus.  He  go veraed  his  diocese  uhblam^bly^iled 

a  holy  life,  and  died  regretted  and  esteemed  by  the  ebarcsh. 

In  the  grand  controversy  of ;  the  fifth  cedtofjr,  h^/rither 
-f^vvixed  the  Semi^Pelagians,  which  a  recent  hi^oHaii  ittri- 

]l^t^;tQ  h^s  fear  of  the  abuses  of  poedestinadbbv^nrd  aniiis- 

u^deratsiliding.of  the<^nsequencesiof  Augustine^s  doctrine. 

ItJseertain  that  in  a  treatise  whichcbe  wrote  tm;  aavipg 
.  gf a^e^ ^ i^ shewed  tha^gra^e  always Mlu res^  firecedes^  and 

}  ;Pi«t  Jfiflt.'T-Mareri.-^yieeron,  m  «rt.  Pibrac,  vol.  XXX'iV.<-'»^EIiog«  par 
L'AbbcCajret,  1778.-*SaxiiO|i0Mii8Sl.iii  Pibracittft. 


asiskts.ifce  human  will,  and  tbat^all  the  reward  !of  dur  W 
hour  1$  tke  gift' of  God.  In  a  disputation,  likewise,  with. 
Lucid  us,  a  priest,  who  was  very  tenacious  of  the  sentiments 
of  Augustine,  Fausttt€ieddeavo«ired  to  correct  his  ideas  by' 
suggesting,  that  we  must  not  separ^e  grace  and  human 
kidustry ;  that  we  must  abhor  Peiagius,  and  yet  detest 
ihose  who  believe^  that  a  man  may  be  of  the  number  of 
the  elect,  without  labouring  for  salvation.  ^ 

FAVORINUS,  an  ancient  philosopher  and  orator,  was 
bom  at  Aries  in  Gaul,  flourished  under  the  emperor  Adrian, 
M  the  second  century,  and  taught  both  at  Athens  and 
fiome  with  high  reputation.  Adrian  had  no  kindness  for 
him;  for  such  was  the  nature  and  temper  of  this  emperor, 
ihat^  not  content  with  being  the  first  in  dignity  and  power, 
he  would  needs  be  the  first  in  every,  thing  else.  This  pe- 
dantic affectation  lediiim,  as  Spartian  relates,  to  deride,  tb 
oentemn,  to  trample  upon  the  professors  of  all  arts  and 
ficienceo,  whom  betook  a  pleasure  in  contradicting  upon 
ail  oectsions,  right  or  wrong.  Thus  one  day  be  reptfox^ed 
Eavorinus,  with  an  aiir  of  great  superiority,  for  usiAg  a 
certain  word;  whrcfa,  however,  was  a  good  word,  and  Ire- 
ijuemly  used  by  the  best  authors.  Favorinus  submitted 
patiently  to  the  eoyperor,  without  nuking  any  tepiy^  though 
be  knew  himself  to  be  perfectly  right :  which  when  "his 

Mriends  objected  tot,  ^*  Shall  not  I  easily  suffer  hiflD,'^  sa^s 
be,  '^  to  be  the  most  learned  of  all  men,  who  has  thirty 
legions  at  his  command?"     This  philosopher  is  said  to 

.  Iiave^  wondered  at  three  things :  (mt,  that  being  a  Gaul  he 
should  speak  Greek  so  well;  secondly,  that  being  au 
eoiKich'  he  should  be  accusied  of  adiafitery;  and  thirdly, 
that  beiog  envied  and  baled  by  the  emperor  he  should  be 

,  Remitted  to :  live.  Maiiy  works  are  attributed'  to^  bkti ; 
uBiong  the  nest  a  Greek  werk  of  *^  Miscellaneous  History,^* 
cftehi quoted  by  Diogenes  Laertius,  but  «one  of  them  lu'e 
iiow!  ei&tant. ' ' 

:  FAVOUR  (JoiiN),  who,  aceording  to  a  tradition  sttU  cur* 
rent  M^piaKfiix^  was  a  good  divine^'  a  good  physician,  and 
a  good  lawyer,:  was  bcnrn  at  Southampton,  and  was  pre*- 
paced  for  the  university,  partly  there  and  partly  at  Win- 
chest^-scfaooL    From  this  semini^ry  he  was  elected  pro^ 

«  Gave,  Tol.  r.»>-Milner*s  €b.  Htot  toU  11.  p.  546-»7.<— Sasii  OsomsiU 


^bationer  fellow  of  New-college,  Oxford,  in  1576,  and  two 
years  afterwards  was  ma^e  complete  fellow.     On  June  5, 

.1592,  he  proceeded  LL.  D.  and,  as  Wood  says,  was  made 
vicar  of  Halifax  in  Yorkshire,  Jan.  4,  1593.  In  August 
1608,  according  to 'Moresby,  but  in  March  1618,  accord<> 
ing  to  Wood,  he  was  niade  warden  or  master  of  St*  Mary 

'Magdalen^s  hospital  at  Ripon.  In  March  1616,  be  was 
collated  to  the  prebend  of  Drif&eld,  and  to  the  chanter* 

'fthip  of  the  Church  of  York.  He  was  also  chaplain  to  the 
archbishop,  and  residentiary.  He  appears  to  have  spent 
much  of  his  time  in  tbe  discbarge  of  the  duties  of  the  three 
learned  professions.  In  an  epistle  to  the  reader,  prefixed 
to  a  work  we  are  about  to  mention,  he  gives  as  impediments 
to  its  progress,  **  preaching  every  Sabbath-day,  lecturing 
every  day  in  the  week,  exercising  justice  in  the  common* 
wealth,  and  practising  physic  and  chirurgery.'*  Amidst 
all  these  engagiements,  however,  he  produced  a  lai^e  4to 
volume,  printed*  at  JLondon  in  1619,  entitled  ^^  Antiquitie 
triumphing  over  Noveltie  ;  whereby  it  is  proved,  that  An- 
tiquitie  is  a  true  and  certain  note  of  the  Christian  catho« 
licke  church  and  veritie,  against  all  new  and  upstart  here- 
sies, advancing  themselves  against  the  religious  honour  of 
Old  Rome,  &c."     This  is  dedicateiSP  to  archbishop  Mat* 

;  thews,  and  it  appears  that  it  was  begun  by  the  author, 
when  he  Was  sixty  years  old,  at  the  desire,  and  carried  on 
und^r  tbe  encouragement  of  the  archbishop.  Dr.  F^vonr 
died  March  10,  1623,  probably  at  an  advanced  age,  and 

'was  buried  in  Halifax  church,  where  there  is  an  inscription 
to  his  memory.  *  '^ 

FAVRE  (Antony),  in  Latin  FabeVy  was  a  profound  la^* 
\er  and  an  author ;  in  a  few  instances,  a  poet,  for  some 
quatrains  by  him  remain  among  those  of  Pibrac,  and  there 
h  a  tragedy  of  his  extant,  entitled  "The  Gordians,  or 
ambition.''  He  was  born  in  1557,  was  promoted  as  a  law- 
yer in  his  native  town  of  Bresse,  afterwards  became  go- 
vernor of  Savoy,  and  was  employed  in  confidential  nego- 
tiations between  that  dukedom  and  France.  He  might 
have  been  further  promoted  in  his  own  country,  but  re« 
fused.  He  died  in  1624.  His  works,  chiefly  on  jurispru- 
dence and  civil  law,  form  ten  volumes  in  folio,  printed  frOiik 
}658  to  1661.  For  his  son 
FAVRE  (Claude).     See  VAUGELAS.  • 

»  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I;.:-^ats6n's  Hist,  of  WaTlfax; 
9  ^Joreri, — Diet,  Hist. — ^Nioeron,  vol.  XIX. 

F  A  W  C  C  T  T.  isi 

FAWCETT  (BBHjrAMm)»  a  disseoting  miaUler,  was  hptn 
at  Sleaford  in  Lincolnshire,  Aug.  16,  1715,  and  after  a,  re- 
ligious education  at  honied  was  placed  under  Dr.  Dod- 
dridge at  Northampton,  where  his  conduct  was  ex^nplary, 
find  his  impnovetnent  rapid.  In  174j^  by  Doddridge^s  par- 
ticular recooaoiendation,  he  became  a  preacher  at  Taunton ; 
and  in  1745  remoyed  to  Kidderminster,  where  he  officiate^ 
.|is  the  pastor  of  a  large  congregation  of  dissenters  for 
thirty-five  years,  dying  iu  Oct.  1780.  He  preached  thriq^ 
every  Sunday,  besides  weekly  services,  lectures,  visits,  &C 
He  also  carried  on  an  extensive  correspondence  with  his 
brethren  in  various  parts  of  the  kingdom,  and  found  lei- 
sure to  prepare  his  various  publications  for  the  press.  To 
enable  him  to  accomplish  all  this,  be  was  a  rigid  .oecono^ 
mist  of  his  time,  and  was  seldom  in  bed  after  five  o^clock 
in  the  morning,  to  which  habit,  and  a  temperate  mode  of 
living,  he  used  to  ascribe  bis  remarkable  and  almpst  umn«' 
terrupted  health  and  spirits  until  a  ^rt  time  before  his 
death,  when  he  suffered  severely  from  the  stone.  ,It  is 
perhaps  more  remarkable,  that  he  had  no  fire  in  his  study 
m  the  depth  of  winter.  His  flow  of  spirits  appears  to  have 
been  rather  immoderate,  according  to  Mr.  Orton^s  account. 
'^  I  am  told  that  aftfr  preaching  twice,  and  administering 
the  Lord's  Supper,  he  was  so  lively  in  the  evening  that 
several  of  the  people  were  in  pain  lest  he  shou^  throw 
himself  out  of  the  pulpit !"  In  his  sentiments  he  was  what 
is  called  a  Baxterian,  and  drew  upon  himself,  on  some  oc- 
casions, the  censures  of  the  more  orthodox  part  of  his 
brethren,  particularly  by  one  of  his  pamphlets,  ^^  Candid 
reflexions  on  the  different  modes  of  explaining  jthe  Trini* 
ty/'  His  other  works  were  small  pious  tracts ;  some  fune- 
ral, and  occasional  sermons ;  and  abridgements  of  Bas;teir's 
'^  Saints'  everlasting  Rest,''  and  of  some  other  pieces  by 
that  divine.  His  personal  character  was  so  consistent  and 
amiable,  that  his  death  was  kmented  by  persons  of  all  per- 
suasions at  Kidderminster.  ^ 

FAWCETT  (Sir  WiLMAM,  K.B.),  a  brave  English  offi- 
^fer,  the  descendant  of  a  very  ancient  family,  was  born 
in' 1728  at  Shipdenhall,  near  Halifax,  in  Yorkshire,  which, 
for  many  centuries,  had  b^^eh  in  the  possession  of  his  an« 
cestors,  and  is  now  the  property  and  residence  of  their 
lineal  descendant.     His  father  dying  when  he  was  very 

i  9rteo^  Lctttrs  fo  PisieuUns  Miaiites^  by  Falover,  3  foil,  l^no,  ISOS. 

1«  F  A  W  C  E  T  T. 

jrof  ng,  his-  Vacation  was  saperinteod^  by  an  uncle^  a  verf 
v^rtby  clergyman.     He^was  brought  up  at  a  free  school  hi. 
Lancasbirey  fthere  be  was  well  grounded  in  dassical  learn^ . 
i»gi  4ind.becattie  also  a*  remarkable  proficient  in  mathe-!> 
iMtics-    He  has  very  fireqoently  been  beard  to  declare^ 
tbat^  from  bb  earliest  youtb^  be  always  fdt  the  strongest 
predilection  for  the  army,  whieb  his  mother  and- niteress 
T^ataons  xonstootly  endeavoured  ta  dissuade  him  from;- 
bul^  finding  all  their  arguments  ineffectual,  they  either. 
bought^  or.he  had  an  enstgncy  given  him,,  in  general  Ogle'^ 
tborpe^  ssegtment,  then  >in  Georgia ;  but  the  war  being  then- 
going  on  in  Flanders^  be  gave  up.  bis  ensigncy^  •  and  went 
tbere.iis^a  volun^er^  furnished  with  letters-  from  the  late 
marqab  of  Rockingba&LSwd  Mr.  Lasoellesi  (afterwards  lord 
Httrewood)  to  the  commander  and'  several  othere  4!»f 'th# 
officers.'    This  step- was  a^  the  time « frequently  taken 
by  young  men  of  spirit  -of  the  first  rank  and  fortutie*     lie 
i^ntercdas  a  volunteer, -but  messed' with  tbe  officers,  and 
was.  very  soon  presented  -wiib  a  pair  iof>  colours.     Some 
time  afterv>  he  married  aJady  ofgoodrfbrtuoe  and  family^ 
and,  at  tlie  pressing  entreaties  of  her  .friends^  he  most  r^ 
Jnctattt  ly  oresigned  his  comm^i^siom;  wbicb  :her bad  no  m^met^ 
done^v  tba»  ibe  felt  himself  miserable^  «id  faisr  new  relationll 
findins:  tbat'bis  propensity  to jk  militsjry  life  was  invbicibtey  bis  pnrcbasing  an  enstgncy  in^^tbe  third  regiment  > 
of  ig^ards.     Having  noii^  obtained  tbe:  objeet  of  his  miliM' 
anxioos  wisfaes,  he  determined  to  losccnaocppovttmity  c^ 
qualifyiBgifainBelftfor/tbe  bigfa«ftt  situatiob&^n  bis  fa^^ourita  * 
piokission.    .Witfa  tfais  view  be  pbid  the  imost  uni^emitting*' 
atteati<ln>to  bis-dal^  aod.e^eery^bdiir  he  could  command-* 
vmR.  gtKen»up:to>thetstady'o£  the: Frencb  and  German  lan^ 
giiagesS)iiawhioh:(byitheafi8istanee  ofhiS' classical  l^lrn-^ 
ing}^he  a^bn:beciuae  siichF4tt'pr6fi0ieint  as  not  only  to  nn- 
dersitapd,  ami  write  botl^^'gc^matioaUy:  and  elegantly,  bM 
tQs^pSeak/theni.fiuendy«^    -Wben  .he  was*  a  Ueu«enant  in  the 
gnarri%  : he  . translated  from  tbe  freneb^  ^  Tbe  Reveries) 
or^  Jklemoirs  upon*  the  Axt  t>i^  'War^  by  field -^marshal  count 
Saxe,'-  .whicb^was  published  iaA16%y  in.-4>to^  and  dedicated 
^^  To  J  the.  general  ofiioers.'?     He  also  translated .  from  the! 
German^:  ^f. Regulations. for  the  Prussian,  cavalry/'  which 
was  also  publisbed  in. 1757,  and  dedicated  to  mS;^r-*general 
the  earl. of  Albemarle^  colonel  of  ahe  king^sowo  regiment 
of  dragoons.     And  he  likewiae  translated  from  the  <yet^ 
man^  ^^  Regul^itiotts  for  •theiPrusma  Infantry^*' .  to  wbkh  ' 

FA  W  C  ET  T.  158 

i^  1759,  and ^diedicii^d^oUQUt^aaBUgeneral  th^  earl  of 
Rotbi^,    colonel  oF  ibe.  tbird  re^inaeut  ^of  foot  gusirds. 

'  Hav«>g  auain^d  tbe  •itisiU»Qft  of. adjutant  in  the  goadrd%  his 
af>iiiti«]»  and  n^sQwittiDg  atl;raOQii  9oon  be^Mue  conspicn* .' 
Qlia.;^aii4»  oo  tbe  Igte  ^en^i^l  Elliot's  b^ing  ordered  to^ 
Qetmmy  in  tbe  seven  yeara  war,  be  offered  to  l»ke  htm  asr 
h^iaid'-de^oaQipy  which  he  gladly  apcepied,  as  it  gare  him 
aiMifipori^ntty  of  gaining  that  knowledge  which  actiuJ  ser-: 
▼ioe could  ato$ie iiopart.    When  he  served  in  Germany^, 
hjs.  ardour,  inicepldity,  andatteDtiois^  to  all  the  duties  of 
his  situatiop^  iv^re  isncb,:  ftbat,.  i>n  the  death  of  general. 
£lUgt,.h^  had rimmedi^wely x>fi!Brs  both  from  the  late  ^inos' 
Fi»r«Miiand,  the  comimmder  in^cbief,  and  ibe  late  marqiua 
q{  Granhy^  to  be  >  appointed  aid-idencaoip*     By  the  advice 
pf  a^iiobi/e^aifl:<wbo>hinted  to  him  ^t. the  German  war 
wpi^ld  not  last  forever)  be  accepted  thepffer  of  th^  lattery 
aftes  making  due  apkoowledgements  for  the  bonoiur  in^ 
tended  him  .by  the  former.     lo  tbis^  his  new  situation  bis 
a^doitr  and  aitention  were^  if  possible,  increased,  which  * 
gaiiied<  him  tlie  friendship  of  all  those  attached  to.  l<;»-d 
Grftoby,    pactftcularljr .  of  a  noble  lord  who,   being  fixed 
upe»  to  brings  to  En^iid  tbe  aoeoootof  the  battle  idTWan^ 
biirgb,  igave  up  his  app^ifttment  to  captain  Fawcett  s  an 
instancy  of  genevous.  friendship  which  be  always  spoke  of 
with  the  most  kem-tfelt  gratitude*     On  his  arrival  in  Eng-* 
land,  ..he  was  totnoduced  by  the  then  great  minister  to  Ma 
Ii^emf^esty  king  Geoi^e.  the  Second,  who.  received  him 
iBQSttgmcioasly,  and  not  the  less  so.  on  his  giving  the  whole 
amount  in  Gecman.     Soou;  after  be  was  prom0ted<to^  a 
company  in  the  guaards,  with  the  rank  of  lieiitieiiant^oolonel 

.  in  .tbe^aroiy,  and  became  mUitary  secretary  to^  and  the  , 
intimate  end  cofi&dential  frieodi  of  lord  Granby.  Hia 
]i|9Aiiefs  were  formed  witb.equalstireiigth  and  softness;  and 
t<fe {Soilness,  intrepidity^  and  extensive  militaiy  knowledge^ 
h^  addled  all  the  requisite  talents  of  a^man  of  business^  and 
the  .most  persevering  Assiduity,  withoi^  thedeast  ostCEUta-* 
tion*  >  .Notwithstanding'tbe  most  unassuming  modesty,  bis 
abilities  we^^:now  so  genertdly  knovm,  that  he  was  fixed 
upon! as  the  most  proper  person  to  manage  and  suppoit  the 
interfsslpf  his  CQuikry,.  in  settling  majdy  of  the  toncerns  of' 
the  war  in  Germany^  and  by  that  meatia  Aecessarily  be* 
came  known  to  the  great  Frederic  of  Prussia,  from  whom 
he  itfterwards  had  the  most  tempting  offers^  which  he  de« 


cJipeA  #itbotit  hesitation,    preferring  the  service  of  Ws 
king  and  country  to  every  other  consideration. 

Soon  after  his  obtaimtig  a  company  in  the  guards^  be 
acted  as  deputy-  adjtitan^general  under,  generals  Harvey 
and  William  ^i^herst;  and,  in  May  1772,  be  was  pro* 
moted  to  the  rank  of  colonel  by  brevet.  At  the  comiaence-* 
Bient  of  the  American  war,  he  was  sent  to  Germany,  co 
negociate  with  Hesse,  Hanover,  Brunswick,  ^c.  for  a  body 
of  troops  to  serve  in  North  America,  Gibraltar,  and  the 
East-Indiesi '  In  August  1777,  he  was  raised  to  the  rank 
of  majo^genera^,  and  the  following  year  be  succeeded  to 
the  ftdjntant^enerHlsliip  by  the  death  of  general  Williaoi 
Amberst,  and  abo  became  colonel  of  the  fifteenth  regiment 
of  fooi» .  In  Nov.  1782,  he  was  made  a  lieutenant* general, 
and  in  1786  his  majesty  honoured  him  with  the  order  of 
the  Bath.  On  the  deach  of  general  Pfaillipson,  in  August 
}7d3,  that  regiment  was  given  to  sir  William  Fawcett»  In 
tte  ^itoe  year  the  <^  Rules  and  Regulations  for  the  foimi^^ 
tions,  fietd  eci^rcrse, '  and  movements  of  his  majesty's 
forces,"'  were  printed,  and  directed  to  be  fc^lowed  by  tbe 
British'  ardfiy,  by  ah  order  signed  by  sir  Wliliam.  In  May 
1796  he  obtained  the  rank  of  general,  and  on  bis  resigning 
tbe  office  of  adjutant- general,  bis  majesty  was  so  sensible 
<^itbe  yaioe  of  hi^  services,  as  to  grant  him  an  allowance 
4»(  fivi  pounds  per  diem  in  lieu  thereof,  and  ordered  him  to 
be  -sworn  -  in  as  one  of  bis  most  honourable  privy^council. 
His  last  promotion  wa^  to*  the  governorship  of  Chelsea  bos-* 
pital,*  where  he  died  March  22,  1804„  aged  seventy-six, 
ftftd  was  interred  iii  the  burial**ground  of  tbe  hospital.  A 
anonulnetit  has  since  been  erected  to  bis  memory,  and  to 
that  of ^ his  kdy,  wbt  survived  him  about  a  yean  ^ 
' '  FAWKES  <FiiAKCis),  a  poetical  and  misceUaneous  writel, 
was  bori&  in  Yorkshire  about  1721.  He  was  educated  at 
Xeedty  under  thecar^  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Cookson,  vicar  of 
thai  parish,  ftoih  whence  he  went  to  Jesus  college,  Cam- 
bridge, and  took  1) is  b&chelor^s  degree  in  1741,  and  bis 
mas^Pliin  1745.  '  After  being  admitted  into  boly  orders, 
he  settled  at  Bramham  id  Yorkshire,  near  the  elegant  se^t 
4f  that  nam^  belonging  to  Robert  Lane,  esq.  tbe  beauties 
of'  Wbicb  afibrded  bim  the  first  subject  for  liis  muse.  He 
j^ttblidhed  his  ^<  Brambam  Park,*'  in  1745,  but  without  bis 
name.    Hi»n<^!2ct  publications  were  the  ^^  Descriptions  of 


}  fSent.  Miif,  lS(H«*-FMiUaier'»  Hist,  ofjC^frteea. 

May- and  Winter,*'  frorh  Oayen  Douglas,  the  former  in 
1752,  the  latter  in  1754  :  these  brought  him  into  conskfer- 
»t>le 'notice  as  a  poetical  antiquary,  and  it  was  hoped  that 
be^oiild  have  been  encouraged  to  modernize  the  whole  of 
that  author's  works.  About  the  year  \zts6  mentioned,  he 
Wrmoved  to  the  curacy  of  Croydon  in  Surrey,  where  he  had 
to  opportunity  of  courting  the  notice  of  Archbishop  Her- 
ting,  who  resided  there  at  that  time;  and  to  whom,  among 
other  complimentary  verses,  he  addressed  an  ^^  Ode  on 
his  Grace's  recovery,"  which  was  printed  in  Dodsley's  Col- 
lection. These  attentions,  and  his  general  merit  as  a 
scholar,  induced  the  archbishop  to  collate  him,  in  1755,  to 
the  vicarage  of  Orpington,  with  St.  Mary  Cray  in  Kent, 
iti  1757  he  had  occasion  to  lament  bis  patron's  death  in  a 
pathetic  eFegy,  styled  Aurelius,  printed  with  his  grace's 
sermons  in  1763,  but  previously  •in  our  author's  volume  of 
poems  in  1761.  About  the  sam«  time  be  married  miss 
Furrier  of  Leetls.  In  April  1774,  by  the  late  Dr.  Plump- 
tr^*8  favour,  he  exchanged  his  vicarage  for  the  rectory  of 
Hayes.  This*,  except  the  office  of  chaplain  to  the  princess 
dowager  of  W&le^,  was  the  only  ecclesiastical  promotion 
be  obtain^. 

In  1761  hepbbtished  by  subscription  A  volume  of*  Ori- 
gitttri  Poems  and  Transfatrons,**  by  which  he  got  more  pro- 
fit thai)' fstme.  His- subscribers  amounted  to  nearly  eight 
hundred,  biittio  second  edittoti  was^  called  for.  Some 
other  pieces  by  him  are  in  Mr.  Nith6ls's  Collection,  andia 
Ihe  '•Poeticiil  Calendar,"  a  periodical  selection  of  fugitiTe 
Verses  \thidh  he  published  in  coig unction  with  Mr.  Woty, 
'An  indifferent  poet  of  that  time.  In  IT67  he  published  an 
eclogue,  entitled  <*  Partridge  Shooting,"  very  inferior  to 
lifis  other  p^dttctions.  He  ivas  the  editor  also  of  a  '^*'  Fa- 
'«iily  Bible,"  with' notes,  inf  4to,  which  is  a  work  of  very 
•  in^eon^iderable  nftefit,  but  to  which  he  probably  contributed 
Ohfy  bis  name,  a  common  trick  among  the  retaikers  of 
'♦<  Complete  Family  Bibles.'^ 

'His  translations  of  Anacreon,  Sappho,  Bionf,  Moschus, 
llrd  Musaeus,  appeared  in  1760,  and  his  Theocrittts,  En- 
couraged by  another  liberal  subscription,  in  1767.  His 
Apollonius  Rhodius,  a  posthumous  publication,  completed 
by  th6  rev.  Mr.  Mean,  of  Etnanoel  college,  Cambridge, 
inade  its  appearanx^e  in  1780,  when  Mr.  Fawkes's  widow 
was  enabled,  by  the  kindness  of  the  editor,  to  avail  herself 
of  the  subscriptions,  contributed  as  usual  very  liberally*. 
Mr.  Fawkes  died  August  26,  1777. 

15i  FA  W  K^  S* 

Tbese.'scanty  materisds  are  taken  cbiefly  IrQin  ..Mr«  Nr4 
cbols^s  Life  of  Bowyer,  and  little  can  now  be  added  to  them* 
Mr.  Fawkes  was  a  man  of  a  social  disposition,  with  mwh 
of  tbe  imprudence  which  adheres  to  it.  Although  a  prow 
found  classical  scholar^  and  accounted  an  excellent  trans-*. 
lator,  be  was  unable  to  publish  any  of  his  works  withQUfe 
the  previous  aid  of  a  subscription ;  and  his  Bible  was  • 
paltry  job  which  necessity,  only  could  have  induced  bka 
to  undertake.  With  all  bis  failings,  however,  it  appears 
that  he  was  held  in  esteem  by  many  distinguished  conteA-*- 
poraries,, particularly  by  Doctors  Pearce,.  Jortin^  Johnson^ 
WartoA,  Piumptre,  and  Askew,  who  contributed  critical 
assistance  to  his  translation  of  Theocritus. 

As  an  original  poet,  much  cannot  be  said  in  his  fsivour. 
His  pQw^s  were  confined  to  occasional  slight  and  Gficomi^ 
l^tic  verses,  /s^ch  as  may.  be  produced  without  great  efforl, 
and  are  supposed  tp.  answer  every  purpose  when  they  hav^e 
pleased  those  to  whom  they  were  addressed*  The  epitha? 
lamic  ode  may  {>erhaps  rank  higher,  if  we  icould  forget  aQ 
obvious  endeavour  to.  iqiit^te  Prydeii  and  Pope.  In  the 
elegy  on  tbe  dea^  oi[  Dobbin,  and  one  or  two  other  pi^^es, 
there  is  a  considerable  portion  of  humour,  whiob  is, a  mom 
legitimate  proof,  of  genius  than  one  species  of  poe^  v  av# 
4i^posed.tQ  allow.  His  principal  defects  are  wunt  of  JM4g^ 
m^nt  and  taste.  These,  however,  are  less  discoveimblQ  in 
his  translations,  and  it  fvas  probably  a  ponsciousnes^.af 
limited  powers  which  incjio^d  him  so  mocb  to  translatA^^* 
In  this  J)e  every  where  displays  a  critical  knowledge  ie^  his 
author,  while  his.  versification  is  smooth  ^nd  elegant,\and 
liis  expression  remarkably  clear,.  He.  was  onoe.  c^teejmed 
the  best  translator  since  the  days  of  Pope,  a, praise  .whiob^ 
if  now  disallowed,  it  is  nouch  that  it  could  in  hi»  owa.time 
have  been  bestowed  with  justice.^ 

,  FAYDiT  (Aksexm£,  or  Gauc£^m,)  was  one  oltb«  most 
celebrated  of  the  Provencal  poets  or  troubadours.  .  He^faad 
a  fine  figure,  abundance  of  wit»  and  a  pleasing  address, 
and  Wias  oiucb  (encouraged  by  tbe  princes  of  his  ucae*}.lSef 
representing  his  comedies,,  be  soon  acquired  consLderald^ 
riches,  which  his  vanity  and  his  love  of  debancheKy 
and  expence  did  noyt  suffer  him  to  keep*    From  ainiser- 

able  state  of  poverty  )ie  was  relieved  by  (^  -libemtiiy 
pf  Hiphard  Cwrdc  Idon,  who  had  a  atrong.  taste  for.  the 

1  Jobi^flon.  and  duOmers'i  JSngliili  Foed,  1810|  il  Tolt.*^Ni<lio1f'f  Jh^m 
aad  Bowyer. 

Pr(>ven^l  poetry.  After  the  death  of  this  protector,  he 
r^drkied  to  Aix,  where  he  married  a  young  woman  of  dis- 
tinguished wit  and  beauty ;  but  she  did  not  long  survive 
her^marriage  with  this  profligate  husband.  He  died  soon 
9,U&r^  in  1220)  at  what  age  is  not  exactly  known^  but  cer- 
tainty early  in  life.  Among  the  many  pieces  which  he 
wrote,  the  foHowing  are  mentioned:  I.  A.  poem  on  the 
death  of  his  benefactor,  Richard  I.  2.  '<  The  palace  of 
Love/*  imitated  afterwards  by  Petrarch.  3.  Several  come- 
dies, one  ijf  which,  entitled  **  Heregia  dels  Prestes,*'  the 
heresy  of  the  priests,  a  satirical  production  against  the  cor-^ 
ruptions  of  the  church,  was  publicly  acted  at  the  castle  of 
Boniface,  marquis  of  Montserrat' 

Dr.  Burney  hifomis  us  that  he  found  his  poem  on  the 
death  of  Richard  I.  in  the  Vatican,  among  the  MSS.  be- 
queathed to  tha%  library  by  the  queen  of  Sweden,  with  the 
original  music  by  the  bard  himseff,  who  was  as  much  ad«^ 
mired  by  his  contemporaries  for  setting  his  poems  to  music, 
as  writing  them.     A  translation  of  the  poem,  and  the- mu- 
sic itself,  may  be  seen  in  Dr.  Bnrhey^s  History.  * 
^    FAYDIT  (PETEa)i  a  priest  of  Ribro,  once  w^ll  known  by 
his  singular  opinions,  entered  the  ^congregation  of  the  ora- 
tory  in  1662,'but  was  obliged' to  quit  it  in  1671,  being  a 
fliiend  to   Cartesiahism,  which  was  then  a  heresy.     He 
preached  against'  the  conduct  of  Innocent  XL  towai'ds 
France,  and  pubKshed  a  treatise  on 'the  Trinity  1696,  in 
which  appearing  to  favour  trith^ism,  he  was  confined  at  St. 
Lazare  in  Paris,  but  afterwards  received  bttlers  from  the 
kifig  to  retire  to  his  country,  where  he  died  1709.     He 
left  ^^  a  life  of  St.  Amable,'^  12mo;^  <«  Remarks  oh  Homer, 
Virgil,  aad^tbe  poetical  style  of  Scripture,"  ^  vols.  I2mo; 
a;  Collection  in  Latin  verse,  at) d  French  prose,  entitled, 
"Tombeau  de  M.  de  Santetiil^V   !  2mo ;  "  La  Teleni&co- 
^matite,  ou  Gtntiqiue  du  Telemaque  de  M.  Fenelon,'*  12mo, 
ttifool&sb  attack  on  Fedeloifi'^  celebrated  performance.     All 
liis:  works  dstitidn  iiingular  opifiions,    great  reading  and 
\Uarniog^,  bfft  little  taste  orjiidgment.     "  Le  Moines  em« 
-prantt^s,^'  2  vols.;  l'2mo^  have  l^en  attributed  to  him,  but 
Vthey  ore  by  HaitM.  * 

^^ FAYETTE  (Marie  MAMLttNfi,  Piocbe  de  la  Vergne, 
vi^dqnitess  of),  a  French  lady,  daughter  of  Aymar  de  la 
>  Vergn^  4uaredial-de«€amp,  and  gov6rnbr  of  HsTre-de* 

.);'S,Mar«rf«-«>B«nie7'iHiit.ofMusl«,  1^1.  II.  •  Moreri.— Diet.  ^t. 

IM  F  A  Y  E  TT  f:- 

Grace,  but  more  distinguished  by  herwtt  and  liti^aTy  pm* 
ductiong  than  by  her  family,  was  married  to  the  count  d0 
Fayette  in  \6^S^  and  died  in  1693.     She  cultivated  letters^ 
and  the  fine  arts ;  and  her  hotel  was  the  rendezvous  of  aU 
who  were  most  distinguished  for  literary  taste.     The  dukor 
de  la  Rochefoucault,  Huetius,. Menage,  La  Fontaine,  Se** 
graisy  were  those  she  saw  most  frequently.    The  last,,  when' 
obliged  to  quit  the  house  of  Mad.  de  Montpeiisier,  fomid; 
an  honourable  retreat  with  her.     The  author  of  "  The  Me- 
moirs of  madame  de  Maintenon,'*  has  not  spoken  favour- 
ably of  this  lady,  nor  represented  her  manners  to  be  such 
as  from  her  connections  we  should  suppose.     But  madame 
de  Sevignd,  who  bad  better  opportunities  of  knowing  her, 
and  is  more  to  be  relied  on  than  the  author  of  the  memoirs,  * 
has  painted  her  very  diflPerentiy^     This  lady  says,  in  a  iet-^ 
ter  to  her  daughter^  '^  Mad.  la  Fayette  is  a  very  amiable 
and  a  very  estimable  woman ;  and  whom  you  will  love  ' 
when  you  shall  have  time  to  be  with  her,  and  to  enjoy  the- 
benefit  of  hei*  sense  and  wit  \  the  better  you  know  her,  the 
more  you  will  like  her.!* 

The  principal  works  of  this  lady  are,  1.  "  Zaide,'*  af  ro- 
mance,  often  printed,  and  read  by  persom  who  do  not 
usually  read  romances.     2.  ^'  La  princesse  de  Cleves,*'  a 
romance  also,   which  Fontenelle  professed  to  have  read 
four  times.     Mad.  la  Fayette  was  so  regardless  of  fame, 
that  she  published  the^  works  under  the  name  of  Segrais, 
who,  however,  is  supposed  to  have  been  no  farther  con- 
cerned than  in -aiding  a  little  in  the  design  of  them.     3; 
*'  La  princesse  de  Montpensier,'*  another  romance.     Vol- 
taire says,  that  the  romances  of  Fayette  were  the'  frrst 
which  exhibited  the  manners  of  people  of  fashion  in'  a  ' 
graceful^  easy,  and  natural  way ;  all  before  having  been    ' 
pompous  bombast,  and  swelling  every  thing  buyond  nature 
and  jifei     4.  "  Memoires  de  la  cour  de  France  pour  lte»    , 
ann^es  1688  &  1689."     This  work  it  writterk  with  address 
and  spirit,  and  abounds  with  striking  pictures  and  curians 
anecdotes*     5.  <*  Histoire  d*Henriette  d'Angleterre.'*     6. 
**  Divelr«  portraits  de  quelques  personnes  de  la  cour.''     AU  ~ 
these  works  are  still  esteemed  ;  and  she  drew  up  alsootheir 
memoirs  of  the  history  of  her  times,  which  were  lent  x.6 
every  body,  and  lost,  by  her  son  the  abj[>6  de  la  Fayette. , 
She  understood  Latin,  which  she  learned  tn  a  very  shorif' 
time.  \ 

1  Diet.  Hist.  * 

F  A  ^  Z  i:  I.  L  O.  159 

FA2ZELLO  (Thomas),  the  historian  of  Sicily,  was  bom 
ftt  Sacca,  a  town  of  Palermo,  in  1498.  He  was  entered  ip 
the  order  of  Dominican  monks,  ^nd  was  their  provincial, 
but  from  modesty  declined  the  honour  of  being  elected 
general  of  the  order.  He  was  ten  tioies  choiien  prior  of 
the  monastery  at  Palermo,  and  died  in  possession  of  that 
office  in  1570.  He  wrote  many  works,  but  the  most  con- 
siderable was  a  ^^  History  of  Sicily,"  written  in  Latin  in 
two  decades,  which  first  appeared  in  Palermo  in  1558,  fo). 
and  which. has  passed  throug;h  several  editions,  and  was 
translated  into  the  Italian  language.^  , 


FEARNE  (Charles),  a  barrister  and  law  writer,  was 
the  eldest  son  of — ^  Fearne,  esq.  judge  advpcate  of  the 
admiralty  in  the  latter  end  of  the  late  king's,  reign.  He 
presided  at  the  trial  of  admiral  Byng ;  and  on  that  trial, 
and  in  the  general  course  of  his  profession,  was  distin^ 
guisbed  as  a  very  able  and  learned  man.  He  gave  his  son 
Charles  the  first  rudiments  of  education  himself,  and  at  4^ 
proper  age  sent  him  to  Westminster  school,  where  he  soon 
began  to  distinguish  himself  in  classical  and  matbeipatical 
learning.  Being  designed  for  the  law,  as  soon  as  he  had 
finished,  his  education  at  this  seminary,  be  was  entered  of 
the  Inner  Temple ;  but  at  that  tkne  with  no  fixed  r^soliif* 
tion  to  become  a  barrister.  His  life  bad  .hitherto  passed 
in  making  excursions  from  one  branch  of  learning  to  anor 
tber,  in  each  of  which  he  made  very  considerable  ad- 
vances, and  might  perhaps  have  succeeded  in  any.  During 
this  state  of  irresolution^  his  father  died ;  and  his  fortune^ 
which  (from  his  habits  of  living)  wa^  very  inconsiderable^ 
jira^  ^ually  partitioned  between  our  author,  and  a  brot;her 
and  sisten  Here  it  was  that  young  Fearne  exhibited  thaft 
generosity  and  independence  that  distinguished  him  through 
the  greater  part  of  his  life.  His  father  had  given  him,  on 
his  entrance  into  the  Inner  Temple,  a  few  hundred  pounds^ 
to  purchase  chambers  and  books;  and,  as  he  had  likewise 
given  biiB  a  superior  education  to  his  younger  brother,  be 
nobly  resolved  on  accepting  this  as  a  full  equivalent  £or  bis 
j»hare  in  the  remainder  of  h^^  father's  fort;iAne.  jHis  bror 
tber  and.  sister  had  affection  and  delicacy  enuqgh  to  resist 
this  cpnduct  for  a  while;  but  Fearne  w,as  immoveable* 

My  fatherj^"  .said  he,^  *^  by  tajkipg  such  upcomn\on  pains 

1  Moreri,— Tir^botalu. 


160  .  !•  E  A  R  N  je. 

with  iny  education,  no  doubt  meant  it  should  be  my  who]6 
dependence ;  and  if  that  won^t  bring  me  through,  a  feur 
hundred  pounds  will  be  a  matter  of  no  consequence.^*  His 
brother  and  sister  therefore  shared  the  father's  fortune  be- 
tween them :  the  former  settled  in  the  Admiralty-office^ 
and  the  latter  afterwards  married  a  gentleman  of  equal  rank 
and  condition  with  herself. 

Amidst  Mr.  Fearne's  various  pursuits  of  knowledge,  he 
had  always  a  particular  attachment  ta  experimental  philo- 
sophy, which^  both  at  school  and  at  the  Temple,  he  prac« 
tised  occasionally.  Iii  this  employment,  he  fancied  that 
be  had  discovered  the  art  of  dying  Morocco  leather  of  par- 
ticular colours,  and  after  a  new  process*  It  appears  that 
the  Maroquoniers  in  the  Levant  (who  are  called  so  from 
dressing  the  skin  of  this  goat,  named  the  Maroquin)  keep 
secret  the  ingredients  which  they  put  into  the  liquor^ 
which  gives  it  that  fine  red  colour.  This  secret,  or  what 
would  answer  equally  as  well,  Fearne  thought  he  had  dis- 
covered, and,  like  most  projectors,  saw  great  profits  arising 
from  the  discovery.  It  was  his  misfortune,  however,  to 
form  a  connection  in  this  scheme,  with  a  needy  and  ex- 
pensive partner,  which  opened  his  eyes  to  the  fallacy  of 
bis  hopes ;  and  at  the  suggestion  of  his  friends,  he  reverted 
to  bis  original  profession,  or  what  his  father  intended  for 
such,  and  sat  down  to  the  study  of  the  law  with  unremit- 
ting diligence.  He  had  not  been  long  in  chambers,  when 
his  habits  of  study,  diligence,  and  sobriety,  were  observed 
by  an  eminent  attorney  in  the  Temple,  who  wanted  an 
abstract  to  be  made  of  a  voluminous  body  of  papers,  so  as 
.  to  bring  the  matter  clearly  before  counsel.  The  papers 
were  so  intricate,  and  of  such  various  references,  that  they 
required  a  very  clear  bead,  and  a  man  not  much  taken  up 
widi  other  business,  to  arrange  them.  He  saw  Fearne  ain- 
swered  this  last  description  very  well ;  and  told  him,  '^Tl&t 
having  a  great  body  of  papers  to  arrange,  he  should  be 
glad  to  employ  him.*'  Fearne  accepted  the  offer,  and 
performed  bis  task  so  ably,  that  bis  employer  not  only  re^ 
warded  him  handsomely  for  his  trouble,  but  from  tliat  time 
gave  him  a  considerable  part  of  his  business. 

He  now  began  to  be  known  as  a  young  man  of  very  con- 
siderable legal  erudition,  and  a  promising  increase  in  busi- 
ness encouraged  him  to  relinquish  his  chambers,  and.ts^e 
ft  house  in  Breams-buildings,  Chancery -lane,  where  he 
becanie  very  sucpetsful  as,  what  is  called,  a  chamber  counr 

F  £  A  K  N  &  "tei 

9el^    Befioare  he  left  the  Temple,  be  h^d  published  bid  ¥efy 
tiseful  f '  Legigraphical  Chart  of  Landed  Property,"  apd  be  * 
now  derived  additional  reputation  from  his  oiore  important 
treatise,  entitled  ^^  An  Essay  on.  the  Learning  of  Cootin-^ 
gent  Remainders  and  Executory  Devises,"  which,  although 
pttblisbed  without  his  name,  was  soon  traced  to  its  author* 
Fortane,  as  it  is  usually  termed,  was  now  before  him,  but 
be  had  no  extraordinary  ambition  for  her  favoprs,  and,  very 
iktdfy,  contracted  his  business  within  a  certain  cbmpas% 
by  which  ^t  might  yield  him  an   annual   sum  which  h6 
'tfaoueht  sufficient  for  his  wants.     This,  estimated  by  his 
biographer  at  1 500/.  a  year,  when  he  could  with  ease  have 
^ct|uired  3000/.  he  spent  on  a  town  and  country -house,  a 
earriage,  &;c.  with  an  establishment  on  a  genteel  but  mo- 
derate scale ;  and  th6  time  he  denied  to  increase  of  busi* 
uess^  he  employed  in  his  house  at  Hampstead  oa  mechani- 
cal and  philosophical  experiments.     At  this  retreat  he  was 
irrapt  up  either  in  some  philosophical  experiment,  or^some 
mechanical  invention  :  the  first  of  which  he  freely  conrimu- 
iiicstted  to  men  of  similar  pursuits^;  and  the  latter,.  wh'eli[ 
Gomfdeted,  he  as  liberally  gave  away  to  poor  artists',  oe;^ 
dealers  iathesb  articles.;  and  here  also  he  ifiade  some  op- 
ticar  glassies  upon  a' new  construction,  which  have 'been 
lieckohi^d  improvements :.  he  likewise  constVucted  ^  'misi-^ 
ehine  for  transposing  the  keys  in  music ;  gave  man^^  us^^ful 
hints  iti  the  dyeing  of  cottons,  and  in  a  variety  6f  oth^r  ar« 
dcies,  which  equally  shewed  the  enlarged  state  of  bis  mind, 
and  ^e  liberality  of  his  heart.    These  be  called  hh'Uisst^ 
pMidfiSi  and  with  some  degree  of  truth,  as  they  often  brbke 
sN'ttpon  his  profession,  and  induced  him  to  give  up  more 
lieiifs  (t($  bring  up  for  lost  time)  than  was  consistent  with 
liidre  benleficial  pursuits,  or  the  ti^iiral  strength  of  his  con- 

"Whilfethqs  employed,  aitioccasioiif  jf^resented  itself,  wfaicb 
ctttkki  forth  his  talents  in  a  new  Way.     Lord  Mtfusfield, 
n^B"  solicitor-generat  in  1747,  facing  given  an  opifnion  in' 
tfa^'staHe  of  a  dase  on  the  will  of  William  Williams  (after- 
the  subject  of  the  celebrated  case 'of  Perrin  v.  Blnke),*' 
Mr.  Feafire> '  on  the  authority  of;  his  frfend**the  Isltfe 
James  Booth,  esq.  of  Lincpln's-^inn,  quoted  in- the  first- 
«di«i6a  of  his  <«  Essay  on  the  Learning  of  Coftting'ent  He- 
mauhders,  &c.'' bis  lordship  afterwards  disavowed  that  opi- 
irion  on  the  bench,  insinuating  at  the  same  time  that  Mr. 
Fearne  was  under  some  mistake  in  reporting  it.     B'earnej^' 
Vol.  XIV.  M  *^ 

162  F  E  A  R  N  E. 

all  alive  to  the  delicacy  of  bis  character,  and  knowing  the 
strong,  ground  he  proceeded  upon  (which  was  a  copy  of 
that  opinion  given  him  by  Mr.  Booth,  from  a  manuscript 
collection  of  cases,  taken  from  the  originals),  took  this 
opportunity  to  publish  a  letter,  entitled  ^^  Copies  of  Opi- 
nions ascribed  to  eminent  counsel  on  the  will  which  was 
the  subject  of  the  case  of  Perrin  v.  Blake,  before  the  court 
of  king's  bench,  1769,  addressed  to  the  right  hon.  William 
earl  of  Mansfield.''  This  appeared  about  1780,  and  is  said 
to  have  afforded  lord  Mansfield  some  uneasiness,  who,  bowr 
ever,  took  no  notice  of  it. 

The  remainder  of  Mr.  Fearne's  life  appears  to  have  pass- 
ed in  a  relaxation  from  professional  cares,  and  to  have  been 
embittered  by  the  difficulties  by  which  such  imprudence 
is  generally  followed.  It  would  be  painful  to  enter  into  a 
detail  of  this  course,  which  terminated  by  his  death,  Jan. 
21,  1794,  when  he  had  reached  only  bis  forty -fifth  year, 
and  was  worn  out  both  in  mind  and  body.  In  order  to 
contribute  to  the  provision  of  his  family,  his  friends  col- 
lected his  posthumous  works,  which  were  published  in 
1797,  consisting  of  "  Observations  on  the  Statute  of  Inroll- 
ments  of  Bargains  and  Sales,  27  Hen.  VIII.  delivered  by 
the  author  in  a  reading  at  Lyon's-inn  in  1778  ;  Arguments 
in  the  singular  case  of  general  Stanwix}  and  a  collection 
of  Cases  and  Opinions."  * 

.  FEATLEY,  or  FAIRCLOUGH  (Daniel),  a  learned 
(controversial  divine  of  the  church  of  England,  was  bom  at 
Charlton  upon  Otmore,  near  Oxford,  March  15,  1582. 
Faiuclough  was  the  name  of  his  ancestors,  so  spelt  by  his 
grandfather,  father,  and  eldest  brother,  and  it  appears  that 
he  was  ordained  by  the  same.  Why  he  afterwards  pre*, 
ferred  Featley,  which  is  a  corruption  of  Fairclough  (or,^ 
FaircliflF,  a  place  in  Lancashire,  where  the  family  were  ori-. 
ginally  seated),  we  know  not,  nor  is  it  perhaps  of  much 
consequence.  That  the  family  were  reduced,  appears  from 
the  occupation  of  his  father,  who  was  cook  to  Dr  Laurence- 
Humphrey,  president  of  Magdalen,  and  served  Corpus 
Christi  college,  Oxford,  in  the  same  jpapacity.  He  had 
interest  enough,  however,  with  his  eoiployers,  to  obtain 
a  good  education  for  the  subject  of  this  memoir,  who'  was 
hi9  second  son,  and  whom  we  iind  mentioned  first  as  a 
chorister  of  Magda:len  college.    After  having  made  consi- 

1  J^uropean  Mag.  for  Ao^ast,  September,  and  October,  1799. 

F  E  A  T  L  E  Y;  16S 

jerable  progress  in  the  school  belonging  to  that  college^ 
where,  even  at  twelve  years  old,  bis  Latin  and  Greek  exer- 
cises were  noted  for  their  excellence,  he  was  admitted 
scholar  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Dec.  13,  1594,  and 
Sept.  20,  1602,  when  B.  A.  was  chosen  probationer  fellow* 
He  comnienced  M.  A.  at  the  usual  time,  and  was  always 
eminent  for  his  academical  exercises^  lior  was  he  less  noted 
is  a  disputant  and  preacher.  In  1607  he  delivered  an  ora- 
tion at  the  death  of  Dr.  Reinold,  president  of  Corpus,  who 
had  been  one  of  his  earliest  patrons. 

In  1610,  and  the  two  following  years,  we  find  him  in 
attendance  upon  sir  Thomas  Edmondes,  the  king's  minister 
at  the  court  of  France.  Several  of  the.  sermons  he  preacbed,^ 
during  this  time,  in  the  ambassador's  chapel,  are  collected 
in  bis  **  Clavis  Mystica,"  and  those  which  were  levelled  at 
thfe  errors  of  popery  are  said  to  have  been  v6ry  successful 
both  in  converting  some  catholics,  and  in  confirming  the 
opinions  of  those  who  had  before  embraced  the  doctrines 
of  the  reformation.  He  had  also  very  frequent  conferences 
in  the  Cleremont  with  the  Jesuits,  and  with  the  members 
of  the  Sorbonue,  but  especially  with  fathers  Sirmund  and 
Petau,  who,  although  they  at  first  ridiculed  his  figure,  for 
he  .was  low  of  stature,  yet  afterwards  were  impressed  with 
A  regard  for  his  controversial  talents,  and  treated  his  me-* 
mory  virith  respect.  His  three  disputations  at  Paris ^  are 
confessed  by  Holden,  an  eminent  English  catholic  writer, 
to  Have  done  more  harm  to  the  popish  cause  than  thirty- 
three  he  had  read  of  before.  By  most  of  the  foreign  uni-^ 
yersiiies  he  was  held  in  such  honour  as  a  disputant,  that  iii 
the  tables  of  the  celebrated  schoolmen,  whom  they  ho- 
noured with  the  epithets  of  resolute,  subtle,  angelic,  &c. 
he  was  called  acutissimus  el  acerrimus.  According  to 
Weod,  he  commenced  B;  D.  in  16 1 3,  and  was  the  preacher 
^t  the  act  of  that  year.  His  sermon  on  this  occasion  is 
6'aid  to  have  been  No.  37.  in  the  "  Clavis  Mystica  j'*  but, 
according  to  the  evidence  of  bis  nephew  John  Featley,  he 
did  hot  take  that  degree  until  1615,  and  the  sermon  he  de- 
livered was  a  Latin  concio  ad  clerumy  dated  March  25.  In 
1610  he  had  preached  the  rehearsal  sermon  at  Oxford,  and 
by  ;the  bishop  of  Londoii^s  appointment  he  discharged  the 
same  duty  at  St.  Paul's  crosii  in  1618.  By  invitation  from 
Mr.  Ezekiel  Ascot,  who  had  been  his  pupil,  he  accepted 
the  rectory. pf  Northill  in  Cornwall,  wbich  he  vacated  on 
his  institution  to  the  rectory  of  Lambeth  in  1618,  a  change 

M  2 

16*  ?  E  A  T  t  E  Y. 

wbicb,  if  not  more  pro(itable>  wa$  certainly  highly  agreer 
able  to  hioi,  as  be  became  pqw>  by  tiie  recoiwneadsition 
of  tbe  university,  domestic  cbapl^dn  to  Abbot,  arcbbisboii 
iof  Canterbury. 

In  1619  he  preached -at  Lanxbetb  church,  or  in  the  dia- 
pel  of  the  palace,  seven  of  the  sermons  in  the  ^^Clavis  Mys- 
tica,'^  before  tbe  king^s  commissioners  in  ecdeaiastical 
causes,  and  on  other  occasions,  and  delivered  his  sentiments 
,with  uncoqimon  freedom  of  spirit,  which  appears  to  have 
been  habitual  to  him.  By  the  direction  of  ^rchbiahop  Abbot, 
.nvho  was  desirous  ^bat  De  Diomiois,  archbishop  of  Spatato, 
^bould  be  gratified  with  the  hearing  of  a  complete  divinity* 
act,  Mr.  Featley,  ii>  1617,  kept  his  exerci$efQr  the  dei- 
gree  of  D.  D.  under  Dr.  Prideaux,  the  regius  profeaaor ; 
.^nd  fpauy  other  foreigners  were  present,  with  the  flower  of 
the  English  nobility  and  gentry.  The  Italian  primate  was 
so  highly  pleased  with  the  performance,  tbaJt  be  not  only 
thanked  his  grace  for  the  entertainment  he  had  procured 
for  him;  but,  being  soon  after  appointed  master  of  the 
Savoy,  he  gave  Dr.  Featley  a  brother's  place  in  that  hos- 
pital.. In  the  course  of  this  exercise  Dr.  P(;i4ea^^>  appre* 
^hensive  for  his  reputation  before  such  an  auditory,  felt  the 
jsharpness  and  acuteness  of  Featley V  replies,  almost  to  a 
degree  of  resentment,  but  the  archbishop  eiFected  a  recon* 
ciliation  between  two  men  whose  agreement  in  more  im* 
portant  points  was  of  such  copsequence  in  those  days. 

In  June  1625,  was  held  k  famous  conference  at  siv 
Humphrey  Lynde's,  between  Dr.  Wilson,  dean  of  Carlisle, 
pind  Dr.  Featley,  with .  the  Jesuits  Fisher  and  Sweet,  and 
the  result/ of  it  being  published  in  lj624,  by  archbishop 
Abbot's  command,  under  the  title  of  ^^  The  Romish  Fisher 
caught  and  held  in  his  own  net,''  was  dedicated  to  the 
archbishop  by  Featley.  As  chap  bin  to  his  grace,  he  was 
intrusted  with  the  invidious  office .  of  Hcensiag  books;,  and 
ipxamining  clerks,  which  he  is  said  to  have  discharged  with 
much  prudence,  and  in  general  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of 
his  superiors.  On  one  occasion,  however^  he  is  said  to 
have  been  censured  for  licensing  Elton's  CowBaentary  on 
the  Colossians,  an  author  we  are  unacquainted  with,  but 
excused  himself  by  pleading,  that  the  sheets  which  had 
given  offence  were  added  after  his  imprimatur.  His  con- 
duct, as  licenser,  with  respect  to  Gataker's  treatise  **  On 
Lots,'^  will  occur  to  be  mentioned  in  our  acoount  of  that 
diviue;         .    .       ' 

F  E  A  T  L  fi  f.  165 

Hitherto  the  archbishop  had  bestowed  no  preferment  oti 
his  chaplain ;  but  in  1627,  as  we  are  told,  **  urged  by  hdar- 
iag  the  discontients  of  the  court  and  city,  because  his  chap- 
lain was  kept  behind  the  hangings^''  he  bestowed  on  hinii 
the  rectory  of  Alihallows,  Bread -street,  and  afterwards  the 
rectory  of  Acton.  Much  about  the  dame  time,  but  the  year 
not  Jinown,  he  was  appointed  provost  of  Chelsea  college^ 
an  institution  which  did  not  last  long.  In  1622  he  had 
married  Mrs.  Joyce  HoUoWay,  who  was  his  parishioner^ 
and  resided  in  Kennington-lane.  This  lady  appears  to 
have  been  considerably  older  than  Dr.  Featley,  but  was  ia 
woman  of  great  piety  and  accomplishments.  He  concealed 
his  marriage  for  some  time,  lest  it  should  interfere  with  his 
residence  at  Lambeth  palace  ;  but  in  1625  he  ceased  to  bd 
chaplain  to  the  archbishop,  and  concealment  was  no  longer 
necessary.  The  cause  of  his  quitting  the  archbishop's  ser- 
vice has  been  represented  as  "  the  unfeeling  treatment"  of 
that  prelate,  fiul  of  this,  his  biographers  have  made  too 
much.  The  story,  in  short,  is,  that  Dr.  Featley  fell  sick 
at  Oxford,  supposed  of  the  plague,  and  was  obliged  td 
leave  the  plaoe  and  go  to  Lambeth ;  and  when  he  found* 
that  the  archbishop  had  removed  to  Croydon  for  fear  of 
the  plague,  he  followed  him  thither,  and  the  archbishop 
refused  him  entrance,  and  was  surely  justifiable  in  every 
endeavour  to  prevent  the  disordei'  from  extending  to  the^ 
place  he  had  chosen  as  a  refuge.  [The  story  is  told  with 
apme  confusion  of  circumstances,  but  the  above  is  probably 
the  truth. .  Dr.  Featley,  however,  on  recovering  ftdm  his 
disorder,  which,  after  all,  happened  not  to  be  the  plague^ 
quitted  the  archbishop's  service,  and  removed  his  books 
from  the  palace*^ — It  was  during  the  raging  of  the  plague  in 
1625,  or  1^26,  when  the  churches  Were  deserted,  that  he' 
wrote  his  **  Ancilla  Pietatis^or  Hand-maid  to  private  devo- 
tion," which  became  very  popukr ;  and  befbre  1676,  had" 
passed  through  eight  editions.  Wood  appears  to  be  mis^ 
taken  in  paying,  that  in  this  work  Dr.  Featley  makes  the 
story  of  St.  George,  the  tutelar  saint  of  England,  a  iher^ 
fiction,  and  that  archbishop  Laud  obliged  him  to  apolo- 
'  gijse  for  this  on  his  knees.  Dr.  Featley's  words 'b6ar  no 
such  meaning,  but  it  is  probable  enough  that  there  was  a 
misunderstanding  between  Featley  and  the  archbishop,  as' 
tlie  former  refused  to  obey  the  latter  in  turning  the  com* 
xnunion-table  of  Lambeth  church  altar- wise;  and  we  hno^v' 
that  Featley  was  afterwards  a  witness  against  the  arch« 

lee  F  E  A  T  L  E  Y. 

bishop,  upon  the  charge  of  his  having  made  superstitious 
innovations  in  Lambeth  church. 

While  the  ecclesiastical  constitution  stood,  Dr.  Featley 
ivas^  member  of  several  of  the  convocations;  and  upon  ad'i' 
count,  as  is  supposed,  of  his  being  a  Calvinist,  he  wHs  in 
1642  appointed  by  the  parliament  one  of  the  Assembly  of 
Divines.  He  is  said  to  have  continued  longer  with  them 
than  any  other  member  of  the  episcopal  persuasion ;  but 
this  was  no  longer  than  he  discovered  the  drift  of  their 
proceedings.  That  he  was  not  acceptable  to  the  ruling 
party,  appears  from  his  becoming  in  the  same  year,  a  vic-> 
tim  to  their  revenge.  In  November,  the  soldiers  sacked 
his  church  at  Acton,  and  at  Lambeth  would  have  mur^ 
tiered  him,  had  he  not  made  his  escape.  These  outrages 
were  followed  Sept.  30,  1643,  by  his  imprisonment  in 
Peter-house,  in  Aldersgate-street,  the  seizure  of  his  library 
and  goods,  and  the  sequestration  of  his  estate.  Charges 
vvere  preferred  against  him  of  the  most  absurd  and  con- 
tradictory kind,  which  it  was  to  little  purpose  to  answer. 
fie  was  voted  out  of  his  living.  Among  his  pretended 
offences  were,  that  be  refused  to  assent  tq  every  clause  in 
the  solehfin' league  and  covenant,  and  that  he  corresponded 
with  a:rchbishop  Usher,  who  was  with  the  king  at  Oxford. 
During  his  imprisonment,  he  amused  himself  by  writing 
bis  celebrated  treatise,  entitled  *^  The  Dippers  dipt,  or  th6 
Anabaptists  ducked  and  plunged  over  head  and  ears,  at  a 
disputation  in  Southwark.''  It  is,  however,  a  striking 
proof  of  that  anarchy  of  sentiment  which  disgraced  the 
nation  at  this  period,  that  he  not  only  dedicates  this  book 
to  the  parliament  which  had  imprisoned  him,  but  exhortsi 
them  to  employ  the  sword  of  justice  against  ^'  heretics  and 
schismatics,'*  although  himself  was  now  suffering  under  the 
latter  description  by  that  very  parliament.  He  was  better 
employed  soon  after  in  an  able  vindication  of  the  church 
of  England  against  the  innovators  who  now  bore  rule ;  but 
his  long  confinement  of  eighteen  months  impaired  his 
health  and  shortened  his  days.  His  situation  appears  to 
have  been  represented  to  his  persecutors,  but  it  was  not 
lentil  six  weeks  before  his  death  that  he  obtained  leave 
from  the  parliament  to  remove  to  Chelsea  for  the  benefit 
pf  the  air.  Here  he  died  April  17,  1645,  On  the  very  day 
that  he  was  bound  to  have  returned  to  his  confinement  at 
Peter-house.  It  was  reported  that  a  few  houiv  before  his 
4eathj|  he  prayed  for  destruction  to  the  enemies  of  the 

F  E  A  T  L  E  Y.  167 

church  und  state,  in  expressions  which  have  been  called 
**  irascible  and  resentful."    ,How  far  they  were  used  by 
him  seems  doubtful ;  but  had  he  prayed  only  for  the  resto- 
ration of  the  constitution  in  church  and  state,  it  might  haye 
still,  in  those  times,  been  imputed  to  him  that  the  destruc- 
tion of  their  enemies  was  a  necessary  preliminary  and  a 
fair  innuendo.     He  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  Lambeth 
church,  where  his  funeral  sermon  was  preached  by  Dr. 
Leo  or  Loe,  who  had  been  in  habits  of  intimacy  with  him 
for  thirty-seven  years.     Dr.  Leo  represents  him  as  beiug 
*^  in  his  nature,  meek,  gracious,  affable,  and  merciful  ;*'  as 
a  writer  he  was  esteemed  in  his  time  one  of  the  ablest  de- 
fenders of  the  doctrines  of  the  reformation  against  the  pa* 
pists,  and  one  of  the  ablest  opponents  of  the  anabaptists. 
.  Wood  has  given  a  long  list  of  his  controversial  works, 
mosjt  of  which  are  now  little  known,  and  seldom  inquired 
for.    Among  his  writings  of  another  description,  however, 
we  may  mention,  1.  The  Lives  of  Jewell,  prefixed  to  his 
works,  and  of  Reinolds,  Dr.  Robert  Abbot,  &c.  which  are 
in  Fuller's  "Abel  Redivivus.'*     2.  "The  Sum  of  saving 
Knowledge,*'   a  kind  of  catechism,   London,   1626.      3* 
'^Clavis  Mystica;  a  Key  opening  divers  difficult  and  mys- 
terious texts  of  Holy  Scripture,  in  seventy  Sermons,"  ibid. 
1636,  folio.     Prynne  says  that  Laud's  chaplain  obliterated 
many  passages  in  them  respecting  the  papists.    4.  ^^  He^a^ 
texium ;  or  six  Cordials  to  strengthen  the  heart  of  every 
faithful  Christian  against  the  terrors  of  death,"  ibid.  1637, 
folio.     5.  "  Several  Funeral  Sermons^  one  preached  at  the 
funeral  of  sir.  Humphrey  Lynd,'*  ibid.  1640,  fplio.     The 
proper  title  of  this  volume  is  "  Gpmxo;,    the  .  House  pf 
Mourning  furnished,  delivered  in  forty-seven  Sermohs,*' 
by  Daniel  Featley,  Martin  Day,  Richard  Sibbs,  and  Tho- 
mas Taylor,  and  other  reverend  divines ;  but  their  respec- 
tive shares  are  not  pointed  out,  nor,  except  in  one  or  two 
instances,  the  persons  at  whose  funerals  the  sermons  were 
p;:eached.     6.  "  Dr.  Daniel  Featley  revived,  proving  that 
the  protestant  church  (and  not  the  Romish)  is  the  only  ca- 
tholic and  true  church,"  ibid.  1660,  12mo,     To  this  is  pre- 
fixed an  account  of  his  life  by  his  nephew  John  Featley, 
Dr.  Featley  also  published  king  James's  "Cygneja  Cantio," 
ibid.  J 629,  4to,  which  contains  a  scholastic  duel  between 
that  monarch  and  our  author.  ^ 

1  Blog.  Brit.  Yol.VT.  Parti,  ef  the  new  edition,  unpnblished-^av  article 
.•labor?tely  prepared  by  the  Rev.  Sam.  Denne,  for  bis  Adileoda  to  Dr,  X>iica- 
rel's  History  of  Lauibeth  Palace,  aud  Mr.  Nichols's  History  of  that  Parish, 

l«fl  TEA  T  L  E  Y. 

FE ATLEY  (J6hn),  sepbew  to  t^e  preceding,  mh  of 
John  Fairck>iigby  was  a  native  of  Northamptonriiire,  imd 
educated  at  AU  Souls'  college,  Oxford,  which  he  is  said  to 
have  left  after  taking  his  first  degree  in  arta^  probably  to 
become  his  uncle's  assktant  at  Lamheth  or  Acton.    During 
the  rebellion  he  went  to  St«  Christopher's  in  the  West  In-^ 
dies,  where  he  arrived  in  1643,  and  had  the  booour  of 
being  the  6rst  preacher  of  the  gospel  in  the  infancy  of  that 
colony.     It  appears  that  he  returned  about  the  time  of  the 
restoration,  and  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the  king,  who 
also  in  August  1660  presented  him  to.  the  precentorship  of 
Lincoln,  and  in  September  following  to  the  prebend  of 
Milton  Ross,  in  that  cathedral.     In  1662,  he  was  created 
D.  D.  and  had  from  the  dean  atid  chapter  of  Lincoln  the. 
vjcarage  of  Edwin  ton  in  Nottinghamshire,    worth  about 
sixty  pounds  a  year.     He  died  at  Lincoln  in  1666,  and  was  * 
interred  in  a  chapel  in  the  cathedral.     He  published  one  i 
or  two  of  bis  uncle's  tracts,  particularly  "  Dr.  Featiey  re-»':i 
vived,  &c."  in  which,  as  already  noticed,  tl  'are  is  a  life  of  ' 
bis  uncle.     Of  his  own  were  only  published  two  occasional'  ' 
sermons,  and  ^^  A  divine  antidote  against  the  Plague,  con«>  ^ 
twined  in  Soliloquies  and  Prayers,'*  London,  1660. '  * 

FECHT,  or  FECHTIUS  (John),  of  Brisgaw,  a  celc-^ 
br^ted  Lutheran  divine  and  historian,  author  of  several:  > 
learned  works  in  Latin  and  in  German,  v/ho  was  settled  first  ^ 
at  Oourlacb,  and  afterwards  at  Rostock,  was  born  in  1636,  ' 
and  di^d  in   1716.     Among  his  works  are  a  *^  History  of  . 
#  Cain  and  Abel,*'  with  notes  critical,  philological,  historical,  : 
and  theological,  published  at  Rostock,  in  8vo ;  a  ^^  Trea« 
tise  on  the   Religion  of  the   modern  Greeks;"   another 
against  the  "  Superstitions  of  the  Mass,"  &c.* 

FECKENHAM  (John  de),  so  called,  because  he  was  . 
born  of  poor  parents  in  a  cottage,  near  the  forest  of  Fee- 
kenhain  in  Worcestershire,  his  right  name  being  HowmaM, 
was  the  last  abbot  of  Westminster.  Discovering  in  his 
youth  very  good  parts,  and  a  strong  propensity  to  learning, 
the  priest  of  the  parish  took  him  under  his  care,  instructed 
him  some  years,  and  then  procured  him  admission  into 
Evesham  monastery.  At  eighteen,  he  was  sent  by  bis  abbot 
to  Gloucester-hall,  Oxford;  from  whence,  when  he  had  . 
sufficiently  improved  himself  in  academical  learning,  he 
was  recalled  to  his  abbey  ;  which  being  dissolved  Nov.  17, 

I  Biog.  Brk.  rol.  VI.  Part  I.  of  the  new  edition,  unpublished. 
4  Moreii.-— Saxii  OaomMt. 


ISS^f  he  had  a  jre^rly  pension  of  an  hundred  florins  al-  « 
lotred  him  for  his  Ufe,  Upon  this  he  retorned  to  Glouces- 
ter-hall,  where  he  pursued  his  studies  some  years ;  and  ill 
153^9,  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity,  being  then 
chaplain  to  Bell  bishop  of  Worcester.  That  prelate  re- 
signing his  see  in  1543,  he  became  chaplain  to  Bonnet 
bishop  of  London ;  but  Bonner  being  deprived  of  his  bi- 
shopric, in  1 549,  by  the  reformers,  Feckenbam  was  com-f 
znitted  to  the  Tower  of  London,  because,  as  some  say,  he 
refused  to  administer  the  sacraments  after  the  protestant 
manti^r.  Soon  after,  he  was  taken  from  thence,  to  dispute! 
on  the  chief  points  controverted  between  the  protestants 
and  papists,  and  disputed  several  times  in  public  before 
and  with  some  great  personages. 

He  was  afterwards  remanded  to  the  Tower,  where  he 
continued  till  queen  Mary^s  accession  to  the  crown  in  1 553 ; 
J[>ut  was  then  released,  and  made  chaplain  to  the  qoeen. 
He  became  also  again  chaplain  to  Bonner,  prebendary  of 
St.  PauPs,  dean  of  St.  PauPs,  rector  of  Finchley  in  Mid- 
dlesex, which  he  held  only  a  f|ew  months ;  and  then  rector 
of  Greenferd  in  the  same  county.    In  1554,  he  was  one  of 
the  disputants  at  Oxford  against  Cranmer,  Ridley,  and  La- 
timer, before  they  suffered  martyrdom,  but  said  very  little 
against  them ;  and  during  Mary*s  reign,  he  was  constantly 
employed  in  doing  good  offices  to  the  afflicted  protestants 
,  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest.     Francis  Russel  earl  of 
B^ford,  Ambrose  and  Robert  Dudley,   afterwairds  earls 
of  Warwick  and  Leicester,  were  benefited  by  his  kind- 
ness ;  as  was  also  sir  John  Cheke,  whose  life  he  and  sir 
Thognas  Pope,  the  founder, of  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  are 
said  to  have  saved,  by  a  joint  application  to  queen  Mary. 
Feekenham,  was  very  intimate  with  sir  Thomas,  and  often 
visited  him  at  Tyttenbanger-bouse.    Feckenham  also  inter- 
ceded with  queen  Mary  for  the  lady  Elizabeth^s  enlarge- 
ment out  of  prison,  and  that  so  earnestly,  that  the  queen 
was  actually  displeased  with  him  for  some  time.     In  M^y 
1556,  be  was  complimented  by  the  university  of  Oxford 
mth  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity;  being  then  in  uni- 
versalesteem  for  his  learning,  piety,  charity,  moderation,^ 
humility,  and  other  virtues.     The  September  following,  he 
was  made  abbot  of  Westminster',  which  was  then  restored 
by  queen  Mary ;  and  fotirteen  Benedictine  monks  placed 
there  under  his  government,  with  episcopal  power. 

Upon  the  death  of  Mary,  in  1558,  her  successor  Eliia- 


170  F  E  C  K  E  N  H  A  M. 

beth,  not  unmindful  of  her  obligations  to  Feckenham,  sent 
for  him  before  her  coronation^  to  consult  and  reward  him  ; 
andy  as  it  is  said,  offered  him  the  archbishopric  of  Canter- 
bury, provided  be  would  conform  to  the  laws ;  but  this  he 
refused.     He  appeared,  however,  in  her  first  parliament, 
taking  the  lowest  place  on  the  bishop's  form ;  and  was  the 
last  mitred  abbot  that  sat  in  the  house  of  peers.     During 
his  attendance  there  he  spoke  and  protested  against  every 
thing  tending  towards  the  reformation ;  and  the  strong 
opposition  which  he  could  not  be  restrained  from  making, 
occasioned  his  commitment  to  the  tower  in  1560.     After 
nearly  three  years  confinement  there,  he  was  committed 
to  the  custody  of  Home  bishop  of  Winchester :  but  having 
been  old  antagonists  on  the  subject  of  the  oath  of  supre- 
macy, their  present  connection  was  mutually  irksome,  and 
Feckenham  was  remanded  to  the  Tower  in  1564.    After- 
wards he  was  removed  to  the  Marshalsea,  and  then  to 
a  private  bouse  in  Holborn.     In  1571,  he  attended  Dr. 
John  Storie  before  his  execution.     In  1578  we  find  him  in 
free  custody  with  Cox  bishop  of  Ely,  whom  the  queen  had 
requested  to  use  his  endeavours  to  induce  Feckenham  to 
acknowledge  her  supremacy,  and  come  over  to  the  church : 
s|nd  he  was  at  length  prevailed  on  to  allow  her  supremacy^ 
but  could  never  be  brought  to   a  thorough  conformity^ 
Soon  after,  the  restless  spirit  of  some  Roman  catholics^ 
and  their  frequent  attempts  upon  the  queen's  life,  obliged 
her  to  in)prison  the  most  considerable  among  them :  upon 
which  Feckenham  was  sent  to  Wisbich-castle  in  the  Isle  of 
£ly,  where  he  continued  a  prisoner  to  the  time  of  hia 
death,  which  happened   in   1585.     As   to  his   character, 
Camden  calls  him  ^'  a  learned  and  good  man,  that  lived 
long,  did  a  great  deal  of  good  to  the  poor,  and  always 
solicited  the   minds  of  his   adversaries   to  benevolence.? 
Fuller  styles  him,  **  a  man  cruel  to  none ;  courteous  and 
charitable  to  ail  who  needed  his  help  or  liberality."     Bur- 
net says,  ^^  he  was  a  charitable  and  generous  man,  who 
lived  in  great  esteem  in  England.'^  .  And  Dart  concludes 
bis  account  of  him  in  these  words :  *^  though  I  cannot  go 
so  far  as  Reyner,  to  call  him  a  martyr;  yet  I  cannot  gather 
but  that  he  was  a  good,  mild,  modest,  charitable  man,  and 
a  devout  Christian." 

Wood  has  given  us  the  followingcatalogueof  his  works: 
1.  ^^  A  Conference  dialogue- wise  held  between  the  lady 
J4ue  Dudley  and  Mr.  John  Feckenhan]^;^  four  days  hefoxQ 

F  E  C  K  E  N  H  A  M,  171 

her  death,  touching  her  faith  and  belief  of  the  sacrament, 
and  her  religion,  1554."  In  April  1554,  he  had  been 
sent  by  the  queen  to  this  lady  to  commune  with  her,  and 
to  reduce  her  from  the  doctrine  of  Christ  to  queen  Mary's 
religion,  as  Fox  expresses  it.  The  substance  of  this  con- 
ference may  be  seen  also  in  Fox's  '*  Acts  and  Monuments 
of  Martyrs."  2.  "  Speech  in  the  house  of  lords,  1553/* 
3.  "  Two. Homilies  .on  the  first,  second,  and  third  articles 
of  the  Creed."  4.  "  Oratio  funebris  in  exequiis  ducbse 
Parroae,"  &c.  that  is,  "  A  funeral  oration  on  the  Death  of 
the  duchess  of  Parma,  daughter  of  Charles  V.  and  gover- 
ness of  the  Netherlands."  5.  *^  Sermon  at  the  exequyof 
Joan  queen  of  Spain,  1555."  6.  The  declaration  of  such 
scruples  and  staies  of  conscience,  touching  the  Oath  of 
Supremacy,  delivered  by  writing  to  Dr.  Home,  bishop  of 
Winchester,  1566."  7.  "Objections  or  Assertions  made 
against  Mr.  John  Gough^s  Sermon,  preached  in  the  Tower 
of  London,  Jan.  15,  1570."  8.  "  Caveat  emptor:"  which 
seems  to  have  been  a  caution  against  buying  abbey-lands. 
He  had  alsa  written,  ^^  Commentaries  on  the  Psalms,"  and 
a  "  Treatise  on  the  Eucharist,",  which  were  lost  among 
/  other  things.  Thus  far  Wood :  but  another  author  men- 
tions, 9.  '^  A  Sermon  on  the  Funeral  of  queen .  Mary,  on 
**  Ecclesiastes  iv.  2."  * 

.  FEITHIUS  (Everard),  a  learned  German,  was  bora 
at  Elburg  in  Guelderland,  in  the  sixteenth  centuty*  He 
studied  philosophy  for  some  time,  and  afterwards  applied 
himself  entirely  to  polite  Literature,  in  which  he  made  a 
considerable  progress,  tie  was  a,  master,  of  the  Greek 
tongue,  and  even  of  the  Hebrew ;  of  which  the  professors 
of  the  protestant  university  vof  Bern  gave  him  an  ample 
testimonial.  Being  returned  to  his  ownj  country,  from 
which  he  had  been  long  absent,  he  was  under  great  con^ 
sternation,  on  account  of  the  expedition  of  the  Spaniards 
commanded  by  Spinola.  This  determined  him  to  leave  hia 
native  country ;  and  he  went  to  settle  in  France,  where  he 
taught  the  Greek  language,  and  was  honoured  with  the 
friendship  of  Casaubon,  of  M..  Du  Piiy,  and  of  the  pre^i-^ 
dentTbuanus.  When  he  was  walking  one  day  at  Rocbelle,) 
attended  by  a  servant,  he  was  desired  to  enter  into  the 

1  Biog.  6rit.^Dodd'8  Cb.  Hist.— >Nash'8  Worcesterthire..— Tindal's  Hist,  of 
fvesham,— Strype's  Crapmer,  pp.  258,  ^69,  3dd.^Atk  Oju  vol  !•  Warto«*a 
life  of  sir  T.  Pope,  l(c.  &c 

172  F.  £  I  T  H  1  U  S. 


boose  of  a  citi2en :  and  after  thstt  day  it  ootfld  never  be 
discovered  what  became  of  hiiti,  notwithstanding  aft  tfa6 
strictest  inquiries  of  the  magistrates.  He  was  but  young 
at  the  time  of  this  most  mysterious  disappearing,  **  whieh^-^ 
fKiys.  Bayie,  *^  is  to  be  lamented ;  for  if  he  had  lived  to 
grow  old,  he  would  have  wonderfully  explained  most  of  th^ 
subjects  relating  to  {Oolite  letters."  This  judgement  is 
grounded  upon  his  manuscript  works^  one  of  which  waS 
published  at  Leyden  in  1677|  by  Henry  Biruman,  princi-^ 
pal  of  the  college  at  Swoi,  and  the  author's  grand  nephew^ 
entitled  ^'Antiquitatum  Homericarum  Itbri  quatuor^'^  ISftio^ 
It  is  very  learned,  and  abounds  with  curious  and  instruct 
tive  observations.  An  edition  of  it  was  published  in  1743^ 
with  notes,  by  Elias  Stoeber,  8vo,  at  Strasburgh.  There 
are  other  works  of  bis  in  being,  as^  **  De  Atheiriensitint 
republica,  De  autiquitatibus  Atticis,*'  &c.  which  the  editor 
promised  to  collect  and  publish ;  but  we  do  not  know  that 
it  was  done.^ 

.  FELIBIEN  (Andrew),  Sieur  des  Avaux  et  de  Javerci^ 
counsellor  and  historiographer  to  the  king  of  France,  waii 
born  at  Chartres  in  1619.  He  finished  hi?  first  studies 
there  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  and  then  was  sent  to  Paris  t& 
improve  himself  in  the  sciences,  and  in  the  management 
of  affairs:  but  his  inclination  soon  niade  hint  devote  him- 
self entirely  to  the  muses,  and  he  gained  a  great  re|)utath)n 
by  his  knowledge  in  the  fine  arts.  The  marqtiis  de  Fon- 
t^nay-Mareuil,  being  chosen  for  the  second  time  amfa«is4^ 
sador  extraordinary  to  the  court  of  Rome  in  10'47,  FeHbiei^ 
was  made  seeretary  to  the  embassy,  and  perfectly  answered' 
the  hopes  which  that  minister  had*  conceived  of  him.  Du-' 
ring  his  stay  at  Rome,  his  fondness  for  the  liberal  'arta^ 
made  him  spend  all  the  time  he  could  spare  in  visiting' 
those  who  excelled  in  them  ;  imd  especially  the  celebrated^ 
Poussin,  from  whose  conversation  he  learned  to  under<^' 
stand  all  that  is  most  beautiful  in  statoes  and  pictores :« 
and  it  was  according  to  the  exalted  notions  he  then  formed 
to  himself  of  the  excellence  and  perfection  of  painting,' 
diat  he  wrote  those  valuable  works  which  established  hm 
reputation.  On  his  return  from  Italy  he  went  to  Cbartres;. 
and,  as  he  designed  to  settle  himself,  he  married  a  lady  of' 
considerable  family.  His  friends  introduced  bim  after^ 
wards  to  Fouquet,  who  would  have  done  something  for 

'  Gen.  Diet.*— Moreri*— *SaxiI  Onomast, 

F  E  L  I  B  I  E  N.  17S 

iim  had  be  not  soqq  after  lost  the  kiog^s  faYOur :  but  Col- 
b^rty  who  loT^d  tha  arts  and  tei^ooesy  did  not  suffer  him  to 
b^  uaeless.  After  he  had  desdrad  him  to  make  some 
drau^ts  for  bis  majesty,  in  order  to  eagage  bini  to  cooi^ 
plete  the  works  he  had  begun^  bd  procured  him  a  commia- 
aioa  of  historiographer  of  the  king's  buildings,  superin- 
ieodaiit  of  tbem^  and  of  the  arts  and  manufax^tttres  in 
France:  this  commission  was  delivered  to  him  March 
10,  lj666.  The  foyal  academy  of  architecture  having  been 
in  1611,  be  was  made  secretary  to  it.  The 
made  him  afterwards  keeper  of  his.  cabinet  of  antique 
In  1673»  ai»d  gave  him  all  apartment  in  the  palace  of  Brion. 
fie  was  also  one  of  the  first  members  of  the  academy  of 
insoRiptiQCis  a,nd  medals,  dnd  became  afterwards  depiUy 
comptroller  general  of  the  bridges  and  dykes  of  the  kio^ 
dom.  He  died  June  11,  1695,  aged  seventy-six  y  and  Idi^ 
five  children. 

'  Hia  cy^ief  works  are,  1.  ^'  Eotretien^  ssir  les  Vies  et  auf 
les  Ouvrages  des  plus  excellens  PeUitres  anciens  et  mo«^ 
cbrnea :''  1666 — l&^Sj  5  vols.  4to.  2.  <^  Les  Principea 
de  ^Architecture,  de  la  Sculpture,  et  de  la  Feinture,  avee 
iftn  dictionaire  des  termes  propres  de  ces  artes,"  1676,  and 
1691y  4to.  Z.  ^^  De  Torigine  de  la  Peinture,  avec  ptusieurs 
|»eces  detacht^es,"  1660.  4.  ^  Several  Descriptions,  as 
that  of  Versailles,  of  Entertainmeuis  given  by  the  king> 
and  of  several  Pictures,''  collected  into  one  vol.  lu  12mo.. 
5.  '^  Tbe-Conferences  df  the  royal  academy  of  painting,'^ 
in  one  vol.  4tOk  6*  **  The  Description  of  the  Abbey  de  la 
Trappe,"  in  12ma  He  also  left  some  translations:  viz. 
*^  Au  Account  of  what  passed  in  Spain,  when  the  count 
duke  of  CMivases  fell  under,  the  king's  displeasure,"  traas^ 
laied  out  of  Italian  ;  <^  The  Castle  of  the  Soul,"  written 
by  Si.  Teresa,  translated  from  Jthe  Spanish ;  ^^  The  Life  of 
l^ope  Pius  V."  translated  from  the  Italian. 

In  all  that  he  has  written  there  appears  sound  judgment 
and  good  taste^  butthis  ^^  Dialogues  upon  the  Lives  of  the 
Patntevs"  is  the  work  which  has  done  him  the  greatest 
kongwHtr.  His  only  feult  is,  that  he  is  sometimes  prolix  and 
immethodical.  Voltaire*  informs  U3,  that  he  was  the  first 
who  gave  Lewis  XIV.  the  surname  of  Great,  in  the  in- 
acriprions  in  the  botel-de-ville.  Felibien  bad  mauy  good 
qualities,  and,  free  from  ambition,  was  moderate  in  his 
desires,  and  of  a  contented  disposition.  He  was  a  man  of 
probity,  of  honour,  of  piety*    Though  he  was  naturally 

174  F  E  L  I  B  I  E  N. 

grave  and  serious,  and  of  a  liasty  and  sbmewfiat  sererB 
temper,  yet  his  comrersation  was  generally  chearfcil  and  ' 
lively.  He  was  a  steady  advocate  for  truth ;  and  he  used 
to  encourage  himself  in  it  by  this  motto,  which  he  cansed 
to  be  engraved  on  his  seal,  ^'  Bene  facere,  et  vera  dicere,^* 
that  is,  '^  To  do  good,  and  speak  thp  truths"  Wn  bicN. 
graphers  seem  agreed  that  he  lived  in  a  constant  practice 
of  these  two  duties.  *  -         *  .-.         ; 

FELIBIEN  (John  Francis)^  son  of  the  preceding,  sucu 
ceeded.  his  father  in  ail  his  places,  and  seemed' to  inherit 
bis' taste  in  the  fine  arts.     He  died  in  1733.     Some  *wprks 
written  by  him  must  not  be  confounded  with  those  of  hia 
father:  namely,  1.  ^^  An  historical  Golleclion  of  theLiv^^n; 
and  Works  of  the  most  celebrated  Architects,'.'  Paris,  1667, 
4to^  frequently  subjoined  to  his  fadier's  account  of- the 
J^nt^s.     2.  ^*  Description  of  Versailles,  ancient  andmo* 
dern,"  12mo.    3.  ^^  Description  of  the  Church  of  the  In* 
valids,"  1706,  foL  reprinted  in  t756.     There  were  also, 
two  more  Felibiens^  who  were   authors:  Jam£S,  brdtbei: 
of  Andrew,  a  canon  and  archdeacon  of  Cbartres,  whadied 
in  1716,  and <  had  published,  among  other  works,  one.en«- 
titled  ^*  Pentateuchus  HistcMricus,"  1704, 4to,  part  of  whifch 
be  was  obliged  afterwards  to  suppress,  and.  consequently 
the  nneastrated  copies  are  inost  valued ;  and  Michael; 
another  t>f  his  sons,  a  Benedictine  of  the  congregation  of 
St.  Maur,  who  was  born  in  1666,  and  died  in  1719.     The 
latter  wrote  a  history  of  the  abbey  ^of  St.  Denys,  in  fo- 
lio, published  10  1706;  and  began  the  history  of  Parish 
which  was  afterwards  continued  and  published  by  Lobineau»^ 
FELICIANUS  (John  BciRNARmNE),  a  native  of  Venice; 
who  flourished  about  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth, century; 
established  a  great .  reputation  at  that  time  by  hia  trans^^ 
lations  from   Greek  authors,  a  task  whioh  few,  compa»* 
ratively,  were  then  able  to  perform.    He  translated,  am<aig 
others,  the  sixth  book,  of  Paul  ^giueta,   1533  ;  Ariatcftle's 
Ethics,  Venice,  1 54  i ,  fol. ;  ^^  Aiexandri  Aphrodisienaia  Ckxs^ 
mentarius  in  primum  priorum  Andyticorism  Aristote&>'f 
ilnd.  1542j  fol. ;  ^'Ammonii  Hermes  Comment  in  Isagogeit 
Porphyrii,"  ibid.  1545,  8vo;  ^^  Porphyrins  de  abstij^atia 
animalium^,"  ibid.  1547,  4to;  and  ^'Oecumenius  inActaet 
,  Epistoias  Catholicas/'  Basil,  1552,   8vo.     V^e  have  no 

n       .        .     . 
'  Gen.  Dtct;-^Moreri. — Nicerpn,  vols.  II.  and  X.  * 

*  Morerl.-«-BicU  Hist.«-Saxii  Onomasttcon.  , 

F  E  L  I  C  I  A  N  U  S.  175 

ftocrant  of  his  life  or  death,  but  he  appears  to  have  been 
a  priest  of  the  Benedictine  order,  and  esteemed  for  his 
learning. ' 


FELL  (Samuel,  D.  D.)  a  learned  divine,  was  bom  in 
the  parish  of  St  Clement  Danes,  London,  1594;  elected 
student  of  Christ  Church  from   Westminster    school  in 
1601 ;  took  a  master  of  arts  degree  in  1608,  served  the 
oflSce  of  proctor  in  1614,  and  the  year  following  was  ad- 
mitted bachelor  of  divinity ;  and  about  that  time  became 
mininer  of  Freshwatier  in  the  Isle  of  Wight.    In  May  1619, 
he  was .  installed  canon  of  Christ  Church,  and  the  same 
year  proceeded  doctor  in  divinity,  being  about  that  time 
domestic  chaplain  to  James  I.     In   1626,  he  was  made 
Margaret  professor  of  divinity,  and  consequently  had  # 
prebend  of  Worcester,  wbich  was  about  that  time  annexed 
to  the  professorship.     He  was  then  a  Calvinist,  but  at 
length,  renouncing  the  opinions  so  called,  he  was,  through 
Liu]d^»  interest,  made  dean  of  Lichfield  in  1637  ;  and  the 
year  following,  dean  of  Christ  Church.     In  1645,  he  was 
appointed  vice*chancellor,  which  offic^  he  served  also  in 
1647,  in  contempt  of  the  parliamentary  visitors,  who  at 
length  ejected  him  from  that  and  his  deanery,  and  theif 
minions  were  so  exasperated  at  him  for  his  loyalty  to  the 
king,  and  zeal  for  the  church,  that  they  actually  sought 
his  life:  and  being  threatened  to  be  murdered,  he  was 
forced  to  abscond.  He  died  broken*hearted,  Feb.  1 , 1 648«9; 
that  being  the  very  day  he  was  made  acquainted  with  the 
murder  of  bis  royal  master  king  Charles.     He  was  buried 
in  the  chancel  of  Sunning-well  church,  near  Abingdon,  in 
Beikshire  (where  he  had  been  rector,  and  built  the  front 
of  the  parsonage-house)  with  only  this  short  memorial,  on  a 
small  lozenge  of  marble  laid  over  his  grave,  '*  Depositum 
S.  F.  February  1648/'     He  was  a  public -spirited  man,  and 
had  the  character  of  a  scholar.    Wood,-  thougli  he  supposes 
there  wore  more,  only  mentions^  these  two  small  produce 
tions  of  his ;  viz.  **  Primitis ;  sive  Oratio  habita  Oxonise  in 
Scbola  Tbeologiae,  9  Nov.  1626,''  and,  <^  Concio  Latina 
ad  Baccalaureos  die  cinerum  in  Coloss.  ii.  8."     They  were 
both  printed  at  Oxford  in  1 627.  He  contributed  very  largely 
toCbnst  Church  college,  completing  most  of  the  improve-* 

I  Moreri.— Baillet  Jugeaeiits.^Saxii  Oii03iast« 

116  t  E  L  L. 

ments  begun  by  his  predecessor,  Dr..  Duppa,  md  wcndi 
h>ve  done  more  had  not  the  rebellion  prevented  him.  * 

FELL  (Dr.  John),  an  eminently  learned  divine,  was  Ae 
son  of  the  preceding,  by  Margaret  his  wife,  daughter  of 
Thotnas  Wyld,  of  Worcester,  esq,  and  was  born  at  Long- 
Worth  in   Berkshire,  June  2.%   1625:     He  was  educated 
iriostly  at  the  free-school  of  Thame  in  Oxfordshire  ;  and 
in  1636,  when  lie  was  only  eleven  years  of  age,  was  ad«> 
mitted  student  of  Christ  Church  in  Oxford.     In  Oct.  16iO 
be  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  June 
1643;  about  which  time  he  was  in  arms  for  Charles  L 
within  the  garrison  of  Oxford,  and  afterwards  becaaae  an 
ensign.     In  1648  he  was  turned  out  of  his  place  by  the 
parliamentarian  visitors,  being  then  in  holy  orders;  and 
from  that  time  till  the  rest6ration  of  Charles  11.  lived  in  a  re- 
tired and  studious  manner,  partly  in  the  lodgings,  at  Christ 
Church,    of  the  famous   physician  Willis,  who  was  his 
brother-in-law,  and  partly  in  his  own  house  opposite  Mer- 
lon college,  wherein  he  and  others  kept  up  tba  devotions 
and  disaipline  of  the  church  of  England. 

After  the  restojadon  he  was  made  prebendary  of  Chi« 
diester,  and  canon  of  Christ  Chxtrch,  in  which  last  place 
he  was  installed  July  27,  1660;  and  in  Nov.  following  waa 
made  dean/  being  then  D.  D.  and  chaplain  in  ordinary  tu 
the  king.     As  soon  as  he  was  fixed,  he  earnestly  applied 
lumself  to  purge  the  college  of  all  remains  of  hypocrisy 
and  nonsense,  so  prevalent  in  the  late  times  of  confusion, 
and  to  improve  it  in  all  sorts  of  learning  as  well  as  true 
religion.     Nor  was  he  more  diligent  in  restoring  its  disci- 
pline, ,  than  in  adorning  it  with  magnificent  buildings,  to- 
wards which  he  contributed  very  great  sums.     By  bis  own 
benefactions,  and  what  he  procured  from  others,  he  com- 
pleted the  north  side  of  .the  great  quadrangle,  which  had 
remained  unfinished  from  Wolsey's  time,  and  in  which  his 
father  had  made  some  progress  when  interrupted  by  the 
rebellion.     He  rebuilt  also  part  of  the  lodgings  of  the 
canon  of  the  second  stall,  the  east  side  of  the  chaplain^s 
quadrangle,  the  buildings  adjoining  fronting  the  meadows, 
the  lodgings  belonging  to  the  canon  of  the  third  stall,  and 
the  handsome  tower  over  the  principal  gate  of  the  college; 
into  which,  in  168S,  he  caused  to  be  removed  out  of  the 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  lL«^Lloyd^9  Memoir?^  P'  d31.«— W4}od*s  hsauit  and  CdU 
leget  and  Halls. 

FELL  177 

ifcfeple  in  the  cathedral,  the  bell  called  "  Great  Tom  of 
Christ  Churcfc,"  said  to  have  been  brought  thither  with 
the  other  bells  from  Oseney-abbey,  which  he  had  re-cast 
with  additional  metal,  so  that  it  is  now  one  of  the  largest 
bells  in  England.  Round  it  is  this  inscription  :  '^  Magnns 
Thomas  Clusius  Oxoniensis,  renatus  April  viii.  mdclxxx. 
regnante  Carolo  Secundo,  Decano  Johanne  Oxon.  Epis- 
copo,  Subdecano  Gulielmo  Jane  S.  S.  Theol.  Professore, 
Tbesaurario  Henrico  Smith  S.  8.  Theol.  Professore,  cura 
et  arte  Cbristopheri  Hodson."  Sixteen  men  are  required 
to  ring  it;  and  it  was  first  rung  out  on  May  29,  1684. 
From  that  time  to  this  it  has  been  toHed  every  night,  as  a 
fignal  to  all  scholars  to  repair  to  their  respective  colleges 
and  halls;  and  so  it  used  to  be  before  its  removal. 

In    1666^  1667,  1668,   and  part  of  1669,  Dr.  Fell  was 
vice-chancellor  of  the  university  :  during  which  time  he 
used  all  possible  means  to  restore  the  discipline  and  credit 
of  the  place  ;  and  such  was  his  indefatigable  spirit,  that  he 
succeeded  beyond  all  expectation.     Among  his  other  in- 
junctions was,  that  persons  of  all  degrees  should  appear  in 
their  proper  habits;    he  likewise  looked  narrowly  to  the 
due  performance  of  the  public  exercises  in  the  schools, 
and  reformed  several  abuses  that  had  crept  in  during  a  long 
period  of  relaxation.     He  frequently  attended  in  person 
the  disputations  in  the  schools,  the  examinations  for  de- 
grees, and  the  public  lectures,  apd  gave  additional  weight 
and  stimulus  to  the  due  performance  of  these  duties.     In 
bis  own  college  he  kept  up  the  exercises  with  great  strict- 
ness, and,  aware  of  the  importance  of  the  best  education  to 
those  who  w^ere  destined  for  public  life,  it  was  his  practice, 
several  mornings  in  the  week,  to  visit  the  chambers  of  the 
noblemen  and  gentlemen  commoners,  and  examine  their 
progress  in  study.     No  one  in  his  time  was  more  zealous 
in  promoting  learning  in  the  university,  or  in  raising  its 
reputation  by  the  noblest  foundations.     The  Sheldonian 
dieatre  was  built  chiefly  by  his  solicitation  ;■  and  he  like- 
wise advanqed  the  press  and  improving  printing  in  Oxford, 
according  to  the  public-spirited  design  of  archbishop  Laud. 
He  was  likewise  an  eager  defender  of  the  privileges  of  the 
university,  especially  while  vice-chancellor.     In  1675-6  he 
was  advanced  to   the  bishopric  of  Oxford,  with  leave  to 
bold  his  deanery  of  Christ  Church  in  commendam,  that  he 
might  continue  his  services  to  his  college  and  the  univer- 
sity :  and  he  was  no  sooner  settled  in  his  see,  than  he 
Vol.  XIV.  N 

^  17S  F  EL  L. 

'  began  to  rebuild  the  episcopal  palace  of  Cnddeadenin  Ox* 
fordsbire.  Holding  also  the  mastership  of  St.  Oswald*» 
hospital,  at  Worcester,  he  re-buitt  that  in  a  sumptooas 

.  manner,  bestowing  all  the  profits  of  his  income  there  in 
augmenting  and  recovering  its  estates :  and,  part  of  the 
revenues  of  his  bishopric  arising  from  the  impropriation 
of  the  dissolved  prebend  of  Banbury,  he  liberally  gaire 
500/.  to  repair  that  church.  .He  likewise  established  daily 
.^prayers  at  St,  Martin's,  or  Carfax  church,  in  Oxford,  both 
morning  and  evening.  In  a  word,  he  devoted  almost  his 
whole  substance  to  works  of  piety  and  charity.  Among 
his  other  benefactions  to  bis  college,  it  must  not  be  for- 
got, that  the  best  rectories  belonging  to  it  were  bought 
'    with  his  money :  and  as  be  had  been  so  bountiful  a  patron 

.  to  it  while  he  lived,  andj  in  a  manner,  a  second  founder, 
so  he  left  to  it  at  bis  death  an  estate,  for  ten  or  more  exhibi- 
tiuns  for  ever.  It  is  said  that  he  brought  his  body  to  an  ill 
habit,  and  wasted  bis  spirits,  by  too  much  zeal  for  the 
public,  and  by  forming  too  many  noble  designs;  and  tbat 
all  these  things,  together  with  the  unhappy  turn  of  religion 
which  be  dreaded  under  James  II.  contributed  to  shortcm 
his  life.     He  died  July  10,  1686,  to  the  great  loss  of  learn- 

.  ing,  of  the  whole  university,  and  of  the  church  of  England  r 

,for  he  was,  as  Wood  has  observed  of  bim^  ^^  the  most 
zealpus  man  of  his  time  for  the  church  of  England;  a 
great  encourager  and  promoter  of  learning  in  the  univer- 

•  sity,  and  of  all  public  works  belonging  thereunto ;  of  great 
resolution  and  exemplary  charity;  of  strict  integrity ;  a 

.learned  divine;  and  excellently  skilled  in  the  Latin  and 
Greek  languages.**  Wood  relates  one  singularity  of  faitn, 
which  is  unquestionably  a  great  and  unaccountable  failing, 

.  that  he  was  not  at  all  well-affected  to  the  royal  society,  and 
that  the  noted  Stubbes  attacked  that  body  under  his  sanc- 

,  tion  and  eooouragement.  He  was. buried  in  Christ  Church 
cathedral ;  and  ov^r  his  t>>mb,  wMcb  is  a  plain  marble,  is 
an  elegant  inscription,  composed  by.  Aldrich,  his  successor. 
He  was  never  married. 

It  may  easily  be  imagined,^  that  so  active  and  zealous  a 
man  as  fell  had  not  much  time  to  write  books:  yet  we  ^nd 
bina^tbe^author  and  editor  of  the  following  works :  i«  ^^>The 
Life  of  the  most  reverend,  learned,  and  pio«s  Dn  Henry 

.Hammond,    who   died  April  25,   1660,**  1660,  reprinted 

,  afterwards  with  additions  at  the  bead  of  Hammond's  works. 

.2.  ^' AlcinoiinPlatonicamPhilosofibiam  Introduction  1667»*' 


3;  *<  Ib  IhihIms  Musices  Carmen  Supphioum.'*  Deffigned 
probably  for  some  of  the  public  exercises  in  the  university, 
as  it  was  set  to  music.  4.  *^  Historia  et  Antiqoitates  Uni* 
versitatis  Oxoniensis,"  &c.  1674,  2  vols.  foK  This  history 
and  antiquities  of  tlie  university  of  Oxford  was  written  in 
English  by  Antony  Wood,  and  translated  into  Latin,  at 
Uie  charge  of  Fell,  by  Mn  Christopher  Wase  and  Mr. 
Richard  Peers,  except  what  he  did  himself.  He  was  also 
at  the  expence  of  printing  it,  with  a  good  character,  on  a 
good  paper ;  but  "  taking  to  himself,''  says  Wood,  **  the 
liberty  of  putting  in  and  out  several  things  according  to  his 
own  judgment,  and  those  that  he  employed  being  n\)t 
careful  enough  to  carry  the  whole  design  in  their  head,  it 
is  desired  that  the  audbor  may  not  be  accountable  for  any 
thing  which  was  inserted  by  him,  or  be  censured  for  any 
useless  repetitions  or  omissions  of  his  agents  under  him." 
At  the  end  of  it,  there  is  a  Latin  advertisenietit  to  the 
reader,  containing  an  answer  to  a  letter  of  Hofobes;  in 
which  that  author  bad  complained  of  FeiPs  having  caused 
aev^al  things  to  be  omitted  or  altered^  which  Wood  bad 
written  in^that  book  in  his  praise.  More  of  this,  however^ 
wiil  occur  to  be  noticed  in  our  life  of  Wood.  5.  "  The 
Vanity  oF  Scoffing :  in  a  letter  to  a  gentleman^'^  1674,  4to. 
6i  ^^  SdL  Clement's  two  epistles  u>  the  Corinthians  in  Greek 
and  Latin,  with  notes  at  the  end,"  1677.  7.  *^  Account  of 
Dr.  Riefaard  AUestree's  life:"  being  the  preface  to  tlie 
doctor^s  sermons,  published  by  our  author.  8.  ^^  Of  <the 
Unity  of  the  Church:"  translated  from  the  original  of  St. 
Cyprian^  1681.  9.  '^  A  beautiful  edition  of  St.  Cyprian's 
Works,  revised  and  illustrated  with  notes,"  1682.  10.  <<  Se« 
veral  Sermons,"  on  publio  occasions*-  11.  The  following 
pieces  written  by  the  author  of  the  **  Whole  Duty  of  Man>" 
with  prefaces,  contents,  and- miu'ginal  abbreviations,  by 
him,  viz.  ''The  Lady's  Calling ;  the  Government  of  the 
Tongue ;  the  Art  of  Contentment ;  the  Lively  Ol'acles," 
&c.  He  also  wrote  the  genfiral  pr^ace  before  tlie  folio 
edition  of  that  unknown  author's  works.  12.  '^  Artis  Lo- 
gicfB  Compendium."  13.  <^  The  Paraphrase  of  St:  Paul's 
Epistles."  There  is  another  piec^  which  was  ascribed  to 
him,  with  this  tide;  ^^The  Interest  of  England  stated  :  or, 
a  faithful  and  just  account  of  the  aims  of  all  parties  noW^ 
prevailing;  distinctly  treating  of  the  designments  of  the 
Roman  Catholic,  Royalist,  Presbyterian,  Anabaptist,"  &c. 
1659y  4to^  but  it  not  being  certainly  knovrn  whedier  he 

N   3 

iS0  FELL. 

was  the  luthor  or  not^  we  do  not  place  it  among  his  works. 
One  thing  in  the  mean  time  Wood  mentions,  relating  to 
his  literary  character,  which  must  not  be  omitted:  that 
^*  from  1661,  to  the  time  of  his  death,  viz.  while  he  was 
diean  of  Christ-church,  he  published  or  reprinted  every 
year  a  book,  commonly  a  classical  author,  against  new- 
year^s  tide,  to  distribute  among  the  students  oF  his  house  ; 
to  which  books  he  either  put  an  epistle,  or  running  notes, 
or  corrections.  These,"  says  Wood,  ^*  I  have  endeavoured 
to  recover,  that  the  titles  mio^ht  be  known  and  set  down, 
but  in  vain."  But  one  of  Dr.  Fell's  publications,  unac- 
countably omitted  in  former  editions  of  this  work,  still  re- 
mains to  be  noticed  ;  his  edition  of  the  Greek  Testament, 
of  which  Michaelis  has  given  a  particular  account.  Dr.  Feli 
was  the  next  after  Walton,  who  published  a  critical  edition 
of  the  New  Testament,  which,  although  eclipsed  since  by 
that  of  Mill,  has  at  least  the  merit  of  giving  birth  to  Mill's 
'  edition.  It  was  published  in  small  octavo,  at  the  Sheldon 
tlieatre,  1675.  It  appears  from  the  preface,  that  the  great 
number  of  various  readings  which  are  printed  in  the  sixtb^ 
volume  of  the  London  Polyglot,  apart  from  the  text,  had 
given  alarm  to  many  persons,  who  were  ignorant  of  criti- 
cism, and  had  induced  them  to  suspect,  that  the  New  Tes- 
tament was  attended  with  so  much  uncertainty,  as  to  be  a 
very  imperfect  standard  of  faith.  In  order  to  convince 
such  persons  of  their  error,  and  to  shew  how  little  the  sense 
of  the  New  Testament  was  altered  by  them,  Fell  printed 
them  under  the  text,  that  the  reader  might  the  more  easily 
compare  them.  This  edition  was  twice  reprinted  at  i ^eipsic, 
in  1697  and  1702,  and  at  Oxford  in  a  splendid  folio,  by 
John  Gregory,  in  1703,  but  without  any  additions,  whicli 
might  have  easily  been  procured  from  the  bishop's  papers ; 
nor  are  even  those  which  Fell  had  been  obliged  to  print  in 
an  appendix,  transferred  to  their  proper  places,  an  instance 
of  very  gross  neglect. — We  learn  also  from  Fabricius  in  his 
Bibl.  Greeca  that  the  excellent  edition  of  Aratus,  Oxford, 
1672,  8vo,  was  published  by  Dr.  Fell.* 

FELL  (John),  a  dissenting  minister  of  considerable 
learning,  was  born;  Aug.  22,  1735,  at  Cockermouth  in 
Cumberland,  of  poor  parents,  and  was  at  first  brought  up 
to  the  business  of  a  taylor.  He  was  pursuing  this  employ-^ 
ment  in  London,  when  some  discerning  friends  perceived 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Wood^s  AtbeaSi  toL  II»— ^and  CoU«g«s  and  Halb^ 

FELL.  Ill 

in  faim  a  taste  for  literature,  and  an  avidity  of  kiiowl^ge, 
which  they  thought  worthy  of  encouragement^  and  finding- 
that  his  principal  wish  was  directed  to  the  meians  of  proctir* 
ing  such  education  as  might  qualify  him  for  the  ministry 
among  the  dissenters,  they  stepped  forward  to  his  assist- 
ance,  and  placed  him  at  the  dissentinrg  academy  at  Mile* ' 
end,  then  superintended  by  Dr.  Conder,  Dr.  Gibbons,  and  » 
Dr.  Walker.     Mr.  Fell  was  at  this  time  in  the  nineteenth 
year  of  his  age  ;  but,  by  abridging  the  hours  usually  allot-- 
ted  to  rest  and  amusement,  and  proportionably  extending 
those  of  application  to  his  studies,  and  by  the  assidnous 
exercise  of  a  quick,  vigorous,  and  comprehensive  mind,  he 
made  rapid  advances  in  learning,  gave  his  tutors  and  pa- 
trons the  utmost  satisfaction  ;  and  in  due  time,  was  ap- 
pointed to  preach  to  a  congregation  at  Beccles,  near  Yar- 
mouth.    He  was  afterwards  invited  to  take  upon  himself 
the  pastoral  office  in  a  congregation  of  Protestant  dissent- 
ers, at  Thaxted,  in  Essex,  where  he  was  greatly  beloved 
by  his  congregation,  and  his  amiable  deportment^  and  dili-<! 
gence  in  all  the  duties  of  his  station,  attracted  the  regard 
even  of  his   neighbours  of  the  established   church.     At 
Thaxted,  Mr.  Fell  boarded  and  educated  a  few  young  gen- 
tlemen, and  it  was  also  daring  his  residence  there,  that  he 
distinguished  himself  by  the  rapid  production  of  some  well- 
written  publications,  which  conduced  to  establish  his  cha- 
racter as  a  scholar.     After  he  had  thus  happily  resided  se- 
veral years   at  Thaxted,  he  was  unfortunately   prevailed 
upon  to  be  the  resident  tutor  at  the  academy,  formerly  at 
Mile-end,  when  he  wis  educated  there,  but  now  removed 
to  Homerton,  near  London.     The  trustees  and  supporters 
of  this  academy  appear  to  have  been  at  first  vei'y  happy 
that  they  had   procured  a  tutor  peculiarly  calculated  for 
the  situation ;  but  he  had  not  been  there  long  before  dif- 
ferences arose  between  him  and  the  students,  of  What  na- 
ture his  biographers  have  not  informed  us;  but  they  re- 
present that  he  was  dismissed  from  his  situation  without  a 
fair  trial ;  and  complain  that  this  severity  was  exerted  in 
the  case  of  **  a  character  of  no  common  excellence ;  a 
genius  of  no  ordinary  size ;  a  Christian  minister,  well  fur- 
nished with  gifts  and  graces  for  that  office ;  a  tutor,  who 
for  biblical  knowledge,  general  history,  and  classic  taste, 
had   no  superior,  perhaps  no  equal,  among  any  class  of 
dissenters."     This  affair  happened  in  1796,  and  Mr.  FelPs 
friends  lost  no  time  in  tet^tifying  their  unaltered  regard  for 

182  F  E  L  L. 

hi$  character.  An  annuity  of  lOD/.  was  almost  immediately 
procured  for  him,  and  he  was  invited  to  deliver  a  course 
of  lectures  on  the  evidences  of  Christianity,  for  which  he 
was  to  be  remunerated  by  a  very  liberal  subscription.  But 
these  testimonies  of  affection  came  too  late  for  his  enjoy- 
ment of  them.  Four  of  his  lectures  had  been  delivered  to 
crowded  congregations  at  the  Scotch  church  at  London- 
wall,  when  sickness  interrupted  him,  and  on  Wednesday 
Sept.  6,  1797,  death  put  a  period  to  his  labours.  The  four 
lectures  he  delivered  were  published  in  1798,  with  eight 
by  Dr.  Henry  Hunter,  who  concluded  the  course,  but  who 
does  not  appear  well  qualified  to  fill  up  Mr.  FelPs  outline. 
Mr.  FelPs  previous  publications,  which  show  that  the  cha- 
racter given  of  him  by  his  friends  is  not  overcharged,  were 
1.  "  Genuine  Protestantism,  or  the  unalienable  Rights  of 
Conscience  defended :  in  opposition  to  the  late  and  new 
mode  t)f  Subscription  proposed  by  some  dissenting  minis- 
ters, in  three  Letters  to  Mr.  Pickard,"  1773,  8vo.  2.  "  A 
Fourth  Letter  to  Mr.  Pickard  on  genuine  Protestantism; 
being  a  full  Reply  to  the  rev.  Mr.  Toulmin*s  Defence  of 
the  Dissienters*  new  mode  of  Subscription,*'  1774,  8vo. 
3.  *^  The  justice  and  utility  of  Penal  Laws  for  the  Direc- 
tion  of  Conscience  examined ;  in  reference  to  the  Dis- 
senters* late  application  to  parliament.  Addressed  to  a 
member  of  the  house  of  commons,**  1774,  Svo.  4.  "  Dae- 
moniacs.  An  enquiry  into  the  Heathen  and  the  Scripture 
doctrine  of  Daemons,  in  which  the  hypothesis  of  the  rev, 
Mr.  Farmer  and  others  on  th6  subject  are  particularly  con- 
sidered,*' 1779,  SVO.  (See  Farmer).  5.  ^*  Remarks  on 
the  Appendix  of  the  Editor  of  Rowley's  Poems,  printed  at 
the  end  of  Observations  on  the  Poem  attributed  to  Rowley 
by  Rayner  Hickford,  esq."  Svo,  no  date  (1783).  6.  •*  An 
Essay  towards  an  English  Grammar,  with  a  dissertation  on 
the  nature  and  peculiar  use  of  certain  hypothetical  vei*bs 
itt  the  English  language,**  1784,  12mo.  7.  "  The  Idola- 
try of  Greece  and  Rome  distinguished  from  that  of  other 
Heathen  Nations,  in  a  Letter  to  the  rev.  Hugh  Farmer," 
1785,  Svo.  Mr.  Fell  ranks  among  the  orthodox,  or  caha- 
nistic  dissenters ;  but  how  far,  or  whether  this  had  any 
share  in  the  animosity  exerted  against  him,  we  are  unable 
to  discover,  from  the  obscure  manner  in  which  his  biogra* 
phers  advert,  to  the  disputes  in  the  Homerton  academy,  ^^ 

1  Protestant  Dissenters'  Magazine,,  vols.  IV.  V.  and  VL 


FELLER  (JoACHiM)y  a  licentiate  in  theology,  and  pro« ' 
fessor  of  poetry  at  Leipsic,  was  born  at  Zwickau  in  1638, 
and  distinguished  from  his  infancy  for  unqommon  talents. 
In  his  thirteenth  year  he  wrote  a  poem  on  "  The  Passipn,'* 
which  was  much  applauded.  He  was  educated  under  the 
celebrated  Daumius,  who  prided  himself  on  the  great  pro* 
ficiency  of  his  pupil,  and  when  Feller  went  to  Leipsic^  re* 
commend^  him  to  the  principal  literati  of  that  city,  who 
found  him  deserving  of  every  encouragement.  Thomasius, 
one  of  them,  engaged  him  as  tutor  to  his  children,  and 
enhanced  the  favour  by  giving  him  free  access  to  his  curi-' 
ous  and  valuable  library.  In  1660  Feller  took  his  masters  ' 
degree,  and  with  such  display  of  talents,  that  he  was  soon  '• 
^fter  made  professor  of  poetry,  and  in  1676  was  appointed 
librarian  to  the  university.  On  this  last  preferment,  he 
employed  much  of  his  time  in  arranging  the  library,  pulh- 
lished  a  catalogue  of  the  MSS.  in  1686,  i2mo,  and  pro- 
cured that  the  library  should  be  open  one  day  in  every 
w^eek  for  the  use  of  the  public. .  His  Latin  poetry,  which 
b^  wrote  with  great  facility,  recommended  him  to  the  no* 
tice  and  esteem  of  the  emperor,  df  the  electors  of  Saxony 
jind  Brandenburgb,  the  duke  of  Florence,  and  other  primses. 
He  also  wrote  many  papers  in  the  ^*  Acta  Lipsiensia,'* 
and  the  freedom  of  some  of  his  criticisms  in  one  or  two  inr 
stances  involved  him  in  a  controversy  with  James  Grono- 
vius,  Eggelingen,  Patin,  and  others.  He  was  unfortunately 
killed  by  a  fall  from  a  window,  which  be  had  approached 
in  bis  sleep,  being  as  this  would  imply^  a  somnambulist. 
This  happened  April  4,  16^1.  Besides  the  works  already  ' 
mentioned,  he  published,  1.  ^^  Cygni  quasimodo  geniti^  ' 
sanctae  vitae  virorum  celebrium  Cygnee  (Zwickau)  na- 
tor^im."  2.  **  Supplementum  ad  Rappoiti  commenta-  • 
rium  in  Horatium."'  3.  '*  Floras  pkilosophici  ex  Virgilio 
QoUeciy^  Leipsic,  1681,  8vo.  .4.  >^  Notes  in  Lotichicii 
eclogam  de.origine  domiis  Saxonicoe  et  Palatinee/' ' 

FELLER  (Joachim  Frjsderio),^  the  son  of  the  preced- 
ing,, was  born  at  Leipsic,  Dec.  26,  1673,  and  imbibed  asimi* 
lar  tast^  with  his  father  for  the  belles  lettres,  bibliogra- 
,phy,  and  general  literature.  In  1.688  he.  received  his  degree 
of  doctor  in  philosophy,  and  two  years  after  set  out  on  what 
may  be  caHed  his  literary  travels.  He  remained  some 
time  with  Kirchm^iei; vat  Wittemberg,  and  with  |3ayer  at  : 

1  MorerL^*i»S9xii  Oaomastioon. 


Friboiurgy  whose  library  he  carefully  inspected.  Goitig 
thence  to  Zwickau,  the  senate  of  that  city  appointed  him 
to  make  a  catalogue  of  the  library  of  Daumius,  which  had 
come  into  their  possession  by  the  death  of  that  scholar. 
Feller  was  very  agreeably  employed  on  this  task,  when  the 
news  of  the  death  of  his  father  obliged  him  to  pay  a  visit 
to  Leipsic,  but  as  soon  as  he  had  settled  his  family  attairs, 
he  returned  to  Zwickau,  and  completed  the  catalogue.  He 
then  went  again  to  Leip&ic^  and  studied  law,  but  in  1696 
set  out  a  second  time  on  his  travels,  and  at  Wolfenbuttel, 
became  acquainted  with  Leibnitz,  who  conceiving  a  friend^ 
ship  for  him^  detained  him  here  for  three  years,  and  as- 
sisted him  in  all  his  literary  undertakings,  especially  his 
history  of  the  house  of  Brunswick,  for  which  Feller  was 
enabled  to  collect  a  number  of  very  curious  documents  of  . 
the  middle  ages.  At  Francfort,  we  find  him  assisting  Ludolf 
in  his  historical  works,  but  Ludolf  is  thought  to  have 
availed  himself  too  little  of  this  assistance.  After  extend-* 
ing  his  acquaintance  among  learned  men  in  various  parts, 
in  1706  the  duke  of  Weimar  appointed  him  his  secretary, 
and  he  appears  to  have  died  in  his  service  Feb.  15,  1726^- 
His  principal  works  were,  1.  '' Monumenta  varia  inedita, 
variisque  Unguis  conscripta,  nunc  singulis  trimestribus  pror 
deuntia  i  e  museo  Joach.  F.  Felleri  secretarii  Wimariensis,'' 
Jena,  1714,  1715,  4to.  This  literary  journal^  for  such  it 
is,  is  divided  into  twelve  parts.  2.  A  Genealogical  history 
of  the  house  of  Brunswick  and  Lunenburgh,  in  German, 
L.eipsic,  1717,  8vq.  3.  **  Otium  Hanoveranum,  sive  Mis-» 
cellaiiea  ex  ore  et  scbedis  G.  G.  Leibnitii  quondam  notata 
et  descripta/'  ibid.  1718,  Svo.  He  also  enlarged  and  cor* 
rected,  in  1713,  an  edition  of  3irken^s  History  of  the 
Saxon  heroes. ' 


FELLER  {Francis  Xavier  de),  an  ex-jesuit,  was  bom 
at  Brussels  Aug.  18,  1735,  and  became  professor  of  rheto*- 
ric  at  Liege,  Luxemburgh,  and  Turnau  in  Hungary,  after 
which  he  travelled  in  haly,  Poland,  Austria,  and  Bohemia. 
After  the  suppression  of  the  society  of  the  Jesuits  in  1773, 
he  took  the  name  of  Fi«exi£RD£  Reval,  which  he  exchanged 
afterwards  for  that  of  Feller,  under  which  he  published 
at  Luxemburgh,  from  1774  to  1794,  a  political  and  lite- 
rary journal,  entitled  ^^  Clef  des  cabinets,^'  in  which  he  is 
S9id  to  display  considerable  knowledge,  not  unmixed  with 


bigotry.  The  profits  of  this  work  not  being  adequate  tdf 
bis  wants,  he  endeavoured  to  derive  emolument  from  the 
less  reputable  employment  of  literary  piracy.  In  this  way 
he  republished  Vosgien's  Geographical  Dictionary  ;  and  the 
^*  Dictionnare  Historiqae/'  of  which  last  he  published  three 
editions,  with  his  name,  the  third  a  little  before  his  death, 
in  8  vols.  When  be  wished  to  steal  the  contents  of  a 
book,  and  make  them  pass  for  bis  own,  he  generally  began 
by  an  attack  upon  it  in  his  journal,  as  a  work  good  for  no- 
tbing.  He  usually  resided  at  Liege,  but  when  the  French 
revolution  broke  out,  he  went  to  Maestricht,  and  after-« 
wards  to  other  places  of  safety  ;  in  1797  he  went  to  Ratis^ 
bon,  where  he  died  May  23,  1802.  Whatever  troth  there 
may  be  in  this  character  of  Feller  as  a  compiler,  his  ori* 
ginal  works  are  creditable  to  his  talents.  Among  these 
are :  1.  '^  Jugement  d'un  ecrivain  protestant  touohant  le  livre 
de  Justinus  Fabronius,''  Leipsic,  1771,  8vo.  2.  "  Lettro 
sur  le  diner  du  comte  de  Boulainvilliers.''  3.  '^  Examen 
critique  de  THistoire  Naturdle  de  M.  de  Buffon,'*  1773. 
This  is  chiefly  an  attack  on  BufFon's  theory  of  the  earth. 
4.  A  translation  of  Soame  Jenyns's  "  Internal  evidence  of 
the  Cbristiait  religion,  with  notes  and  observations,  which 
he  published  in  1779,  under  his  assumed  name  of  Flexier^ 
de  Reval.  5.  <<  Observations  philbsophiques  sur  le  sys- 
teme  de  Newton,  le  mouvement  de  la  terre,  et  la  plurality 
des  mondes,*'  1771  and  1788,  in  which  he  attempts'  to 
prove  that  the  motion  of  the  earth  has  not  been  demon- 
strated, and  that  a  plurality  of  worlds  is  impossible  La 
Lande  answered  this  work.  6.  ^^  Examen  impartial  des 
epoques  de  la  nature  de  M.  de  Buffon,"  Luxemburgh, 
1780,  12mo,  and  reprinted  a  fourth  time  at  Maestricht  in 
1792.  7.  "  Catechisme  philosophique,'*  a  collection  of 
remarks  in  favour  of  the  Christian  religion,'*  Paris,  1777, 
^vo.  8.  **  Discours  sur  divers  sujets  de  religion,  et  de 
morale,*'  1778,  l2mo.  9.  "Observations  sur  les  rapports 
pliysiques  de  I'huile  avec  les  flots  de  la  mer,"  1778,  8vo. 
He  left  also  a  great  many  MSS.  and  upon  the  whole  ap^ 
pears  to  have  been  a  man  of  extensive  knowledge,  and;  as' 
his  biographer  allows,  of  prodigious  memory,  but  had  the 
misfortune  to  make  many  enemies  by  the  severity  of  his 
/criticisms,  and  the  warmth  of  his  temper.  ^ 

FELTON  (Henry),  a  learned  divine,  was  born  Feb.  3, 
1679,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Martin's-in-tbe«fields,  Westmin- 

1  Diet.  Hist. 

W6  E  E  L  T  O  N. 

ster,  aod  was  educated  first  at  Cbene}*s  in  Buckingbaiii*^ 
sbire,  then  at  Westminster  school  under  Dr.  Busby,  an<t 
lastly  at  the  Charter-house  under  Dr.  Walker,  .to  whom  be 
was  a  private  pupil.  At  a  proper  age  he  was  admitted  of 
Edmund  hall,  Oxford,  of  which  Dr.  Mill,  the  celebrated 
qritic,  was  at  that  time  principal,  and  his  tutor  was  Mr* 
Thomas  Mills,  afterwards  bishop  of  Waterford  in  Ireland* 
In  June  1702,  he  took  bis  master's  degree,  and  in  Decem- 
ber following  was  ordained  deacon,  in  the  royal  chapel  al 
Whitehall,  by  Dr.  Lloyd,  bishop  of  Worcester.  In  Jane 
1704  he  was  admitted  to  priest's  orders  by  Dr.  Compton^ 
bishop  of  London.  In  1705-6,  be  first  appeared  as  an 
author,  in  a.  piece  entitled  ^'  Remarks  on  the  Colebrook 
Letter,''  a  subject  the  nature  of  which  we  have  not  been 
able  to  discaver.  In  1703  he  had  the  care  of  the  English 
church  at  Amsterdam,  but  did  not  long  continue  in  that 
situation,  returning  to  England  in  1709*  Soon  after  hid 
return  he  was  appointed  domestic  chaplain  to  the  duke  of 
Buttand,  at  Bdvoir  castle,  and  sus^ined  that  relation^  |o 
three  successive  dukes,  for  which  noble  house  he  alwajts 
preserved  the  warmest:  gratitude  and  affection.  In  tbo 
same  year  (July  H,  1709)  Mr.  Felton  was  admitted  to  the 
degree  of  B<  D.  bedng  tl^n  a  member  of  Queen's  college* 
Having  been  employed  as  tutor  to  John  lord  Roos,  after* 
warda  third  duke  of  Rutland,  he  wrote  for  that  young  nof- 
bledian's  use,  bis  ^^  Dissertation  on  reading  the  Chissies^ 
and  forming  a  just  style,"  1711,  12mo.  A  fourth  editkm 
of  this  waa  published  in  1730,  but  the  best  is  that  of  1757. 
It  was  the  most  popular,  and  best  known  of  all  Dr.  Fekon's 
works,  although  in  the  present  improved  state  of  criticisoi» 
it  may  appear  with  less  advamage. 

In  1711,  Mr.  Felton  wa^  presented  by  .the  second  duke 
of  Rutland  to  the  rectory  of  Whitewell  in  Derbyshire; 
and  July  4,  1712,  he  proceded  to  the  degree  of  doctor,  in 
divinity.  On  the  death  of  Dr;  Pearson,  in  1722,  > be  was 
admitted,  by  the  ppovost  and  fellows  of  Queen's  college, 
principal  of  Edmund  halL  In  1 725,. he  prkued  a  sermon 
which  he  had  preached  before  the  university,  and  which 
went  through  three  editions,  and  excited  no  common  at<^ 
tention,  entitled  ^^  The  Resurrection  of  the  same  nuoieri^ 
cal  body,  and  its  re^uirion  to  the  same  soul;. against  Mr. 
I^ocke's  notion  of  personality  and  identity."  Hia  next 
publication,  in  1727,  was  a  tract,  written  with  much  inge-A 
huity,  entitled  <<  The  Common  People  taugfit  to  defend 

F  E  L  T  O  N.  18T 

their  Commiinion  with  the  Church  of  England,  Against  the 
attempfts  and  insinuationa  of  Popish  emissaries.  In  a  dia- 
logue between  a  Popish  priest,  and  a  plain  countryman.** 
In  1728  and  1729,  Dr.  Felton  was  empbyed  in  preaching 
eight  sermons,  at  lady  Meyer's  lecture,  at  St.  PauPs, 
which  were  published  in  17  S2,  under  the  title  of  ^  The 
Christian  Faith  asserted  against  Deists,  Arians,  and  Soci- 
iiians.'*  The  sermons,  when  printed,  were  greatly  aug- 
mented, and  a  large  preface  was  given  concerning  the  light 
and  the  law  of  nature,  and  the  expediency  and  necessity 
of  revelation.  This  elaborate  work  was  dedicated  to  Dr. 
Gibson,  bishop  of  London.  In  the  title  he  is  by  some 
mi$take  called  late  principal  of  Edmund  hall,  a  situation 
which  he  never  resigned.  In  1736  the  duke  of  Rutland, 
being  chancellor  of  the  duchy  of  Lancaster,  gave  him  the 
rectory  of  Berwick  in  Elmet,  Yorkshire,  which  he  did  not 
long  live  to  enjoy.  In  1739  he  was  seised  with  a  rheuma** 
tic  disorder;  from  which,  however,  be  was  so  far  reco-^ 
vered,  after  a  confinement  of  nearly  three  months,  that  he 
thought  hin!kself  able  to  officiate,  in  his  church  at  Berwick, 
on  Christmas-day,  where  he  preached  his  last  sermon,  and 
with  his  usual  fervour  and  affection.  But  having  caught 
cold,  which  was  followed  by  a  defluxion,  attended  with  a 
violent  fever,  he  died  March  1,  1739*40.  During  the 
whole  of.  his  disorder,  he  behaved  with  a  tesignation  and 
piety  becoming  a  Christian.  He  was  interred  in  the  chan-^ 
eel  of  the  church  of  Berwick.  He  left  behind  him,  in- 
tended for  the  press,  a  set  of  sermon^  on  the  creation,  fall, 
and  redemption  of  man;  the  sacrifices  of  Cain  and  Abel, 
and  the  rejection,  and  punishmeut  of  Cain,  which  were 
published  by  his  son,  the  rev.  WilHam  Felton,  in  1748, 
with  a  preface  containing  a  sketch  of  his  father's  life  and 
character.  This  work  was  the  result  of  great  attention. 
The  sermons  were  first  composed  about  1730,  and  preached 
in  the  parbh  church  of  Wbitwett  m  that  and  the  following 
year;  In  1733  he  enlarged  them,  and  delivered  them  again 
in  the  same  church ;  and  in  1736  when  reniioved  to  Ber* 
wick,  he  transcribed  and  preached  them  at  that  place. 
But  though  he  had  applied  much  labouir'  to  the  subject  of 
the  resurre<^ion,  he  did  not  think^^  that  his  discourses  on 
that  bead,  or  any  other  of  his  university  sermons^  were  fit 
for  ire-publication. '  - 

1  l^'iog,  Brit  vol.  VI,,  Part  I,  uopublished—^ife.  hf  bis  aoD  preaxe4  ^  hi» 
Posthumous  SemKNifl. 

Its  F  E  L  T  O  N. 

-  FELTON  (Nicholas),  an  English  prelate,  was  bom  at 
Yarmouth  in  Norfolk,  and  admitted  of  Pembroke- ball, 
Csimbridge^  of  which  college  he  was  chosen  fellow  Nov.  27, 
15H3.  Archbishop  Whitgift  collated  him  to  the  rectory  oJF 
St.  Mary  le  Bow,  Jan.  17,  1595-6,  being  then  B.  D.  and 
he  was  some  time  also  rector  of  St»  Antbolin^s,  London. 
He  was  elected  master  of  Pembroke- hall,  June  29,  1616  ; 
admitted  rector  of  Easton- Magna  in  Essex,  Oct.  23,  the 
^ame  year ;  and  collated  to  a  prebend  in  St.  Paul's,  being 
then  D.  D.  March  4  following.  In  1617,  he  was  promoted 
to  the  see  of  Bristol,  to  which  he  was  consecrated,  Dec.  14. 
The  next  year  he  resigned  his  mastership,  and  was  nomi* 
nated  to  the  bishopric  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield,  but  was 
ttaoslated  to  Ely,  March  11,  1618-19.  He  died  Oct.  5, 
1*26,  in  the  sixty-third  year  of  his  age,  and  was  buried 
under  the  commftinion-table  in  St.  Antholin^s  church,  Lon- 
don ;  but  without  any  memorial  or  inscription.  He  was  a 
very  pious,  learned,  atid  judicious  man,  and  deserves  some 
notice  in  this  work,  as  one  of  those  who  was  employed  by 
khng  James  I.  in  the  new  translation  of  the  Bible.  There 
i^  an  excellent  picture  of  him  in  the  gallery  of  the  palace 
at  Ely,  which  was  presented  for  that  purpose  to  the  late 
btskop'Gooch,  by  Mr.  Cole  of  Milton. ' 

FENELON  (Francis  de  Salignac  wl  la  Motte), 
arebbishop  of  Cambray,  and  author  of  Telemacbud,  was  of 
an  ancient  and  illustrious  family,  and  botn  at  the  castle  of 
Fenelon,  in  the  province  of  Perigord,  August  6,  1651*  At 
tM^elve  years  of  age,  he  was  sent  to  the  university  of  Ca- 
hors ;  ami  afterwards  went  to  finish  his  studies  at  Paris, 
under  the  care  of  his  oncle  Anthony  marquis  of  Fenelon, 
li^ut^nant  general  of  the  king's  armies.  He  tfoon  made 
himself  known  at  Paris,  and  at  nineteen  preached  there 
with  general  applause :  but  the  mai'quis,  who  was  a  very 
viise  and  ^ood  man,  fearing  that  the  good  disposition  of ' 
bis  nephew  might  be  Corrupted  by  this  early  applause,  per- 
suaded him  to  be  silent  for  some  years.  At  twenty-lbur 
he  entered  into  holy  orders,  and  commenced  the  functions 
of  his  ministry  in  the  parish  of  St.  Sulpice,  under  the  abbiS 
Tron9on,  the  superior  of  that  district,  to  whose  care  he  had 
been  committed  by  his  uncle.  Three  years  after,  be  was 
chosen  by  the  archbishop  of  Paris,  to  be  superior  to  the 
newly-converted  women  in  that  city.     Ih  1686,  which  was 

*  Bfntham's  Hist  of  Ely.— 'Fuller's  Worthies  ia  art  Roger  Fenton^  P.  D. 

F  E  N  E  L  O  N.  180 


the  year  after  the  edict  of  Nantes  was  revoked,  the  king 
named  him  to  be  at  the  head  of  those  missionaries,  who 
were  sent  along  the  coast  of  Saintonge,  and  the  Pais  de 
Aunisy  to  convert  the  protestants.  These  conversions  had 
been  hitherto  carried  on  by  the  terrors  of  the  sword,  but 
Fenelon  declared  against  this  mode,  but  said,  that  if 
allowed  to  proceed  by  more  rational  and  gentle  means,  he 
would  cheerfully  become  a  missionary ;  and  after  some 
hesitation,  his  request  was  granted,  but  his  success  was 
not  remarkable. 

Having  finished  his  mission,  he  returned  to  Paris,  and 
was  presented  to  the  king  :  but  lived  two  years  afterwards 
without  going  to  court,  being  again  entirely  occupied  in 
the  instruction  of  the  new  female  converts.  That  he  might 
forward  this  good  work  by  writings  as  well  as  lectures,  he 
published,  in  1688,  a  little  treatise,  entitled  ^^  Education 
de  Filles  ;*'  which  the  author  of  the  Bibliotheque  Univej^- 
selle,  calls  the  best  and  most  useful  book  written  upon  the 
subject,  in  the  French  language.  Jn  1688,  he  published  a 
tvork  *'  Concerning  the  functions  of  the  Pastors  of  the 
Church  'y^  written  chiefly  against  the  protestants,  with  a 
view  of  shewing,  that  the  first  promoters  of  the  reforma- 
tion had  no  lawful  call,  and  therefore  were  not  true  pas* 
tors.  In  1689,  be  was  made  tutor  to  the  dukes  of  Bur- 
gundy, Anjou,  andBerri;  and  in  1693,  was  chosen  mem-*- 
ber  of  the  French  academy,  in  the  room  of  Pelisson  de- 
ceased. In  this  situation,  he  was  in  favour  with  all.  His 
pupils,  pfirticularly  the  duke  of  Burgundy,  improved  ra- 
pidly under  his  care.  The  divines  admired  the  sublimity 
of  his  talents  ;  the  courtiers  the  brilliancy  of  his  wit.  The 
duke,  to  the  end  of  his  life,  felt  the  warmest  regard  for  his 
illustrious  preceptor.  At  the  same  time,  Fenelon  pre- 
served the  disinterestedness  of  an  hermit,  and  never  re- 
ceived or  asked  any  thing  either  for  himself  or  friends.  At 
last  the  king  gave  him  the  abbey  of  St.  Valery,  and,  soitie 
months  after,  the  ardibisbopric  of  Cambray,  to  which  be 
was  consecrated  by  Bossuet  bishop  of  Meaux,  in  1695. 

But  a  storm  now  arose  against  him,  which  obliged  him 
to  leave  the  court  for  ever ;  and  was  occasioned  by  his 
book,  entitled  ^'  An  Explication  of  the  Maxims  of  the 
Saints  concerning  the  interior  life."  This  book  was  pub- 
lished in  1697,  and  was  occasioned  by  the  writings  of 
madam  Guyon,  who  pretended  to  a  very  high  and  exalted 
devQtioo*  Sbe  e^plai^ied  this  devotion  in  some  books  which 

1$0  F  E  N  E  L  O  N. 

sbe  poUisbedy  and  wrole  |>articQ)arly  a  mystical  eirpositi&n 
of  Solomon's  Song.  Fenelon,  whose  gentle  disposition  is 
said  to  have  been  strongly  actuated  by  the  love  of  God, 
became  a  friend  of  madam  Guyon,  *in  whom  be  fancied  he 
saw  only  a  pure  soul  animated  with  feelings  similar  to  his 
own.  I'his  occasioned  several  conferences  between  the 
bishop  of  Meaux,  the  bishop  of  Chalons,  afterwards  cardi* 
nal  de  Noailles,  and  Mr.  Tronfon,  superior-general  to  the 
congregation  of  St.  Solpicius.  Into  these  conferences,  in 
which  madam  Guyon's  books  were  examined,  Fenelon  was 
admitted ;  but  in  the  mean  time  began  to  write  very  se- 
;Cretiy  upon-  the  subject  under  examination,  and  bis  writ- 
ings tended  to  maintain  or  excuse  madam  Guyon's  books 
without  naming  her.  This  examination  tasted  seven  or 
eight  months,  during  which  he  wrote  several  letters  to  the 
examiners,  which  abounded  with  so  many  testimonies  of 
submission,  that  they  said  they  could  not  think  God  wodld 
deliver  him  over  to  a  spirit  of  error.  While  the  confer- 
jences  lasted,  the  secret  was  inviolably  kept  with  regard  to 
J'enelon  ;  the  two  bishops  being  as  tender  of  his  reputation, 
as  they  were  zealous  to  reclaim  him.  He  was  soon  after 
named  archbishop  of  Cambray,  and  yet  continued  with 
the  same  humility  to  press  the  two  prelates  to  give  a  final 
sentence.  They  drew  up  thirty-four  articles  at  Issi,  and 
{M'eaented  them  to  the  new  archbishops  who  offered  to  sign 
ibem  immediately  ;  but  they  thought  it  more  proper  to 
.leave  them  with  him  for  a  time,  that  he  might  examine 
(hem  leisurely.  He  did  so,  and  added  to  every  one  of  the 
articles  such  limitations  as  enervated  them  entirely :  how- 
ever, he  yielded  at  last,  and  signed  the  articles  March 
.10,  1695.  Bossuet  wrote  soon  after  an  instruction  de- 
signed to. explain  the  articles  of  Issi,  and  desired  Fenelon 
to  approve  it;  but  he  refused,  and  let  Bossuet  know  by  a 
friend,  that  he  could  not  approve  a  book  which  condemned 
madam  Guyon,  because  he  himself  did  not  condemn  her. 
It  was  in  order  to  explain  the  system  of  the  mystics  that 
he  wrote  his  book  already  mentioned.  There  was  a  sud- 
den and  general  outcry  against  it,  and  the  clamours  coming 
to  the  king's  ear,  his  majesty  expostulated  with  the  pre- 
lates for  having  kept  secret  from  him  what  they  alone 
knew.  The  controversy  was  for  som^  time  carried  on 
between  the  archbishop  of  Cambray  and  the  bishop  of 
Meaux.  But  as  the  latter  insisted  upon  a  positive  recanta- 
tion^ Fenelon  applied  to  the  king,  and  represented  to  hii 

F  E  N  E  L  O  N.  rifi 

majesty^  that  there  were  bo  other  means  to  remove  the 
offence  .which  this  controversy  occasioned,   than  by  ap- 
pealing  to  the  pope.    Innocent  XII.   and  therefore  he 
begged  leave  to  go  himself  to  Rome.     But  the  king  sent 
him  word,  that  it  was  sufficient  to  carry  his  cause  thither, 
without  going  himself,  and  sent  him  to  his  diocese  in  Au- 
gust, 1697.     When  the  question  was  brought  before  tbe 
consultators  of  the  inquisition  to  be  examined,  they  were 
divided  in  their  opinions  :  but  at  la&t  the  pope  condemned 
the  book,  with  twenty-three  propositions  extracted  from 
it,  by  a  brief  dated  March  12,.16^9«     Yet,  notwithstand- 
ing this,  censure.  Innocent  seems-to  have  disapproved  tbe 
violent  proceedings  against  the  author.     He  wrote  thus  to 
the  prelates  who  distinguished  themselves  as. adv^ensaurieN  «o 
. Fenelon  :  ^*  Peccavit  excessu  amoris  divini,  sed.vos  peo- 
castis  defectu  amoris  proximi."    Some  of  Feaeloa's  fciends 
have  pretended,  that  there  was  .ia  this  affair  more^coiirt- 
policy  than  zeal  for  religion.    They  have  observed^  that 
this  storm  was  raised  against  him  at  fi  time  when  the  king 
thought  of  choosing;  an  almoner  for  the  duchess  of  Bur- 
gundy; and  that  there,  was  no  way  of  preventing  him,  who 
had  been' tutor  tQ  the,  duke  her  husband,  and  who  had 
:acquitted  himse^{'*per£eet^y  well  in  .  the  functtooa  of  that 
post,  froo)  bei^gt made. lijQr  almoner,  but. by  raisiDg  suss- 
picions  of  herf^iy  against  him.    They  think  themselves 
sufficiently  ju^ti^ed  in   this  ppiniois,  by   Bossuet's  bang 
mctde  almoner  after  Fenelou  was  disgraced  and  removed. 
.Be  this  as  it  tj^i^L,  he  submitted  patiently  to  the  pope's 
determination^  and  read  his  sentence,  with  his  own:recan«> 
latioLi,  publicly  in  bis  diocese  of  <:Uimbray,  where  he  led  a 
most  exemplary  life^  acquitting,  himself  punctually  in  all 
the  duties  of  his  station.     Yet  be  was  not  so  much  taken 
,up  with  them,  nor  so  deeply  engaged  in  his  contemplative 
devotion,  but  he  found  time  to   enter  into  the  control 
versy  with  the  Jansejiists.     He  laboured  not  only  to  con- 
fute them  by  his.  writings,  but  al$o  to  oppress  them,  by 
procuring  a  bull  from  Rome  against  a:  book  which:  the  cair- 
dinaL  de  Noailles,   their  chief  support,    had  approved : 
namely,  father  Quesners  ^^  Reflectiona  upon  die  New  Tes- 
tament.^'    Thejfe^uits,  who  were  resolved  to  humble  that 
prelate,  bad  fqrm^d  a,,  great  party  i^iost  him^  and  pre«> 
vailed  with  the  archbishop  of  Cambray  to  assist  them  in 
the  affair.     He  accordingly  engaged  himself :  wrote  many 
pieces  agains^t  the ,  J^nsei^i$ts^  the  chief  of  which  is,  the 

IM  F  E  N  E  L  O  N: 

**  Four  Pastoral  Letters,"  printed  in  1704,  at  Vatencienn^S; 
and  spared  no  pains  to  get  the  cardinal  disgraced,  and  the 
book  condemned,  both  which  were  at  length  effected. 

But  the  work  that  has  gained  him  the  greatest  repu- 
tation, and  will  render  his  name  immortal,  is  bis  **  Tele- 
machus,"  written,  according  to  some,  at  court ;    accord- 
ing to  others,  in  his  retreat  at  Cambray.     A  servant  whom 
Fenelon  employed  to  transcribe  it,  took  a  copy  for  himself, 
and  had  proceeded  in  having  it  printed,  to  about  200  pages, 
vhen  the  king,  Louis  XIV.  who  was  prejudiced  against 
the  author,  ordered  the  work  to  be  stopped,  nor  was^it 
allowed  to  be  printed  in   France  while  be  lived.     It  was 
published,  however,  by  Moetjons,  a  bookseller,  in  1699, 
though  prohibited  at  Paris;  but  the  first  correct  edition 
appeared  at  the  Hague  in  1701.     This  elegant  work  com- 
pletely rained  the  credit  of  Fenelon  at  the  court  of  France: 
The  king  considered  it  as  a  satire  against  his  government; 
the  malignant  found  in  it  allusions  which  the  author  pro-  * 
bably  had  never  intended.     Calypso,  they  said,  was  ma^- 
daoi  de  Montespan ;    Eucharis,    mademoiselle  de  Font- 
anges ;  Antiope,  the  duchess  of  Burgundy ;  Protesilaus, 
Louvois;  Idomeneus,  king  James  II. ;  Sesostris,  Louis  XIV. 
The  world,  however,  admired  the  flowing  elegance  of  th^ 
style,  the  sublimity  of  the  moral,  and  the  happy  adoption 
and  embellishments  of  ancient  sjtories ;  and  critics  were 
long  divided,  whether  it  might  not  be  allowed  the  title  of 
an  epic  poem,  though  written  in  prose.     It  is  certain  that 
few  works  have  ever  had  a  greater  reputation.     Editions  ' 
have  been  multiplied  in  every  country  of  Europe  ;  but  the 
most  esteemed  for  correctness  is  that  published  from  hh 
papers   by   his  family  in  1717,  2  vols.   12mo.     Splendid 
editions  have  been  published  in  various  places,  and  trans- 
lations in  all  modern  languages  of  Europe,  modern  Greek 
not  excepted. 

Fenelon  passed  the  last  years  of  his  life  in  his  Aioces^, 
in  a  manner  worthy  of  a  good  archbishop,  a  man  of  letters, 
and  a- Christian  philosopher.  The  amiableness  of  his  man- 
ners and  character  obtained  for  him  a  respect,  which  was 
paid  even  by  the  enemies  of  his  country ;  for  in  the  last 
war  with  Louis  XIV.  the  duke  of  Marlborough  expressly 
ordered  the  lands  of  Fenelon  to  be  spared.  He  died  in  ' 
January  1715,  at  the  age  of  sixty- three. 

He  was  a  man  of  great  learning,  great  genius,  fine  taster, 
and  exemplary  manners :  ye^  many  hav^  suspected  that  fa^ 

F  E  N;E  L  ON;  WS 

^a&  not  entirely  sincere  in  his  recantation  o£  bia  **  Ma^iais. 
o^  tbe  Saints;''  a  work  composed  by Jiim  witb^greatcare^' 
and  consisting,  in  great  part,  of  extracts  frcxn  the  fathers*. 
Yet,  if, we  consider  the  .profound  veneration  of  a  pipuss 
catholic  bishop  for  tbe  decisions  of  the  chnrcb,  tbe  iB,pdesty. 
and  candour  of  his  character,  and  even  his  precepts,  to  ,tW 
xnysticsi  we  shall  be  inclined  to  acquit  him  of  the  charge. 
He  had  said  to  these  persons  in  that  very  bgokif.  ^^ipat, 
those  who. .  had  err^d  in  fundamental  doctrines,,  shouidnoti 
be.  contented  to  condemn  their  (error,  but  shoule^  confess 
it,  and  give  glory  to  God ;  that  they  should  have  no  sba^Koa 
at  having  erred,,  which  is  the  common  lot  of  humanity, 
but  should  humbly  acknowledge  their  .errors,,  which  ^.QU^ 
be  no  longer  suqh  when  they  had  been  hu«^Jy  confess^^.'.* 
He  has  also  been  ac cuffed  of  ambition  ifor^bis  .conduet  in» 
the  controversy  with  tjhe  Jan^enists^  but  the*  charge  i*est^ 
only  on  presumptive  evidence  > and  is. equally  ref ^tefl.  biy; 
his  general  character,  lo  bis  theology,  he  seems  tagiy^ 
greater  scope  to  feeling, , than  to  reason;  but  if  he  iuc^in^^ 
to  mysticism,  and  th^s.  seemed  to  deyiat^  fipm  thc^.esta;^ 
blished  system  pf  his  church,  he  does  not  appear  to  j^avei 
ma^e.the  ,le^.t«  approach  to  protestantism.  <  Qn  (he  .coiw 
trarj,  no  one  ha^  more^.  forcibly  inculcated  the  danger  of 
putting, "^l^e^scriptures  ^nto  the  hs^nds  oif  the  people  (afun*f 
damental  jtepet  of  popery),  thap  f^enelon  has.  dp^e  in  his 
'^Letter  tOfithe  archbisl^p  .of  Arras."  i  Submission  to  the 
decisions  of  the  holy  see  is.  likewise'  exemph^ed  in  hip 
wbol^  .cpodjuctas  well,  as  i^  bis  waitings.  -  Indeed,  F^ne:^ 
Ion  3^^A:,t9i,hj5tve  been  on^  of  those,  who,  .either  fron 
early  prepossessions,  or  from  false  reasonings  upon  hu^i^i^ 
iiature?.  or,fro/i^  an  observation' of  the  powerful  impres^ns 
mafle  .byjt^J^tboirity  on^t^^  and.  a  pomppuajri^i^ 

on  t^  ^^nsf^  9rf  the  multitude^  imagi{)^  that  Christianity^ 
in  its  naJt^y|e/orm,  is  too  pure  aud  elevated  for  vulgar  squU^ 
and,  tbiC^fore^  countenance,  and.  maintain 'the  absurdities 
of  popeji^y^jfrpip  a  notion  of  their  utility.  ^   .       ,  ,.  .    ^ 

Fenfcipn.  ipublif bed  several  works  besides  \^}s  **  f  ele- 
roachtf9^':;?ffd(^hie^  ,'^  Explanation  gf  the  Ma^^ims  of .  the 

Saints/\>]^^^^y  '^^^^^^'^^^y  which  first  appfared  in  1697« 
These  were,-  1.  **  Dialogues  of  the  Dead,'//  i«  tjyo  vpluf«j^i^ 
12mo,  composed  for  the  use  of  the  duke  of  Burgundy,  ana 
-intended  in" 'general  to  cure  bini  of  iSoma.  iavAt,  Or  teafch 
himsome^vH'tiie.  "^They  were  produced  as  the  occasion^ 
arose,  and  not  laboured.  ^./^  Dialogue  00. j£l&%»UQO^eia 
Vol.  XIV.  O 

fH  Ffi'NEL'bN. 

Ksb'ed  in  ins,  ^fteV  'his  death.  Hb  ih^re  disciiss^  kbe 
qiicstioh,  Whether  it  h  better  to  preach  ^y  iwinory,  'br 
e?x!tebijk)riih^ttd^ly  Wlt!h  mbi'e  dr  l^s  pteptttsiiidn.  Hie 
Ales  '6f  etequetlde  aVfe  aiho  deUverfefl  in  a  neat  and  «^ 
nftihfier.  S.  ♦<  Abrrd^metft  of  i!he  ljiV<lis  of  the  Mcietit 
Philoso^hets,-*  12ta6,  Written  Yor  the  ditke  of  'Burgundy^ 
df 'Which  an  ekcfeUdnt  trtitisWtibn,  with  ndtes,  .^nras  lately 
I^ttbltehed  by  tfhe  I'ev.  John  €6rttradk,  1«C*,  iS'voh.  l«mo. 
4c '<*  A  Treatise  on  the  EdttdAti'on  of  Uafaghtcfrs/*  ISIiKo, 
ah  excellfent  vs^oA.  5.  «  Philo*6phical  WdAs,  or  a  demoD- 
stration  of  the  ^Jiisiience  of  God,  by  proofs  draiwn  ffom 
l^tutfe,'*  la^nw:);  th6  best  'editidn  is  of  TParb,  1726.  5. 
<^  Letfers  6n  diffefcrit'snbgects  off  Religion  «nd  M^taj^by- 
iflts,**  iVl^,  V2mb.  6.  «  Spfrttoal  Wiirks,*'  ^iwAs.  Ijzmo. 
7.^«  Sertabhs/**pHiited  in  1744,  l2mo  r  the  thttmcterdf  these 
jTi^cbtitses  'is 'rather' ffathetic  i;ifriting'fhan  sttong  reasoning; 
flie  'c^ceUent  dtspdsition  bf  Fenelon  appears  tbroughoot; 
btft' ttifey  are  ufiequal^rid  hegHgent.  -He  pi'eaehed  ^teti^ 
pbi^iieonsly  with  facility,  ami 'his  ptimed  sertnons  ^e  in 
the  ^aihe  style.  8.  Scleral  -^brks  iii  'fiAVbur  of 'the  bttH 
««^Uhigi6hitus,'*  agalHsfJ^rtStoiato.  9.  <*.Dfrectidfi  forthe 
(?ohs<jibnce  bf  a  kil1§,'*  dbinpbrfed  fbr  the  diAe  ^  Bur- 
^Tidy>  a  strtall  ^ract,  but  ^ubh  bsteetned,  'paMitiiied  -fe 
17^8,  and  i^-pifbllshed  in  1774.  There  is  a  ^jilettdtd 
tVeiidi 'edition  idf  his  worfcsin  9  Tols.  4to,  Taris,  ITM— 
179i ;  -and  brie  bf  Ws  **  CEilvries  choices,'*  1^90,  e  Tbb. 
l^ino.  In  1*SI07  appeared  it'Parisa  'new  Tbltrtttb  '^rflA 
•»'S*rAibtis^chbij4ies,^*'l2rtb,Which'is  said  tb'do^ett^it'to 
bi^estattlfshed  yepUtatioh.  * 

^FENESTELLA  JLvCitrs),  aHbitian  hlstt>riah,  'wlio'diea 
ih'the  yetr'^by  at  the  age  bf  severity,  is^txtelitioned  % 
PJi'ny,'©eUius,^and'ttiany  other  ancient  aodrots.  He^frrdte 
iWriais'iii  many -boots,  the  twcrifcy>-secottd- hobk  fteittg^eitett 
ty  Nonitfe ;  also-Arclrilibs,  ^ind  other  Wdrki.  '^A  b^ok  llh 
the  magisti^tes  of  Home,  fsttsely 'attribtited  'tb  Ufh,  b  noW 
Ithbwn  to%e  the  proidifctibn  of  ^Dt)tainic'Floedfcis;^a'«bren-^ 
^Itte,  in  the  'fiftte^nth  cfefntdry,:  It  w*i  pAHfsbei!  •ihWft 
•1480,  •4tto.  *Feiiestella's  '"'f  nagtnenta^'*  with  liotes,  'WWre 
|>aMished  with  Wasse's  ^llust,  Gambrtdge,  l4»l&:' 

Mttooki  de  4uc  de  St.  6imoo; — 6«d.  Diet,  in  SalinMie.— >£nce  pai:  La  liarpe/ 

'1771.  ^.  ^.         .       ^ 

>  »^?i«iMr  4«^ife^  &ilj^uf flbde^  BOii;  Ut« 


t'  E  K  M.  .19(5 

FE!W  (JoRN^i  an  emifiettt  sckoha  )»>d  tramlatot,  was 
bora  at  Moiitaccrte^  in  Somersetsbire ;  in  1ms  yooth  he  waes 
fer  seme  time  a  «faomter,  which  gave  him  an  opportunity 
of  1>eing  HistrHCted  in  Latin  as  w€41  as  music.  Being 
aftervfairds  isent  to  Winchester  school  for  academical  eda** 
nation,  he  \^as  adaxitted  of  New  collie,  Oxford,  and 
<AtDi?en  fellow  k)  1552,  stntlying  chie%  the  cirii  lair.  Ito 
-qneen  Mary*s  reign  he  was  made  chief  master  of  a  noted 
free-school  at  St.  Edmundsbury,  ih  Sufiblk,  where  he  ac^ 
quired  -great  reprutation  as  a  teacber.  This  station  be  re« 
tained  for  some  part  of  queen  Elizabeth^s  reign,  but  an 
information  ha^ng  been  laid  against  him,  as  iinquairfi^ 
by  the  laws  of  the  refor^fiation,  he  was  obliged  to  quit  it. 
Some  time  aifter  be  went  to  Flanders,  and  afterwards  to 
Rome,  where  he  was  admitted  into  the  English  coUegey 
.studied  tiieology  for  four  jeari^,  and  took  orders.  Re- 
turning irfterwards  to  Flanders,  he  became  confessor  to 
.the  Engltsfa  nuns  at  Louvain,  where  he  lived  forty  years, 
employinjg-Ms  leisure  hours  in  translating  several  boo^s  fa-^ 
Tourable  to  tiie  Roman  catholic  religion.  He  died  art:  an 
^advanced  a^,  Dec.  27,  1615,  with  an  excellent  character 
^rom 'those  of  his  persuasion,  for  learning  and  piety.  Hia 
puUicatiotils  are,  51.*"  Vitaequorundam  martyrumin  Anglia,'* 
?whiidh  is  inserted -in  Bridgwater's  "  Concertatio  Ecclesi«  Ca- 
tAdlicse  in  AngKa."  2.  Seversfcl  of  bisdiop  Fisher -s  EngH^ 
^works,  traiwdated  into 'Latin.  3.  *'  Catechismus  Tridentinus,*' 
translated  into  English.  4.  Osorius's  treatise  against  Wig^I- 
ter  Haddpn^  translated  into  English,  Louvain,  156^,  8v6« 
•5.  ^  The  Life  of  St.  <3atherine  of  Sienna,"  from  the  Italian, 
1.609,  8vo.  6.  •"  A  Treatise  on  Tribulation,"  from  the 
ftaliaii  of  (3accia 'Guerra.  7.  "  Mysteries  of  the  Rosary,** 
'ironx^sparCoartes.  IPuller  says  that  he  proceeded  Ba« 
chelor  of  Laws  at  New  college,  till  (in  1562)  for  bis  popish 
^tivity,  he  was  qected  by  the  queen's  commissioners* 
Wood^  who  mentions  this  in  his  Annals,  although  not  in 
^is  ^  Athens,"  leaves  it  doubtful  whether  he  did  not  re- 
sign it  of  his  own  accord.'^  ' 

FENN  ('8lE  John),  knt  an  English  antiquary,  jwas  bom 

^t  Norwich,  Nov.  26,  1739,  and  educated  pardy  at  Scar- 

ning,  in  Norfolk,  and  partly  at  Bor^sdale^  in  Sum:llk,  after 

which  be  was  admitted   of  Gonville  and  Caius  college, 

''Cambridge,  where  he  proceeded  B.  A.  1761,  M.  A.  1764, 

^  2 

196  F  E  N  N. 

.|^nd  was  ao  honorary  fellow  till  Jan.  1^  1766,  when  he 
tnarried  Ellenor,    daughter  of   Sheppard   Frere,  esq.   of 
•Roydooj  in  Suffolk,  by  whom  he  had  no  issue.     He  wai 
■  afterwards  in  the  comtnission  of  the  peace,  and  a  deputy- 
lieutenant,  and  served  the  office  of  sheriff  for  the  county  of 
Norfolk  in   1791,  with  that  propriety  and  decorum  thai 
distinguished  all  his  actions ;  and  he  left  a  history  of  the 
duties,  of  the  office  of  sheriff,  which  might  be  serviceable 
to, his  successors.     Among  other  things,  he  revived  the 
painful  duty  of  attending  in  person  the  execution  of  cri- 
minals, as  adding  to  the. solemnity  and  impressive  awe  of 
the  scene;  and  he  was  the  first  to.  admit  Roman  catholic^ 
on  juries,  under  the  new  statute  for  that  purpose  enacted. 
.  He  died  at  East  Dereham,  Norfolk,  Feb.  14,  1794. 

Sir  John  Fenn  distinguished  himself  early  by  his  appli*' 
cation  to  the  study  of  our  national  history  and  antiquities, 
for  which  he  had  formed  great  collections,  particularly 
that  of  Peter  Le  Neve,  for  the  contiguous  counties  of  Nor- 
folk and  Suffolk,  from  the  wreck  of  that  of  Thomas  Mar* 
tin,  to  erect  a  monument  to  whose  memory  in  the  church 
where  he.  was  buried,  he  left  a  large  sum  of  money.  Amon^ 
the  rest  was  a  large  collection  of  original  letters,  writted 
during  the  reigns  of  Henry  VI.  Edward  IV.  Richard  JII. 
and  H^nry  VII.  by  such  of  the  Paston  family  and  otheifs, 
who  were  personally  present  in  court  and  qamp,  and  werep 
in  those  times,  persons  of  great  consequence  in  the  county 
of  Norfolk.  These  letters  contain  many  curious  and  au- 
thentic state  anecdotes,  relating  not  only  to  Norfolk,  but 
to  the  kingdom  in  general.  Two  volumes  of  them  were 
published  in  1787,  4to,  and  dedicated  by  permission  to 
his  majesty,  who  rewarded  th^  merit  of  the  editor  with  th^ 
honour  of  knighthood.  Two  more  volumes  appeared  in 
1789,  with  notes  and  illustrations  by  sir  John  ;  and  a  fifth 
was  left  nearly  ready  for  the  presis,  which,  however,  if  we 
mistake  not,  has  not  yet  been  published.  Though  be 
contributed  nothing  to  the  ^^  Archoeologia^'  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries,  of  which  he  was  a  fellow,  he  was  a  bene- 
factor to  them,  by  draining  up  "  Three  Chronological 
Tables'*  of  their  members,  which  were  printed  in  a  4tp 
pamphlet,  1784,  for  the  use  of  the  society.  His  biogra- 
pher concludes  his  chai^cter  with  observing,  that ''if  the 
inquisitive  antiquary,  the  clear,  faithful,  and  accurate 
writer,  be  justly  valued  by  literary  characters ;  the  intel- 
ligent imd  uj^right  magistrate,  by  the  iohabitantsi  of  the 

F  E  N  N.  HI 

coaiity  in  which  he  resided ;  the  informing  and  pleasing 
companion,  the  warm  and  steady  friend,  the  honest  and 
worthy  n^an,  the  good  and  exemplary  Christian,  by  those 
with  whom  be  was  connected ;  the  death  of  few  individuals 
will'  be  more  sensibly  felt,  more  generally  regretted,  or 
iDore  sincerely  lamented/'^ 

FENNER  (William),  an  eminent  puritan  divine,  was 
born  in  1660,  and  educated  at  Pembroke-hall-,  Cambridge, 
where  he  took  his  degree  of  M.  A.  and  in  1622  was  ad- 
ipitted  to  the  sanie  at  Oxford.  He  afterwards  took  his 
degree  of  B.  D.  and  became  a  preacher  at  Sedgeley,  in 
StaiFordshir^.  Here  he  continued  for  four  years,  and  then 
for  some  time  appears  to  have  officiated  frooh-  place  to 
place,  without  any  promotion,  until  the  earl  of  Warwick, 
who  was  his  great  friend  and  patron,  presented  him  to  the 
rJectory  of  Rochford,  in  Essex,  in  1629,  which  he  held 
until  his  death,  about  1640.  Besides  his  popularity  as  a 
preacher,  and  as  a  casuist,  which  was  very  great,  he  de* 
rived  no  small  posthumous  reputation  from  the  sermons 
su)d  pious  tracts  which  he  wrote,  none  of  which  appear. to 
l^ave  been  published  in  his  life-time.  They  were  collected 
in  1658,  in  1  vol.  fol.* 

FENTON  (Edward),  an  English  navigator  in  the  reigti 
of  Elizabeth,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family  in 
Nottipghamshire,  where  he  had  some  property.  This  he 
sold,  as  did  also  his  brother  Geoffrey,  being,  it  is  said^ 
nipre  inclined  to  trust  to  their  abilities,  than  the  slender 
patrimony  descended  to  them  from  their  ancestors;  and 
they  were  among  the  very  few  of  those  who  take  such 
dariog  resolutions  in  their  youth,  without  living  to  repent 
of  them  in  their  old  age.  The  inclination  of  Edward  lead- 
ing; him  to  the  choice  of  a  military  Jife,  he  served  some 
time  with  reputation  in  Ireland ;.  but  upon  sir  Martin' Froi- 
fiisher^s  report  of  the  probability  of  discovering  a  north<» 
.west  passage  into  the  South  seas,  be  resolved  to  embark 
with  him.  in  his  second  voyage,  and  was  accordingly  ap« 
pointed  captain  of  the  Gabriel,  ^  bark  of  twenty-five  tons^ 
ia  which  he  accompanied  sir  Martin  in  the  summer  of 
1577^  to  the  straits  that  now  bear  his  name,  but  in  their 
return  he  was  separated  from  him  in  a  storm,  and  ar^ 
rived  safely  at  JBristoi.   In  a  third  expedition,  which  proved 

1  Gent  Mag.  Vol.  tXtV.— Several  of  his  letters  are  in  Malcolm's  «  Granf  er*« 
le^n^  ftom  ^  t$^1 14.      *  Ath,  Ox.  vol,  l|»--»Brook's  Uvei  of  tb«  ?untai^^ 

Wa  F  E  N  T  ON. 

Hntfuee^sfiil^  be  coiniiianded  the  Judiib^   one  of  fifteen 
sail,  and  had  tbe  jbttle  of  rear-admiral.    The  miscarriage  of 
thi»  Toyaige  bad  not  convinced  Fenton  of  tbe  impractica* 
bility  of  the  project ;  be  solicited  another  trial,  and  it  was^ 
after  much  application,    granted  him,  though  the  parti-^ 
cular  object  of  this  voyage  is  not  easily  dbcorered ;  bii 
IRftlructions  from  the  privy-coungil,  which  are  still  pre- 
served, say,  that  he  should  endeavour  the  diiooveiy  ef  a 
nbrth-west  passage,  and  yet  he  is  told  to  go  by  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope  to  the  East  Indies,  thence  to  the  Soutbseas, 
und  to  attempt  bis  return  by  the  supposed  north-west  pas* 
sage,  and  not  by  any  means  to  think  of  passing  tbe  Straits: 
of  Magellan,  except  in  case  of  absolute  necessity.    The 
truth  appears  to  be,  he  had  interest  enough  to  be  allowed 
to  try  bis  fbrtune  in  the  South-seas.     He  sailed  in  tbe 
spring  1582,  with  four  vessels,  and  was  making  to  Africa; 
thence  be  intended  to  sail  to  Brazil,  in  his  course  to  the 
straits  of  Magellan,  but  having  learnt  that  there  was  already 
a  strong  Spanish  fleet  there,  be  put  into  a  Portuguese 
settlentent,  where  be  met  with  three  of  tbe  Spanish  squad- 
noD,   gave  tbem  battle,  and  after  a  severe  engagement, 
sunk  their  vice-admiral,  and  returned  home  in  May  1583. 
Here  be  was  well  received,  and  appointed  to  tbe  command 
of  a  ship  sent  out  against  the  famous  armada  in  \5W.     In 
some  accounts  of  this  action  he  is  said  to  have  commanded 
the  Antelope,  in  others,  the  Mary  Rose ;  but  bis  toleots 
and  bravery  in  the  action  are  universally  acknowledged, 
and  it  is  certata  he  had  a  very  distinguished  share  lo  those 
actions,  tbe  fime  of  which  can  never  be  forgotten.     Little 
niore  is  recorded  of  him,  than  that  be  spent  the  remainder 
of  bis  days  at  or  near  Deptford,  wbere  he  died  in  1603. 
A  flftonument  was  erected  to  his  memory  in  tbe  parish 
phurch  of  Deptford,  at  the  expence  of  Richard  earl  of 
'  Cork,  who  had  married  his  niece.     According  to  Fuller, 
te  died  within  a  few  days  of  his  mistress^  queen  Elizabeth, 
and  be  remarks,  ^<  Observe  how  God  set  up  a  generation 
of  militar}''  men  both  by  sea  and  land,  which  began  and 
expired  with  the  re^n  of  queen  Elizabeth,  like  a  suit  of 
clothes  made  for  her,  and  worn  out  with  her  9  for  provi- 
dence designing  a  peaceable  prince  to  succeed  her,  in 
whose  time  martial  men  would  be  rendered  useless,  so  or* 
dered   the  matter,   that  they  all,  almost,  attended  their 
mistress,  before  or  after,  within  some  short  distance,  unto 
b'er  grave.**    This,  however,  was  hot  strictly  true,  for  the 

IV  E,  N  T:  O:  Nj^  1^ 

(^bft^  ^dL  of  Nottii|ghan(^  sjr  Chaflfif  $te««»$».  W 

«v  Stobe^  MaDse^A  a^di  other  gi;^^  oifipe^.  by,  0««^  sma 
land,  survived  queen  ElizfibeiW 

^£NTOK  ($19$  G]^OF«a£Y),.  ao  eoiiqqnt  wrii^  and 
fltotesa\aj»  diuri^g  tb^;  r^igos  qf  ^Uzi^etb  a^d.  J^m^s  L  wait 
Iwqther  V>.  tb^  Rreqf  dipg^,.  b^ul;  tj^  tftpie  of  bi^  bif  tb  dp^s.  not; 
^pear*.  He  wa«  oert^ii^jy  cduf^^fl.  bb(^r4ly»  tbougb  w? 
cahoot  tiell  wb^re;  since^  ^biJn  ^  yowg  QW9>  be  g^K9 
m^)) J  proofi^  of  hi^  susqqa^i^ikance  with,  s^nc^^nt  ao/d  mpdenQ 
ifiiaf aiDg^  aod.  qf  his  b^ing  pei^fectly  versed  ifij  th^  Fc^gQby 
Spanish,  and  Italiaa  If^ngu4g9s»  Uq  i^  w^.  l^nowni  Ian  a 
ti;j|nslation  fiiotm.  tb^.  It^l)3.i>  of  "  Tbe  Histqiy  ojf  tb^  Wai*« 
of  Ita\y,  by  Guicd^rdinV'  ^^  dediaa^iqn  of  wb^^b  tQ 
qpeen  Elizabeth  b^ars  d^te  Jan.  7\  hoi 9.,  Tbi^.was^  hpwr 
e^er,  bis  la^st  work.  Ke.  ha^d  published  b^foi^  1 .  <^  Cejh 
t;^ne  Tr^ical  Di^coursee^  written,  outo  of  f  renph  s^pd  L^ 
tin/*  1567,  4to,  reprinted  1 579,  Neither  Ai9^^  nor  Tann^ 
ai^pear  to.  ba^ve  s^en  the  fircit  edition.  Tb^  work  i^  ^aj^a 
WaiTtoQ,  ill  pointi  qf  seleptii^n  and  si^i  ^erbaps^  tbg  moat 
capital  miscellany  of  the  kind,  a.  e*  of  tri^gical  npv.eU« 
Aoaongr  the  KQcoBiiiieadatory  poems  pce&xed  is  oi)e  from 
Ti^berviUe*  Host  of  th^  stories  ^re  on  Italian.  s.ubjf9ct]^ 
ijiud  m?^y  ftQvx  Baiadellp.  ^.  ^^  An  Account  of  a  Pispute 
at  Parisi,  between  two  Doptors  of  tb^  Sorbo^ne,  and  two 
Ministers,  ol  Qod's  Word/*  1571.,  a  translation.  3.  ^^  An 
Epistle,  or  GodijC  Admonition,  sent  tp  the  Pa^tprs  of  tb^ 
Flemjish.  Church  in.  Antvirerp,  exhprting  them  tp  concord 
wi;;b  othei?  Minist^^rs:  written  by  Antony  de  Carro,  1578,!* 
1^  tcaqslatipn.  4>  ^^  Golden  Epistles ;  containing  v^iety 
qf  di^coursefi,  both  mpral,  philosophical,  and  d^yioey.g^r 
tidied  94  well  out  of  th^  remainder  of  Guj9;Var/a*s  v^corks, 
<^^  o|;b^  autbpvs,,  huifif  French,  and  Italian.  N^\>;ly  corr 
rec|;ed  aad  aiahei»4ed.  Mon  heur>  vi^ndra,  15.77.''  Tbp 
£^ilisur  efiii^tJbes  of  GiM^vara  bad  been  pjubUsb^  in;  Epg- 
lisb,  by  on^  EdvWard  Uellowes,  in  1574  %  but  tbi^  cojilec* 
tion  oi  F^nlP9's  consists  of  su/oh  pieces  as  were  not  cont^ 
tained  in  that  work.  The  epistle  dedicatory  is.  to  the  right 
honpuicable  99^  v^tuous  lady  Ann^,  countetis  of  0?(eniprd ; 
^x^  i^  d^ted:  from  the  author's  chamber  in  the  BJackfriars, 
^oodpOi,  Feb.  4>  1575.  This  lady  was  the  duug titer  pf 
William  Cecil  lord  Burleigh  ;    and  it  appears  irom  tbQ 

60b  F  E  N  T  O  N. 

oedicatioiiy  that  her  noble  father  was  our  atuthor^n  best 
patron.  Perhaps  his  chief  purpose  in  translating  and  pub^ 
lishing  this  work,  was  to  testify  his  warm  zeal  and  abspluto 
llttachment  to  that  great  minister. 

What  the  inducements  were,  which  engaged  him  to 
leave  his  own  country,  in  order  to  serve  the  queen  in  Ire- 
land, cannot  easily  be  discovered;  it  is,  however,  certain 
that  he  went  thither  well  recommended,  and  that  being  ill 
particular  favour  with  Arthur  lord  Grey,  then  lord  deputy 
in  that  kingdom,  he  was  sworn  of  the  privy-council  about 
1581,  It  is  more  than  probable  that  his  interest  might  be 
considerably  strengthened  by  his  marriage  with  Alice,  the 
daughter  of  Dr.  Robert  Weston,  some  time  lord  chancellor 
of  Ireland,  and  dean  of  the  arches  in  England,  a  man  of 
f;reat  parts,  and  who  had  no  small  credit  with  the  earl  of 
Leicester,  and  other  statesmen  in  the  court  of  Elizabeth  ; 
and  when  he  was  once  fixed  in  the  office  of  secretary,  bis 
own  great  abilities  and  superior  understanding  made  him 
so  useful  to  succeeding  governors,  that  none  of  the  changes 
to  which  that  government  was  too  much  subject  in  those 
days,  wrought  any  alteration  in  his  fortune*  Qne  thing, 
indeed,  might  greatly  contribute  to  this,  which  was  the 
'  strong  interest  he  found  means  to  raise,  and  never  was  at 
a  loss  to  maintain,  in  England  ;  so  that  whoever  was  lord 
lieutenant  in  Ireland,  sir  Geoffrey  Fen  ton  continued  the 
queen^s  counsellor  there,  as  a  man  upon  whom  she  de* 
pended,  from  whom  she  took  her  notions  of  state  affairs  in 
that  island,  and  whose  credit  with  her  was  not  to  be  shaken 
by  the  artifices  of  any  faction  whatever.  He  took  every 
opportunity  of  persuading  the  queen  that  the  Irish  were  to 
be  governed  only  by  the  rules  of  strict  justice,  and  that 
the  safety  and  glory  of  her  government  in  that  island  de- 
pended on  her  subjects  enjoying  equal  laws  and  protection 
pf  their  property.  The  queen  frequently  sent  for  her  secre- 
t;ary  Fenton,  to  consult  with  him  oii  her  Irish  affairs,  which 
shews  the  high  opinion  she  entertained  of  his  understanding, 
though  it  often  happened  that  when  he  was  returned  to  his 
duty,  the  advisers  of  Elizabeth  persuaded  her  to  adopt 
ineasure$  the  reverse  of  what  Fenton  had  recommended. 
He  was  the  means  of  extinguishing  more  than  one  rebel- 
lion) and  of  totally  reducing  the  kingdom  to  submit  tO: 
English  government. 

In  1603,  sir  Geoffrey  married  his  only  daughter  Kathcr 
riue  to  Mr.  Boyle^  afterwards  the  great  earl  of  Corke;  and! 

F  E  N  T  O  N;  sol 

died  at  bis  house  in  Dublin,  Oct.  19,  160S.  He  was  m-^ 
terred  wiifa  oiuch  funeral  solemnity  attbe  catbedral  church 
of  8t  Patrick,  -in  the  same  tomb  with  his  wife's  father,  th<$ 
lord  chancellor  Weston  ;  leaving  behind  him  the  character 
of  a  polite  writer,  an  accomplished  courtier,  an  able  states^ 
Bian,  and  a  true  friend  to  the  English  nation,  and  pro^* 
testant  interest  in  Ireland.  His  translation  of  Guicoiardiniy 
and  bis  Guevara's  Epistles,  have  lately  risen  in  price^  since 
the  language  of  the  Elizabethan  period  has  been  more 
Btudied ;  and  the  style  of  Fenton,  like  that  of  most  of  his 
contemporaries,  is  far  superior  to  that  of  the  authors  of  the 
ftucceeding  reign,  if  we  except  Raleigh  and  Knowlles.  * 

FENTON  (Eujah),  an  ingenious  English  poet,  was 
born  at  Shelton,  near  Newcastle-under-Line,  in  StafFordf 
shire,  May  1^0,  1683.  His  father,  who  was  possessed  of 
A  competent  estate,  was  of  an  ancient  family  in  that  county, 
an  attorney  at  law,  and  one  of  the  coroners  for  the  county 
of  Stafford.  He  died  in  1694,  aged  fifty-six.  His  mother 
is  said  to  have  descended  in  a  direct  line  from  one  Mare^ 
an  officer  in  the^army  of  William  the  Conqueror.  Being 
the  youngest  of  .twelve  children,  he  wa»  necessarily  des-^ 
tined  to  some  lucrative  employment,  and  the  church  was 
fixed  upon  for  his  future  profession.  Accordingly,,  afte^ 
going  through  a  proper  course  of  grammatical  educd.tion^ 
be  was,  July  1,  1700,  admitted  a  pei^ioner  of  Jesus  col- 
lege, Cambridge,  where  he  prosecuted  his  studies  With 
remarkable  diligence  and  assiduity ;  but  after  taking  his 
bachelor's  degree,  in  1704,  he  inclined  to  the  sentiments 
of  the  nonjurors  of  that  time,  and  consequently  refu^in^ 
to  take  the  oaths  to  government,  was  obliged  to  quit  the 
university,  which,  however,  he  is  said  to  have  done  with« 
out  separating  from  the  church. 

He  was  now  induced  to  trust  to  his  abilities  for  a  sub- 
sistence, but  whatever  his  difficulties  or  discouragements^ 
he  kept  his  name  unsullied,  and  never  descended  to  any 
mean  or  dishonourable  shifts.  Indeed,  whoever  nlentibni^d 
him,  mentioned  him  with  honour,  in  every  period  of  his 
life.  His  first  employ  he  o\ved  to  It  recomnlendatiott  to 
Charles  earl  of  Orrery,  whom  he  accompanied  to  Fianderi^ 
in  quality  of  secretary,  and  returned  with  his  lordship  to 
England  in  1705.     Being  then  out  of  employment,  he  be« 

1  Biog.  Brit— Lloyd's  WortbiC8.-^Fi;Lller'8  Wo.rtiiies«<*-Waft09's  £[i«t  qf 
foetry,  vol.  III.  p.  479—48.^. 

9M  f  KN  TOH, 

c»me^  assifitant  in  the  school  of  Mr.  'B^^vmk^  (^eot  Bjfmr 
wici(£)>  '41  Ueadley,  near  Leatberb^y  in  S^nrey  ^  alt» 
which  bt3  w^as  iivrued  to  the  mstf  fcer^Up,  odf  iHe  freei  gtaowar 
icboql  at  SovQnoakjs,  in  Kent^  aind  in  a  fmv  yeans  btiougbt 
that  s/efittiAary  into  oitich  r.eputatioflb^  wbi)«  be  enjoyed  tk^ 
advantage  ot  making  easy  and  feequ&oi  e]|cersipt)»  to,  ymi 
jiifk  frieodfi  in  I^ondon*  In  1710  Wwas  pffeviHlAdi  ufMk  bj 
Air.  St  John  (lord  Bolitigbroke)  to.  giw  up  wbi^.  was  called 
^e  drudgery  of  a  »cboo^  for  ^e*  woroie  drudigeFy  of  de.« 
pendente  on  a  political  patron^  fiiosa  wfaenir  ^^^  ^K  be 
deritved  no  atdyaotage.  When  Siietrie  iiesigMd.hi$i  ftlme  of 
commissioner  in  the  siaoip^^ottce^  Fei^oA  sq^plied  tm  ]m 
pAtrroni  who  ^Id?  bim  tbaA  it  wa^  booe^ith  hia  oieKt».  and  ' 
promised  bim  a  superior  appoiMaei^  ^  buA  lt^«^  thua'sttkr 
sequent  change  of  admieistration.  preheated  kioft  from.  fiiAr 
^Ui9g,  and  left  Fenton  dieappoinied/  and  in  cbbt  Not 
long  after,  however,  his  old  frieiMltbe  ea«i  of  Onevy  apr 
pointied  him  tutor  to  ]m  squ,  lord  BrpghiU^  a  hmf  of  seveA 
years  o4d,  wbasa  he  taught  Eiaglish  an^  Latisi.  imtA  be  waa 
thirteen..  About  the  tiooie  this  engagement  vas.  about  t# 
expire,  Craggs,*  secretary  of  statey  feeling  bi^.  ewn  wajB 
of  literature,  desired  Pope  to  procure  him*  aft  instmefcef]^ 
by  whose  help  be  might  supply  the  deBcieneies  el  his  edur 
i^tidn.  Pope  recommended  Feoto%  bat  Ciaggs!a  sudden 
death  disappoiAted  the  pleasing  e^peocatio^s  forme$L  from 
ftbi«  connectioto. 

His>  next  engagement  was  with  Pope  himsirif^  who  after 
the  great  success  of  bia  translation  of  the  Iliad,  undertiMOik 
that  of  the  Odyssey,  and  detenmned  to  engage  auxiliariea. 
Twelve  books  he  took  to  bimseU,  and  twehre  be  dbtrihated 
between  Broome  and  Fenton.  According  lo  Jgbnsoo  and 
Warton,  Fenton  translated  the  firatt,  fourth^,  nineteenth 
aod  twentieth.  Biu  John^  earl  of  Qroeny,  in  a  lettev  ta 
Mr.  Duncombe>  asserts  that  Fentoa  teeaalated  dguUe  the 
niunher  of  books  in  the  Odyssey  thaa  Pope  has  owned 
<^  His  rewjard,^'  adds  the  noble  writer,  *^  wm  a  tfiAe^  aua 
arrant  trifle.  He  baa  even  told  me,  tha*  he  thoiAght  ^ope 
ieaired  him  more  tbaa  be  loved  him.  He  had  na  opiQioD 
of  Pope^s  heart,  and  fleclared  him,  in  the  wordii  of  bishop 
Atterbnry,  Mens  curva  in  corp&re  curvoy  It  is,  howiever,. 
no  small  pnuse  to  both  Fenton  and  Broome^  that  the  rendeis 
of  poetry  have  never  been  able  to  distinguish  their  books 
from  those  of  Pope.  In  1 723,  Fenton's  tragedy  of  ^^  M^r 
diamine''  wa,s  brought  on  the  $tage  in  LincoTn*s-ijQai-fipeldjb» 

PEN  T  ON.  5ie» 

and  was  perf^rined  wit^  «aeh  success^  t\M  the  profite^  of 
the  author  are  said  ^i  have  ainiouMed  to  nearly  9k  t3ekoma»A 
paurids^  wkk  wbicb  he  veiiy  honQiHiably  discharged  thti 
debts  contracted  by  his  frulfelei&  aAtendance  on  Mr«  St. 
John.  The  poetical  merit  of  tbis  tragedy  is  confeasedlj^ 
great,  bcit  the  diction  is  too  figurative  and  ornamenlaL 
Colley  Cibber  bos  been  termed  insolent  for  advisiji^  Fe«H 
ton  to  Beliacjuish.  poetry,  by  which  we  presuoie  be  meaM 
dramatic  poetry ;  but  Gibber,  if  insolent^  was  not*  ippk* 
dieions,  fioc  Mariamne  has  not  held  its  piece  ob  the  stage* 
In  171S7,  Fenton  revised  a  new  edition  of  Militon's  PoeoiSy 
and  prefixed  to  it  a  short  but  elegant  and  impartial  life  iA 
ibe  aiUbor.  In  1729  he  publisbed  a  very  splendid  editiein 
oi  WaUer,  with  notes>  which  is  still  a  book  of  c^Masiderable 
Talue,  I 

The  latter  part  of  Mr.  Fenton*s  life  was  passed  in  a  man^ 
nee  agteeable  to  his  wishes.     By  the  recommendation  of 
Pope  to  the  widow  of  sir  William  Trvkmbull,  that  lady  in*- 
vJted  him  to  be  tutor  to  her  son,  first  at  home,  and  after-»< 
wards  .at  Cambridge;  and  when  disengaged  from  this  lit^ 
tendance  on  her  son,  lady  Trumbull  retained  Fen  tan  ia 
her  family,  as  auditiw  of  her  accounts,  an  offiee  which  waa 
probably  easy,  as  he  had  leisure  to  make  frequent  excar« 
sions  t<^  visit  bis  literary  friends  in  London.     He  died  July 
13,  1730,  at  East-Hamp&kead,  in  Berkshire,  lady  Trum-* 
buirs  seat,  and  was  interred  in  the  parish-church,  and  his 
tomb  was  honoured  with  an  epitaph  by  Pope.     In  peraoo^ 
Fenton  was  tall  and  bulky,  inclined  to  coi*puIence,  which 
he  did  not  lessen  by  much  exercise,  »3  he  was  skiggisk 
and  sedentary,  rose  late,  and  when  he  had  risen,  sat  dowa 
tp  his  book  or  papers.     By  a  woman  who  once  wait^  on 
him  in  a  lodging,  he  was  told,  that  he  would  **  lie  a^hed^ 
and  be  fed  with  ai  spoon."     Pope  says  in  one  of  his  letters, 
that  be  died  of  indolence  and  inactivity ;  others  attributef 
bis  death  to  the  gout ;  to  which  lord  Orrery  adds^  ^^  a  great 
diair,  and  two  bottle^  of  port  in  a  dtxyJ^     Dr.  Johnsoa 
observes,  that  "  Of  his  morals  and  his  conversation,  the 
account  is  uniform.     He  was  never  named  but  with  praiaft 
ai]d  fondness,  as  a  man  in  the  highest  degree  amiable  and 
excellent.     Such  was  tbe  character  given  him  by  the  earl 
of  Orrery,  his  pupil ;  such  is  the  testimony  of  Pope ;  and 
such  were  the  suflrages  of  all  who  could  boast  of  his  ac- 
quaintance.**   There  is  a  story  relating  to  him,  which  re» 
fleets  too  much  honour  upon  his  memory  to  beomUl^d^ 


i04  F  E  N  T  O  N. 

It  WAS  his  custom  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  to  pay  a 
yearly  visit  to  his  relations  in  the  country.  An  entertain* 
ment  being  made  for  the  family  by  his  elder  brother,  ho 
observed  that  one  of  his  sisters,  who  had  been  unfortunate 
in  her  marriage,  was  absent ;  and,  upon  inquiry,  he  found 
that  distress  had  made  her  thought  unworthy  of  an  invita-^ 
tion  ;  but  he  refused  to  sit  at  the  table  until  she  was  sent 
for  ;  and,  when  she  had  taken  her  place,  he  was  careful  to 
shew  her  particular  attention. 

<  Fenton's  principal  reputation  as  a  poet  rests  on  his  '^  Ma^ 
Ttamne,'^  and  his  share  in  the  Odyssey ;  but  his^^  MisceU 
laneous  Poems,"  printed  in  1717,  have  procured  him  a 
place  among  the  English  Poets  in  Dr.  Johnson's  collection, 
who  has, '  upon  the  whole,  a  less  favourable  opinion  of  them 
than  Dr.  Warton,  yet  he  allows  him  the  praise  of  an  ex-* 
eellent  versifier  and  a  good  poet^ 

FERDINAND  of  Cordoua,  a  learned  Spaniard,  con^ 
atdered  as  a  prodigy  in  the  fifteenth  century,  may  be  termed 
the  Crichton  of  Spain,  whom  he  resembl^  in  the  marvel* 
lous  and  universal  knowledge  attributed  to  him.  He  was 
well  skilled  in  languages  and  the  sciences ;  understood  the 
Bible,  the  works  of  Nicholas  Lyranus,  St.  Thomas,  St^ 
Bonaventura,  Alexander  Ales,  and  Scotus ;  with  those  of 
Aristotle,  Hippocrates,  Galen,  Avicenna,  and  several  law 
authors.  He  was  also  a  brave  soldier,  played  on  several 
instruments,  was  admired  for  his  singing  and  dancing,  and 
equalled  any  artist  of  Paris  in  painting.  It  is  said  that  he 
&retDld  the  death  of  Charles  the  Rash)  duke  of  Burgundy, 
and  in  1445,  was  the  admiration  of  all  the  learned  at  Paris. 
Commentaries  on*Ptolemy^s  Almagest,  and  on  the  Apoca- 
lypse, .  are  ascribed  to  him,  and  a  treatise  ^^  De  Artificio 
Qilinis  scibilis,"  and  other  works.' 

/  FERDINANDI  (Epiphanius),  a  physician  of  Messagna^ 
in  the*  territory  of  Otranto,  where  he  was  born,  October^ 
or  according  to  Nic^on,  Nov.  2,  1569,  cultivated  the 
study  of  the  Latin  and  Greek  poeUi  at  an  early  age,  and 
wrote  elegant  verses  in  both  these  languages.  In  1583  he 
went  to  Naples  with  the  intention  of  going  through  the 
courses  of  philosophy  and  medicine;  but  in  1591,  all 
atrangeni  were  compelled  to  leave  the  place.    Ferdinandi, 

» 1  Biog.  BriL  new  edit  vol.  VI.  UBpnblisbed.-^KicboU'fl  Po«ms.— ^Gevt.  Maf « 
vol.  LXI.  and  LXIV. — Bowles's  editioo  of  Pope  ;-  see  Index. — Jobmon  uii 
Cbahners's  Poets,  21  vols.  1 8 iO.—^uff head's  Pope,  p.  883,  4t«fdit, 

.*  Morcri* 


retumidg  to  his  own  country,  taught  geometry  and  philo- 

Bophy  until  1594,  when  the  viceroy's  edict  being  rev  »ked| 

he  returned  tb  Naples,  pursued  a  course  of  medical  stu*« 

dies,  and  received  the  degree  of  doctor  in  medicine  and 

philosophy.     He  then  repaired  to  his  native  place,  where 

be  settled  himself  in  practice,  and  remained  to  the  end  of 

bis  life,  notwithstanding  the  tempting  offers  he  received 

from  several  seats  of  learning.    The  duke  of  Parmaf  in 

particular,  pressed  him  to  uke  the  professorship  of  me* 

dicine  in  the  university  of  his  city ;  aiid  the  same  invitatioa 

was  given  from  the  university  of  Padua.     In  1605,  he  was 

chosen  syndic- general  of  his  country,  and  acquitted  hiQi« 

self  with  great  credit  in  that  office.  He  died  Dec.  6,  1638^ 

in  de  sixty-ninth  year  of  his  age. 

.    This  physician  composed  a  considerable  number  of  trea^ 

:tises,  but  only  the  four  following  are  known,  as  having 

been  printed  :  1.  '^  Theoremata  Medica  et  Philosophica/* 

Venice,  1611.     2.  **  De  vita  proroganda,  seu  juventuta 

conservanda  et  senectute  retardands,"  Naples,  16]  2.     3» 

"  Centum  Historise,  seu  Observationes  et  Casus  Medici,'* 

Venice,  1621  ;  a  treatise  which  relates  to  most  of  the  dis«- 

eases  of  the  body,   and  is  distinguished  by  considerable 

eruditioQ.   It  has  been  several  times  reprinted  in  Germany 

and  Holland.     4.  ^'  Aureus  de  Peste  Libellus,"  Naple% 
1631. V 

FERDUSI,  a  celebrated  Persian  poet,  and,  according* 
to  sir  William  Jones,  at  the  head  of  all  Persian  poets,  was 
^  native  of  Tus  or  Meshed.  He  was  originally  a  peasant^ 
but  his  talents  procuring  him  distinction,  he  was.  admitted 
to  the  court  of  the  sultan  Mahmud,  who  reigned  in  the 
«city  of  Gazna,  at  the  close  of  the  tenth  and  the  beginning 
of  the  eleventh  centuries,  and  entertained  several  poets  in 
his  palace.  Ferdusi,  happening  to  find  a  copy  of  an  old 
Persiian  history,  read  it  with  great  eagerness,  and  found  it 
involved  in  fhbles,  but  bearing  the  marks  of  high  antiquity. 
Th«  most  ancient  part  of  it,  and  principally  the  war  of 
.Afrasiah  and  Kosru,  or  Cyrus,  seemed  to  afford  an  excel- 
lent subject  for  an  heroic  poem,  which  he  accordingly  be« 
.gan  to  compose.  Some  of  his  episodes  and  descriptions 
were  shewn  to  the  sultan,  who  commended  them  exceed- 
ingly,  and  ordered  him  to  comprize  the  whole  history  of 
J^eriia  in  a  series  of  epic  poems.     The  poet  obeyed,  and 

!  Woreri.— Niceron,  fol.  XXI. 


F  £  R  D  tr  S  L 

after  ithe  4iapptest  jexeitMn  of  hk  fancy  aii^  ^t  £>r  *iieat 
t^i^i^  y^si^)  "finif bed  4)15  work,  ^i<*h  conutmed  eix%y  tfaou^ 
Bamd  coapi^ts  in  k^yme,  all  higMy  peiti^lved,  ^with  nhe  Bpkit 
of  out  Oryden,  and  the  sweetne«B  of  iPope.  He  presetted 
fimekgaiit  transcript  «tf  4ns4bdok  te  Mahnwid,  iriv9  toldli^T 
applauded  bis  diliffence,  and  disaiist^ed  him.  M«ny  Hionl^ 
elapsed,  and  ferdusi  heavd  no  mope  ef  Vis  woi^k  :  he  theft 
took  oucasion  to  i>emmd  the  Icing  of  it  by  «onye  lit^epi* 
grains,  which  be eontrived  to  let  faM  in  the. palace;  bnt^ 
aays  sir  William  Jones,  *^  where  an  epic  poem  had  bailed, 
^^Amt  efiect  -coald  be  expected  from  an  epigram  ?**  At 
kngth  the  reward  came,  wfaidh  consiatfed  oniy  ^  as  liiany 
amall  pieces  of  money,  as  there  were  coaplete  in  the-voj* 
lume. — The  high-minded  poet -eofiPld  not -broe^ ibis  insak; 
iie  retired  to  bis  closet  with  bitterness  in  bk  heart,  where 
he  wrote  a  most  noble  and  animated  invective  against  the 
stfltan,  which  be  sealed  up,  and  delivered  to  a  cQavtier, 
who,  as  he  had  reason  to  suspect,  was  hie  greatest  eaemy^ 
assunng  him  that  it  was  '^  a  diverting -tale,*'  and  refjaesttng 
him  to  give  it  to  Mahmud,  "  when  any  affair  of  ^tate  ot 
liad  success  in  war  sbonld  make  -him  more  uneasy  and 
splenetic  than  usual.*'  Having  thus  given  vent  to  his  in^ 
dignation,  he  left  Gazna  in  the  night,  and  took  refuge  in 
£agdad,  where  the  calif  protected  bim  from  €be  sultan 
Mahmud,  who  demanded  him  in  a  furious  and  menacing 
Seliter.  Ferdusi  is  supposed  to  have  died  in  the  41 1th  year- 
trf  the  Hegtra,  or  A.  D.  1020. 

<  The  ^vork  of  Ferdusi  remains  entire,  a  glorious  monu<* 
ttent  of  eastern  ^nins  and  learning ;  which,  if  ever  it 
vboiild  be  understood  in  its  original  language,  will  contest 
;ibe  merit  of  invention  with  Homer  himself,  whatever  be 
thought  of  its  subject,  or  the  arrangement  of  the  incidents. 
•The  whole  collection  of  his  works  is.eeilled  **  Shahn6ma^^* 
«nd  contains  the  history  of  Persia,  from  the  earliest  times 
^o  the  invasion  of  the  Arabs,  in  a  series  of  very  noble 
^oems ;  the  longest  and  most  regular  of  which  is  an  beroic 
poem  of  one  great  and  interesting  action,  namely  the  de- 
iivery  of  Persia  by  Cyrus  from  the  oppressions  of  Afirasiab, 
king  of  the  Transoxan  Tartary,  who,  being  aseisted  by  the 
emperors  of  India  and  China,  had  carried  his  conquests 
very  far,  and  had  become  exceeding  formidable  to  the 
Persians.  The  poem  is  longer  than  the  Iliad ;  the  cha- 
racters in  it  are  various  and  striking ;  the  figures  bold  and 
animated ;  and  the  diction  every  where  sonorous,  yet  noble ; 

^lAeb,  yet^tiM  t)f  fire.--Of  f^cnrdosi^s  ndse  Jigain^t  ^die 
•ukan,  didreas  a  transkuon  in  a  ^*  Treatise  on  Orie&tal 
i^decrjs"  added  to  the  Life  of  Nader-Shah  in  Fceiich.  Sir 
W'iUiaai  Jones  said  it  is  not  nnltke  die  Xufinn  of  Theocri*- 
tffs,  (tvilo,  Miie  the  impetuoiis  Ferdiisi,  had  dared  to  eaB»- 
|>ose  fbe  vic6»  of  a  )ow««iinded  king.  ^ 

FBftG,  or  FER&UE  (Francis  Paujl),  a  German  aetigf^ 
h^mi  nt  Vietma  ni  16^9,  had  different  inastera.  He  quit-' 
ted  Vienna  in  1718,  and  exercised  his  art  with  sucoeis 
^tfianfberg,  went  iVom  thence  to  Dresden,  in  conofiany 
with  Alexander  Thiele,  in  whose  landscapes  he  inserted 
%he  'fig^Hres  and  animala.  ^He  also  'passed  over  to  Englomd^ 
where  be  tnarried,  became  involred  in  4iis  circtKoastanaep^ 
'a«d,  aceoi^ing  to  report,  was  foimd  dead  at  dve  door  of  his 
^odgiffgs,  apparently  exhausted  hfy  coid,  want,  and  aisety, 
in  1740.  The  style  ssnd  subjects  of  this  painter  resemlrie 
'those  <ef  Serghem  and  Wouwermans.  The  niins  which 
Hadorfi'hislandscapesaie  selected  in  a-gvaod  taste,  and  often 
exeetrted^with  a  finish  that  discriminates  the  rougbertsar- 
"fece^hewn  stone  frotn^the  polished  one  of  oiarble*  He 
^otdbltied  with  great  force  of  colour  gr^t  truth  of  isnita- 
^tion~.  Me  'etched  well  in  aqua  fortis,  «nd  his  prints  aoe 
-eagerly  'sowght  for  by  die  curious.  * 

^F&RGCSON  (Jam Bs)^  ^sa  eminent  experimental  philo* 
'Mfpber,  mectmnWt,  and  astronomer,  was  bom  in  Bamff- 
^^re,  4n  S^dfland,  17 10,  of  very  poor  parents.  At  the 
^ery  -es^lie^t  age  his  estiraor-diaary  genius  vbegan  to  onfoU 
4tsetf.  He'^first  learned  to  read,  by  overhearing  his:iatber 
^4iea(di^his  '^der  brother :  and  be  bad  made  this  aoquisifeieB 
before  any  one  suspected  it.  fie  soon  discovered  a  pecat- 
^larr  'fdste  ibr  ^inechantes,  which  fimt  arose  on  seeing  his 
^•ftlfber'use 'a  tever.  He 'pursued  this  study  a  consideiable 
4etoglb,  '^hWe  ^he  was  yet  very  young;  andimadea  watoh 
in  ^Wt)od-^W((i4c,  irom  haviivg  once  seen  one.  As  he  had  at 
ifittt;  *)io  ify!ltk»u<5tor,  nor  any  help  from  books,  every  thing 
*l7e ieilftvedU>ad'air4he'i)Eierit>cif  an  original  discovery^  «iid 
^iMh'y  'With  inei^presslble  joy,  he  believed  it  to  be;     . 

'As'Mefon'as'his^age  would  permit,  he  went  to  service.;  ^in 
iprhicb'lie'ni^t  with  hardships,  'which  rendered  his  constibii- 
tmn^ftl^le  through  life.  While  he  was  servant  to  ^a 
'farmer  (wtirose  goodness  be  acknowledges  in  the  modest 

.}S\r  W*41i9in  Jones's  History  of  the  LiCe  of  Nader  Shah. 
'^    I  Pilkingtort  an4  Struit,— Walpole*s  Anecdotes. 


fiM  F  E  R  (>  U  SON. 

and  humble  account  of  himself  which  he  prefixed  to  litf 

>^  Mechanical  Exercises''),  he  contemplated  and  learned  to 

know  the  stars,  while  he  tended  the  sheep ;  and  began  the 

study  of  astronomy,  by  laying  down,  from  his  own  obser« 

vations  only,  a  celestial  globe.    His  kind  master,  observing 

these  marks  of  his  ingenuity,  procured  him  the  counte- 

.nance  and  assistance  of  some  neighbouring  gentlemen.    By 

their  help  and  instructions  he  went  on   gaining  farther 

•knowledge,  having  by  their  means  been  taught  arithmetic, 

with  some  algebra,  and  practical  geometry.     He  had  got 

some  notion  of  drawing,  and  being  sent  to.  Edinburgh,  he 

•there began  to  take  portraits  in  miniature,  at  a  small  price; 

,an  employment  by  which  he  supported  himself  and  family 

for  severar years,  both  in  Scotland  and  England,  while  he 

« was ;  pursuing  more  serious  studies.     In  London  he.  first 

tpiiblished  some  curious  astronomical  tables  and ,  calcula- 

i  tions ;  and  afterwards  gave  public  lectures  in  experimental 

( philosophy,  both  in  London  and  most  of  the  country  towns 

•in  England,  with  the  highest  marks  of  general  approbation. 

t  He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society,  and  was  ex- 

<  cused  the  payment  of  the  admission  fee,  and  the  usual  an« 

'nual  contributions..   He  enjoyed  from  the  king  a. pension 

of  fifty  pounds  a  year>  besides  other  occasional  presents, 

•  which  he  privately  accepted  and  received  from,  different 

quarters,  till  the  time  of  his  death;    by  which,  and  the 

fruits  of  his  own  labours,  he  left  behind  htm  a  sum  to  the 

>  amount  of  about  six  thousand  pounds,    although  all  his 

frienda  had  always  entertained  an  idea  of  his  great  poverty. 

i  He  died  in  1776,  at  sixty-si^ic  years  of  age,  though  be  had 

-  the  appearance  of  many  more  years. 

Mr.  Ferguson  must  be  allowed  to  have  been  a  very  un- 
common genius,  especially  in  mechanical  contrivances  and 
executions,  for  he  executed  many  machines  himself  in  a 
very  neat  manner.  He  had  also  a  good  taste  in  astronomy, 
.  with  natural  and  experimental  philosophy,  and  was  pos- 
sessed of  a  happy  manner  of  explaining  himself  in  an  easy, 
clear,  and  familiar  way.  His  general  niathematical  know- 
ledge, however,  was  little  or  nothing.  Of  algebra  he  un- 
derstood but  little  more  than. the  notation ;  and  he  has  often 
told  Dr.  Hutton  be  could  never  demonstrate  one  proposi- 
tion in  .Euclid's  Elements ;  his  constant  method  being  to 
satisfy  himself,  as  to  the  truth  of  any  problem,  with  a  mea- 
surement by  scale  and  compasses.  He  was  a  man  of  a 
very  clear  judgment  in  any  thing  that  he  profes&ed,  and  of 


tinwearied  application  to  study  i  benevolent,  meek,  and 
innocent  in  bis  manners  as  a  child  :  bumble,  courteous,  and 
communicative :  instead  of  pedantry,  philosophy  seemed 
to  produce  in  him  only  diffidence  and  urbanity. 

The  list  of  Mr.  Ferguson's  public  works,  is  as  follows : 
1.  '^  Astronomical  Tables  and  Precepts,  for  calculating  the 
trii^  times  of  New  and  Full  Moons,  &c.''  1763.  2.  <<  Ta^ 
bl^s  «md  Tracts,  relative  to  several  arts  and  sciences,'' 
1767.  3.  ^^  An  easy  Introduction  to  Astronomy,  for 
young  gentlemen  and  ladies,"  second  edit.  1769«  4.  ^^  As* 
tronomy  explained  upon  sir  Isaac  Newton's  principles," 
fifth  edit.  1772.  5.  '^  Lectures  on  select  subjects  in  Me* 
chanicsy  Hydrostatics,  Pneumatics,  and  Optics,"  fourth 
edit.  1772,  6.  ^^  Select  Mechanical  Exercises,  with  a 
short;  account  of  the  life  of  the  author,  by  himself,"  1773, 
a  imrrative  highly  interesting  and  amusing.  7.  **  The  Art 
of  Drawing  in  Perspective  made  easy,"  1775.  8.  **  An 
Introduction  to  Electricity,"  1775.  9.  "  Two  Letters  to 
the  Rev.  Mr.  John  Kennedy,"  1775.  10.  "A  Third  Letter 
to  the  Bev»  Mrv  John  Kennedy,"  1775.  He  communicated 
also  several  papers  to  the  Royal  Society,  which  were  printed 
in  theii:  Transactions.  In  1805,  a  very  valuable  edition  of 
his.  Lectures  was  published  at  Edinburgh  by  Dr.  Brewster, 
in^2  voU.  Svo,  with  notes  and  an  appendix,  the  whole 
adapted  to  the  present  state  of  the  arts  and  sciences.  ^ 

yERGUSSON  (Robert),  who  at  an  early  period  of 
life  obtained  a  considerable  degree  of  celebrity  as  a  Scotch 
poet^  Hsas  b<M*n  at  Edinburgh  Sept.  5,  1750,  or  1751,  and 
was  educated  partly  in  his  native  city,  and  partly  at  Dun- 
dee, from  whence  he  was  sent  to  the  university  of  St.  An- 
drj^w's,  where  his  diligent  application,  and  probably  his 
tusn  for  poetry,  obtained  him  the  patronage  of  Dr.  Wiikie, 
hipiself  a  poet,  and  author  of  the  ^^  Epigoniad,"  but  soofe 
grosa  ircegularilies  having  procured  him  to  be  expelled,  he 
Te|\jfrned  to  Edinburgh,  without  resolving  on  any  perma- 
nenit  employment.  Having  an  opulent  relation,  he  visited 
him'  in  faopes^  by  his  interest,  to  procure  some  sinecure 
plaiiey  but  at  the  end  of  six  months,  this  relation  ordered 
him  abruptly  to  leave  bis  house,  and  Fergusson  returned  tb  - 
Edinburgh,  stung  with  indignation;  and  as  soon  as  he  re- 
covered, from  a  severe  illness,  brought  on  by  disappoint- 
inent  and  the  fatigue  of  his  journey,  be  composed  two  ele- 

\  Life  by  hims«If. — HttttOD'f  Dictionary.— Nichols's  Bowyer. 

Vou  XIV.  P 

21©  F  E  R  G  U  S  S  O  N. 

gies,  one  on  "The  Decay  of  Friendship,"  and  the.^tber 
*'  Against  repining  at  Fortune.'*  He  was  now  so  destitute, 
that  he  submitted  to  copy  papers  in  a  public  office,  but 
not  liking  the  employment,  and  quarrelling  with  bis  em- 
ployer, he  soon  left  the  office  in  disgust. 
.  Hitherto  he  had  lived  rather  in  obscurity ;  and  happy 
had  it  been  for  him,  if  he  had  been  suffered  to  remain  in 
that  obscurity;  but,  possessing  an  inexhaustibly  fund  of 
\vit  and  good  nature,  he  was  viewed  with  affection  by  all 
to  whom  he  wag  known ;  .and  his  powers  of  song,  and  al- 
most unrivalled  talent  for  mimicry,  led  him  oftener  into 
the  company  of  thqse  who  wished  for  him  merely  to  enliven 
4  social  hour,  than  of  such  as  by  their  virtue  were  ioclined^ 
or  by  their  influence  were  able,  to  procure  him  a  competent 
settlement  for  life.  The  consequence  of  this  was  great 
Ifixity  of  manners,  and  much  of  his  life  was  disgraced  by 
actions  which,  in  his  cooler  moments,  he  reflected  on  with 
abhorrence.  His  conscience  indeed  was  frequently  roused, 
and  once  so  powerfully  that  all  his  vivacity  forsook  him. 
From  this  state  of  gloom,  however,  he  gradually  recovered, 
and,  except  that  a  settled  melancholy  was  visible  in  his 
countenance,  had  apparently  recovered  his  health,  whea 
one  evening  befell,  and  received  a  violent  contusion  on  the 
bead,  which,  was  followed  by  a  delirium  that  rendered  it 
necessary  for  his  friends  to  remove  him  to  the  lunatic  hos- 
pital of  Fdinburgh,  where,  after  two  months*  confinement, 
be  died  Oct.  16,  1774.  He  was  interred  in  the  Canongate 
church-yard,  where  his  friends  erected  a  monument  to  his 
memory  that  was  afterwards  removed  to  make  way  for  a 
more  elegant  monument,  by  his  enthusiastic  admirer  Ro- 
bert Burns,  who  resembled  him  in  too  many  features.  Most 
of  Fergusson's  poems  were  originally  published  in  the 
^^  Weekly  Magazine,'*  but  have  since  been  collected  in  a 
volume,  and  often  printed.  The  subjects  of  them  are 
sometimes  uncommon,  and  generally  local  or  temporaiy. 
They  are  of  course  very  unequal.  Those  in  the  Englidi 
language  are  scarcely  above  mediocrity ;  but  tho^e  in  Ihc 
Scottish  dialect  have  been  universally  admired  by  his  coun- 
trymen ;  aqd  when  it  is  considered  that  they  were  com- 
posed amidst  a  round  of  dissipation,  they  may  be  allowed 
to  furnish  complete  evidence  of  his  genius  and  taste«  \ 

*  Life  by  IrTifig.— Suppl.  to  the  Encyclop.  firitannica. 

F  E  R  M  A  T.  211 


FERMAT  (Peter),  a  very  celebrated  French  mathe- 
matician, though  by  profession  a  lawyer,  was  considered' 
by  the  vfriters  of  his  own  country  as  having  rendered  no 
less  service  to  mathematical  science  than  Descartes,  and 
as  having  even  prepared  the  way  for  the  doctrine  of  in- 
finites,  afterwards  discovered  by  Newton  and  Leibnitz.  He 
was  not  only  the  restorer  of  the  ancient  geometry,  but  the 
introducer  of  the  new.  He  was  born  at  Toulouse  in  1590, 
educated  to  the  law,  and  advanced  to  the  dignity  of  coun- 
sellor to  the  parliament  of  Toulouse.  As  a  magistrate,  hb 
knowledge  and  integrity  were  highly  esteemed.  As  a  man 
of  science  he  was  connected  with  Descartes,  Huygens, 
I^iscal,  and  matiy  others.  He  is  said  also  to  have  culti- 
vated poetry.  He  died  in  1664^  His  mathematical  works 
were  published  at  Toulouse  in  1679,  in  two  volumes,  folio. 
The  first  volume  contains  the  treatise  of  arithmetic  of  Dio- 
phantus,  with  a  commentary,  and  several  analytical  inven- 
tions. The  second  comprises  his  mathematical  discoveries, 
and  his  correspondence  with  the  most  celebrated  geome* 
tricians  of  his  age.  His  son,  Samuel  FerMat,  was  atso 
eminent  as  a  literary  man,  and  wrote  some  learned  dis- 

FERNE  (Sir  John),  an  English  antiquary,  was  the  soa 
of  William  Feme,  of  Temple  Belwood,  in  the  isle  of  Ax* 
holme,  in  Lincolnshire,  esq.  by  Anne  his  wife,  daughter 
and  heir  of  John  Sheffield,  of  Beltoft  ^  and  was  sent  to  Ox-r 
ford  when  about  seventeen  years  of  age.  Here  he  was 
placed,  as  Wood  conceives,  either  in  St.  Mary's-hall,  or 
University  college :  but  leaving  the  university  without  % 
degree,  he  went  to  the  Inner  Temple,  and  studied  for  some 
time  the  municipal  law.  In  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of 
James  I.  he  received  the  honour  of  knighthood,  being  about 
that  time  secretary,  and  keeper  of  the  king's  signet  of  the 
<x>ancil  established  at  York  for  the  north  parts  of  England. 
He  probably  died  about  16 10,  leaving  several  sons  behind 
him,  of  whom  Henry,  the  youngest,  was  afterwards  bishop 
of  Chester,  the  subject  of  our  next  article.  In  1586  sir 
Johti  publidhed  **  The  Blazon  of  Gentiy,  divided  into  two 
parts^  &c.*'  4t0,  This  is  written  in  dialogues,  and,  though, 
in  a  language  uncommonly  quaint  and  tedious,  contains 
critical  accounts  of  arms,  principles  of  precedence,  re- 
marks upon  the  times,  &c.  which  are  altogether  curious* 

>  Mowri.— Huttoa'8  I>ict.  , 

F  2 

212  )         F  E  R  N  E^ 

The  nobility  of  the  Lacys,  earls  of  Lincoln,  which  forms  a 
part  of  it,  was  written  in  consequence  of  Albert  a  Lasco,  a 
noble  German,  coming  to  England  in  1583^  and  claiming 
affinity  to  this  family  of  Lacy,  and  from  this,  Feme  says,  .^ 
he  was  induced  to  open  their  descents,  their  arms,  mar* 
riages,  and  lives.  The  discourse  is  curious,  and  during 
the  century  that  elapsed  after  its  publication,  before  the 
appearance  of  Dugdale^s  Baronage,  mast  have  been  pecu- 
liarly valuable.  ^ 

FERNE  (Henry),  D.  D.  bishop  of  Chester,  the  youngest 
son  of  the  preceding  sir  John  Feme,  was  born  at  York  in 
1602,  an4  educated  at  the  free-school  of  Uppingham  in 
Rutlandshire,  to  which  he  was  sent  by  sir  Thomas  Nevill 
of  Holt  in  Lancashire,  who  had  married  his  mother.  He 
was  afterwards,  in  1618,  admitted  commoner  of  St.  Mary« 
hall,  Oxford,  but  after  two  years' ^residence  there,  was  re- 
moved to  Trinity  college,  Cambridge,  of  which  he  became 
fellow ;  and  when  he  had  taken  his  degree  of  bachelor  of 
divinity,  was  domestic  chaplain  to  Dr.  Morton,  bishop  pf 
Durham.  The  year  after  he  was  presented  to  the  college 
living  of  Masham  in  Yorkshire,  and  his  brother-in-law  Mr. 
Nevill  gave  him  that  of  Medborn  in  Leicestershire.  The 
bishop  of  Lincoln  afterwards  preferred  him  to  the  arch- 
deaconry of  Leicester.  In  1642  he  took  his  doctor's  de- 
gree, and  kept  the  act  at  .the  commencement.  Thence 
he  went  into  Leicestershire,  where  he  had  an  opportunity 
of  waiting  on  the  king,  and  preaching  before  him  as  be 
was  going  to  Nottingham  to  set  up  his  standard.  The  king 
made  him  his  chaplain  extraordinary,  and  he  preached 
before  his  majesty  again  at  Nottingham.  In  1542  he  pub- 
lished his  ^^  Case  of  Conscience  touching  rebellion,"  and 
is  said  to  have  been  the  first  that  wrote  openly  in  his  ma- 
jesty's cause,  but  this  probably  obliged  him  to  leave  ^ed- 
born,  and 'take  shelter  in  Oxford,  where  he -preached, 
without  any  emolument,  at  St.  Aldate's  church.  Here  he 
was  incorporated  doctor  in  divinity,  and  was  onade  chap- 
lain in  ordinary  to  the  king,  who  at  the  same  time  sent  him 
a  message,  that  he  was  sorry  he  could  confer  nothing  else 
with  it.  He  was  afterwards  appointed  chaplain  to  one  of 
the  lords  commissioners  at  the  treaty  of  Uxbridge,  where  • 
at  the  request  of  some  of  them,  be  stated  the  case  between 
episcopacy  and  presbytery,  and  was  not  answered  by  the 


1  Atb.  Ox.  vol  I.— CfDt.  Mag.  vol.  LXH, 

r  E  R  N  E.  213 

parHainentary  cominissioners,  although  one  of  them,  the 
earl  of  Loudon,  lord  chancellor  of  Scotland,  declared  that 
he  should.  Dr.  Feme  attended  the  king  at  Oxford  until 
be  had  taken  Leicester,  and  was  present  at  the  unfortunate 
battle  of  Naseby,  after  which  he  went  to  Newark,  and  con- 
tinued preaching  until  the  king  ordered  the  garrison  to  sur- 
render. His  next  retreat  was  to  Yorkshire,  where  he  re- 
mained with  his  relations,  until  his  majesty  sent  for  him  to 
the  treaty  of  the  Isle  of  Wight.  His  majesty  had  so  much 
respect  for  him,  as  to  desire  a  copy  of  the  last  sermon  he 
preached  there. 

During  the  usurpation,  Dr.  Feme  appears  to  have  lived 
in  privacy,  but,  as  the  only  privilege  now  left  to  him, 
as  a  clergyman,  he  carried  on  disputes  with  the  Roman 
catholics,  which  occasioned  some  of  his  publications.  On 
the  restoration,  Charles  II.  as  his  royal  father  had  promised 
Dr.  Feme  the  reversion  of  the  mastership  of  Trinity  col- 
lege, Cambridge,  nov^r  conferred  that  office  upon  him, 
which  he  kept  a  year  and  a  half,  and  was  twice  chosen  vice- 
chancellor.  He  was  also  prompted  to  the  deanery  of  Ely ; 
and  upon  Dr.  Walton's  death,  he  was  made  bishop  of  Ghes<^ 
ter,  and  consecrated  at  Ely  bouse  chapel,  Feb.  9,  1661,, 
but  held  it  only  about  iive  weeks,  dying  March  16,  1661, 
at  his  relation  Mr.  Nevill's  house,  in  St.  Paul's  churchyard, 
London,  and  was  buried  in  Westminster-abbey.  He  was 
a  man  of  great  learning,  piety,  and  loyalty,  and  of  singu- 
lar candour  and  modesty.  The  character  given  of  him  by 
one  who  knew  him  from  his  youth,  was,  that  if  he  had  any 
fault,  it  was  that  he  could  not  be  angry. 

He  is  said  to  have  afforded  some  assistance  to  Dr.  Wal- 
ton in  his  celebrated  Polyglot,  besides  wbicb  he  published, 
1.  "  The  Resolving  of  Conscience,"  &c.  on  the  question 
of  taking  up  arms  against  the  king,  printed  at  Cambridge 
in  1642,  and  Oxford  in  1643,  and  two  other  tracts  in  ans- 
wer to  his  opponents  on  the  same  subject.  2.  ^'  Episcopacy 
and  Presbytery  considered,"  Lond.  1647.  3.  "Certain 
considerations  of  present  concernment  touching  the  re- 
formed church  of  England,  against  Ant.  Champney,  doctor 
of  the  Sorbonne,"  ibid.  1653.  4.  "  On  the  case  as  it 
stands  between  the  church  of  flngland  and  of  Rome  on  the 
one  hand,  and  those  congregations  which  hftve  divided 
from  it  on  the  other,"  ibid.  1655.  5.  "On  the  division 
between  the  English  and  Romish  church  upon  the  reforma-r 
tion,*'  ibid.  1655.     6.  "  Answer  to  Mr,  Spencer's  book, 

214  F  £  R  N  E  U 

entitled  '^Scripture  mistaken/'  1660.     H<^  published  ^so 

several  sermons.  *   / 

FERNEL  (John  Francis),  or  Fernelius,  physician  to 
Henry  11.  of  France,  was  born  at  Mont-^Didier  in  Picardy, 
in  1506,  or  as  some  say  in  1497.  He  was  not  very  young 
when  be  was  sent  to  Paris,  to  study  rhetoric  and  philoso-^ 
phy  ;  but  made  so  quick  a  progress,  that,  having  been  ad- 
mitted master.. of  arts  after  two  years^  time,  the  principals 
of  the  colleges  strove  who  should  have  him  to  teach  logic^ 
and  offered  him  a  considerable  stipend.  Hje  would  not  ac- 
cept their  offers ;  but  chose  to  render  himself  worthy  of  a 
public  professor^s  chair  by  private  studies  and  lectures. 
He  applied  himself  therefore  in  a  most  intense  manner,  all 
other  pleasure  being  insipid  to  him.  He  cared  neither  for 
play,  nor  for  walking,  nor  for  entertainment,  nor  even  for 
conversation.  He  read  Cicero,  Plato,  and  Aristotle,  and 
the  perus&l  of  Cicero  procured  him  this  advantage,  that  the 
lectures  he  read'on  philosophical  subjects  were  as  eloquent; 
as  those  of  the  other  masters  of  that  time  were  barbarous. 
He  also  applied  himself  very  earnestly  to  the  mathematics.^ 

This  continual  study  drew  upon  him  a  long  fit  of  sick- 
ness, which  obliged  him  to  leave  Paris.  On  his  recovery 
he  returned  thither  with  a  design  to  study  physic  ;  but  be- 
fore he  applied  himself  entirely  to  it,  be  taught  philosophy 
in  the  college  of  St.  Barbara.  After  this,  he  spent  four 
years  in  the  study  of  physic  ;  and  taking  a  doctor's  degree, 
confined  himself  to  his  closet,  in  order  to  read  the  best 
authors,  and  to  improve  himself  in  mathematics,,  as  far  as 
the  business  of  his  profession  would  suffer  him ;  and  to 
gain  time,  he  used  to  rise  at  four  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
and  studied  until  the  hour  when  he  was  obliged  either  to 
read  lectures  or  to  visit  patients.  Coming  home  to  dine, 
he  shut  himself  up  among  his  books,  until  called  down  to 
table  ;  and  after  dinner,  he  returned  to  his  study,  which  he 
did  not  leave  without  necessary  occasions.  Coming  home 
at  night,  he  followed  the  same  course  $  he  remained  among 
his  books  until  called  to  supper ;  returned  to  them  the  mo- 
ment be  had  supped ;  and  did  not  leave  them  till  eleven 
o'clock,  when  be  went  to  bed. 

In  the  course  of  these  studies,  he  contrived  mathemati- 
cal instruments,  and  was  at  great  expence  in  having  them 

>  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Walker's  Sufferings. of  the  Clergy.— Lloyd's  Memoirs, 
folio,  p.  604. 

r  E  R  N  E  L.  215 

made.  His  wife,  however,  was  alarmed  at  those  expence^, 
by  which  even  a  part  of  her  fortune  was  wasted.  She  mur- 
mured, cried,  and  complained  to  her  father,  who  was  a 
counsellor  at  Paris.  Fernet  submitted  at  last,  sent  all  his 
instrument-makers  away,  and  applied  himself  seriously  to 
the  practice  of  physic.  But,  as  visiting  patients  did  not 
employ  his  whole  time,  he  resumed  the  same  office  in 
which  he  had  been  engaged  already,  of  reading  public  lec- 
tures upon  Hippocrates  and  Galen.  This  soon  gained  him 
a  great  reputation  through  France,  and  in  foreign  coun- 
tries. His  business  increasing,  he  left  off  reading  lectures ; 
but  as  nothing  could  make  him  cease  to  study  in  private, 
he  spent  all  the  hours  he  could  spare  in  composing  a  work 
of  physic,  entitled  "  Pbysiologia,"  which  was  soon  after 
published.  He  was  prevailed  upon  to  read  lectures  on  this 
new  work,  .which  he  did  for  three  years  ;  and  undertaking 
another  work,  which  he  publtshea,  **  De  venassectione,** 
he  laid  himself  under  a  necessity  of  reading  lectures  some 
years  longer ;  for  it  was  passionately  desired  that  he  would 
also  explain  this  new  book  to  the  young  students. 

While  he  was  thus  employed,  he  was  sent  for  to  courts 
in  order  to  try  whether  be  could  cure  a  lady,  whose  reco- 
very was  despaired  of;  and  having  succeeded,  this  was  the 
iSrst  cause  of  that  esteem  which  Henry  H.  who  was  then 
dauphin,  and  was  in  love  with  that  lady,^*onceived  for  him. 
This  prince  offered  him  even  then  the  pAace  of  first  phy- 
sician to  him ;  but  Fernel,  who  infinitely  preferred  his 
studies  teethe  hurry  of  a  court,  would  not^  accept  the  em- 
ployment, and  had  even  recourse  to  artifice,  in  order  to 
obtain  the  liberty  of  returning  to  Paris.  He  represented 
first,  that  he  was  not  learned-  enough  to  deserve  to  be  en- 
trusted with  the  health  of  the  princes ;  but  that,  if  he  were 
permitted  to  return  to  Paris,  he  would  zealously  employ, 
all  means  to  become  more  learned,  and  more  capable  of 
serving  the  dauphin.  This  excuse  not  being  admitted,  he 
pretended,  in  the  next  place,  to  be  sick,  and  sent  to^  the 
prince  a  surgeon,  who  was  accustomed  to  speak  familiarly 
to  him,  and  who  told  him,  that  Fernel  had  a  pleurisy,  which 
grief  would  certainly  render  mortal ;  and  that  his  grief  was 
occasioned  by  being  absent  from  his  books  and  from  his 
family,  and  by  being  obliged  to  discontinue  his  lectures, 
end  lead  a  tumultuous  life.  The  prince,  giving  credit  to 
this  story,  permitted  Fernel  to  retire.  A  man,  Bayle  ob- 
serves, must  be  excessively  in  love  with  his  studies,  and  a 

216  KERNEL. 

philosophical  life,  when  he  employs  such  tricks  to  avoid 
what  all  others  are  desirous  to  obtain. 

When  Ilenry  came  to  the  throne,  he  renewed  his  offer ; 
but  Fernel  represented,  that  the' honour  was  due,  for  seve- 
ral reasons,  and  as  an  hereditary  right,  to  the  late  king's 
physician  ;  ^nd  that,  as  for  himself,  he  wanted  some  time 
for  experiments  concerning  several  discoveries  he  had 
made  relating  to  physic.  The  king  admitted  this  :  but  as 
soon  as  Francis  the  First's  physician  died,  Fernel  was  ob- 
liged to  fill  his  place  at  Henry  the  Second's  court.  Here 
just  the  contrary  to  what  he  dreaded  came  to  pass :  for  he 
enjoyed  more  rest  and  more  leisure  at  court  than  he  had 
done  at  Paris  ;  and  he  might  have  considered  the  court  as 
in  agreeable  retirement,  had  it  not  been  for  the  journeys 
ivhich  the  new  civil  war  obliged  the  king  to  take.  Being 
returned  from  the  expedition  of  Calais,  be  made  his  wife 
come  to  Fontainbleau  :  but  this  good  woman  was  so  afBicted 
at  being  obliged  to  leave  her  relations,  that  she  fell  sick 
soon  after,  and  died  delirious  ;  and  her  death  grieved  Fer- 
nel to  such  a  degree,  that  he  died  within  a  month  after  she 
was  buried,  in  1558.  Fernel  acquired  a  vast  estate  by  his 
business.  Plantius,  his  disciple  and  biographer,  tells  us, 
that  while  he  was  with  him,  his  gains  amounted  .often  to 
^bove  12,000  livres  a  year,  and  seldom  under  10,000.  He 
is  considered  as  one  of  the  great  restorers  of  medicine,  and 
the  first  after  Galen'  who  wrote  •ably  on  the  nature  and 
cause  of  diseases.  His  posterity  were  long  respected  on 
his  account. 

His  works  are,  1.  ^^  Monalosphserium  partibus  constans 
quatuor,  &c."  Paris,  1526.  2.  ^'  De  Proportionibus,  libri 
duo,'*  ibid.  1528.  3.  "  Cosmo-theoria  libros  duos  com- 
plexa,"  ibid.  1528.  4.  "  Pe  naturali  parte  Medicinas,  libri 
se^tem,"  ibid.  1532.  5.  "  De  vacuandi  ratipne,  liber," 
ibid.  1545.  6.  "  De  abditis  rerum  causis,  libri  duo,"  ibid. 
1548.  This  work  underwent  nearly  thirty  subsequent  edi- 
tions. 7.  "  Medicina,  ad  Henricum  II.  &c."  1554.  This 
collection  has  been  still  more  frequently  reprinted,  with 
some  changes  pf  the  title.  8.  '^  Therapeiitices  universalis, 
sen  m^dendi  r3.tionis  libri  septem,"  Lugduni,  1659.  6. 
*^  Consilioruip  Medicinalium  liber,"  Paris,  1^82;  many 
times  reprinted.  10.  "  Febrium  curandarum  methodus 
generalis,"  Francfort,  1577  ;  a  posthumous  work.  1 1,  "  De. 
Luis  venereae  curatione  perfectissima  liber,"  Antwerp,  1 579. 
(»dited  by  Gisselin,  a  physician  of  Bruges.     Some  other 

F  E  R  N  E  L.  21? 

parts  of  his  works,  have  been  translated,  or  edited  sepa* 
rately  since  his  death.  £loy  remarks,  that  as  many  things 
taken  from  the  Arabian  writers  are  found  in  the  works  of 
Fernel,  and  as  the  elegant  Latinity  in  which  he  has  re- 
peated them  is  generally  admired,  the  following  bon  mot 
has  been  applied  to  him  :  ^^  Faeces  Arabum  melle  Latini- 
tatis  condidit"  * 

FERRACINO  (Bartolomeo),  a  celebrated  self- taught 
mechanic,  was  born  at  Bassano,  in  the  territory  of  Padua, 
in  1692.  His  first  occupation  being  that  of  a  sawyer,  for 
bis  parent;  were  very  poor,  he  invented  a  saw  which  worked 
by  the  wind,  and  went  on  progressively  to  several  more 
curious  inventions,  such  as  making  clocks  in  iron,  hydraulic 
machines,  &c.  till  he  was  noticed  by  the  great  men  of 
Italy.  In  his  native  town  of  Bassano,  he  constructed  a 
famous  bridge  over  the  Brenta,  remarkable  for  the  bold- 
ness of  its  design,  and  the  solidity  of  its  construction.  Ho 
died  soon  after  the  completion  of  this  work.  An  history  of 
his  life  and  inventions *was  published  at  Venice  in  1764^  by 
a  writer  whose  name  was  Memo,  4to.' 

FERRAND^Lo.uis),  a  French  lawyer,  born  at  Toulon, 
in  1645,  became  an  advocate  in  the  parliament  of  Paris, 
and  died  in  that  city,  in  1699.  Though  a  layman,  he 
lived  with' the  rigour  of  a  strict  ecclesiastic  ;  and  though  a 
lawyer,  his  works  turn  chiefly  upon  subjects  of  sacred 
learning.  They  are  full  of  erudition,  but  not  remarkable 
for  brilliancy  or  clearness.  They  are,  1.  "  A  large  Com- 
mentary on  the  Psalms,"  in  Latin,  1683,  4to.  2,  "  Re- 
flections on  the  Christian  Religion,"  167P,  2  vols.  12mo. 
3.  "  A  Psalter,"  in  French  and  Latin.  4.  Some  contro- 
versial writings  against  the  Calvinists,  and  others.  5.  '^  A 
Letter  and  Discourse  to  prove  that  St.  Augustin  was  a 
Monk,"  an  opinion  which  several  learned  men  have  re- 

FERRANDUS,  siirnamed  Fulgentius,  who  flourished 
in  the  sixth  century,  was  an  African  by  birth,  and  a  dis- 
ciple of  St.  Fulgentius.  When  that  prelate  was  banished 
by  the  Arians  to  Sardinia,  Ferrandus  accompanied  him; 
but  on  his  return  he  was  chosen  deacon  of  the  church  of 
Carthage,  and  entered  with  much  zeal  into  the  question 
which  was  the  subject  of  warm  discussion  at  that  day, 

1  Bayle  in  Gen.  Diet. — Moreri/— Haller  in  all  his  Bibiiothecas. — BIount*s 
Censura. — Uces's  Cyclopaedia  from  Eloy. — Saxii  Onoma^t. 
*  Diet.  BisU  3  KiceroAy  toI.  I.  and  to).  X.— Moreri. — Dupini 

218  F  £  R  R  A  N  D  U  S- 

**  whether  it  could  be  said  that  one  of  the  persons  of  the 
Trinity  suffered  on  the  cross."  Ferrandus  died  about  the 
year  530,  leaving  behind  him  many  works  that  were  highly 
esteemed  by  his  contemporaries.^  The  most  considerable, 
**  A  Collection  of  Ecclesiastical  Canons,"  for  restoring 
discipline  in  the  churches  of  Africa,  is  one  of  the  most  an- 
cient collections  of  canons  among  the  Latins.  It  consists 
of  between  two  and  three  hundred  abridged  from  the  coun- 
cils of  Africa,  Ancyra,  Laodicea,  Nice,  Antiocb,  &c.  A 
life  of  Fulgentius  has  also  been  ascribed  to  Ferrandus,  but 
by  some  authors  it  has  been  ascribed  to  another  of  the  pre- 
late^s  pupils.^ 

FERRAR  (Nicholas),  an  English  gentleman  of  con-, 
siderable  learning  and  ingenuity,  of  great  personal  worth, 
and  at  the  same  time  an  enthusiast  of  a  singular  descrip- 
tion, was  the  third  son  of  Nicholas  Ferrar,  a  merchant  in 
London,  and  was  bom  Feb.  22,  1592,  in  the  parish  of  St. 
Mary  Stayning,  in  Mark-lane,  London.  His  father  traded 
very  extensively  to  the  East  and  West  Indies,  and  to  all 
the  celebrated  seats  of  commerce.  He  lived  in  his^h  re- 
pute  in  the  city,  where  he  joined  in  commercial  matters 
with  sir  Thomas  and  sir  Hugh  Middleton,  and  Mr.  Bate- 
man.  He  was  a  man  of  liberal  hospitality,  but  governed 
his  house  with  great  order.  He  kept  a  good  table,  at  which 
he  frequently  received  persons  of  the  greatest  eminence, 
sir  John  Hawkins,  sir  Francis  Drake,  sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
and  others  with  whom  he  was  an  adventurer ;  and  in  all 
their  expeditions  he  was  ever  in  the  highest  degree  atten- 
tive to  the  planting  the  Christian  Religion  in  the  New- 
World.  At  home  also  he  was  a  zealous  friend  to  the  es- 
tablished church,  and  always  ready  to  supply  his  prince 
with  what  was  required  of  him.  He  lent  300/.  at  once 
upon  a  privy-seal ;  a  sum  at  that  time  not  inconsiderable. 
He  had  the  honour  of  being  written  Esq.  by  queen  Eli- 
zabeth. '   • 

His  wife  was  Mary,  daughter  of  Laurence  Wodenoth,  ' 
esq.  of  an  ancient  family  ni  Cheshire.  By  her  he  had  a 
numerous  family,  to  whom  he  gave  a  pious  education. 
Their  daily  practice  was  to  read,  and  to  speak  by  memory, 
some  portion  of  the  Scriptures,  and  parts  of  the  Book  of 
Martyrs;  they  were  also  made  acquainted  with  such  pas- 
sages of  history  as  were  suited  to  their  tender  years.   They 


^  Care.— Morefi.—J)upiQ.— Fabric.  BibL  LaL  Med.  £tat,— Saxii  OnomasL 

F  E  R  R  A  R,  2il> 

were  all  histnicted  in  music  ;  in  j^erforming  on  the  organ, 
viol,  and  lute,  and  in  tb^  the$>ry  and  practice  of  singing ; 
in  the  learned  and  modern  languages ;  in  curious  needle- 
works, and  all  the  accomplishments  of  that  time.  Th^ 
young  men,  when  arrived  at  years  of  discretion j  had  per- 
mission each  to  choose  his  profession,  and  then  no  expence 
was  spared  to  bring  him  to  a  distinguished  excellence  in 
it.  For,  this  was  an  invariable  maxim  with  the  parents, 
that,  having  laid  a  firm  foundation  in  religion  and  virtue, 
they  woul^  rather  give  them-  a  good  education  without 
wealth,  than  wealth  without  a  good  education. 

Of  Nicholas,  the  subject  of  this  article,  we  are  told  that 
he  was  a  beautiful  child,  of  a  fair  complexion,  and  light- 
coloured  hair.  At  four  years  of  age  he  was  sent  to  school, 
and  at  five  he  could  read  perfectly,  or  repeat  with  pro- 
priety and  grace,  a  chapter  in  the  Bible,  which  the  pa- 
rents  made  the  daily  exercise  of  their  children.  By  the 
brightness  of  his  parts,  and  the  uncommon  strength  of  his 
memory,  he  attained  with  great  ease  and  quickness  what- 
ever be  set  himself  to  learn ;  yet  was  he  also  remarkably 
studious.  From  the  early  possession  of  his  mind  with  ideas 
of  piety  and  virtue,  and  a  love  for  historical  information, 
the  Bible  in  his  very  early  years  became  to  him  the  book 
above  all  others  most  dear  and  estimable ;  and  next  to  this 
in  his  esteem  was  Fox's  Book  of  Martyrs,  from  which  he 
could  repeat  perfectly  the  history  of  his  near  kinsman, 
bishop  Ferrar.  And,  when  in  his  riper  years  he  undertook 
the  instruction  of  the  family,  he  constantly  exercised  them 
also  in  the  reading  and  in  the  study  of  these  two  books. 
He  was  particularly  fond  of  all  historical  relations ;  and, 
when  engaged  in  this  sort  of  reading,  the  day  did  not  sa-* 
tisfy  him,  but  he  would  borrow  from  the  night ;  insomuch 
that  his  mother  would  frequently  seek  him  out,  and  force 
him  to  partake  of  some  proper  recreation.  Hence,  even 
in  his  childhood,  his  mind  was  so  furnished  with  historical 
anecdotes,  that  he  could  at  any  time  draw  off  his  school- 
fellows, from  their  play,  who  would  eagerly  surround  him, 
and  with  the  utmost  attention  listen  to  his  little  tales,  al- 
ways calculated  to  inspire  them  with  a  love  of  piety  and 
goodness,  and  excite  in  them  a  virtuous, imitation. 

When  he  was  very  young  he  was  taught  Latin,  at  Lon- 
don, at  the  desire  of  his  master,  though  others  thought  it 
too  soon :  but  he  was  so  eager  and  diligent  in  his  appli- 
cation, that  he  soon  surpassed  all  his  companions^  though 

220  F  E  R  R  A  H, 

his  seniors.  He  was  of  a  grave  disposition,  and  very  earljr 
shewed  a  great  dislike  of  every  thing  that  savoured  of 
worldly  vanity.  In  bis  apparel  be  wished  to  be  neat,  but 
refused  all  tbat  was  not  simple  and  plain.  When  bands 
were  making  for  the  children,  be  earnestly  entreated  his 
mother  tbat  bis  might  not  have  any  lace  upon  them,  like 
those  of  bis  brothers,  but  be  made  little  and  plain,  like 
those  of  Mr.  Wotton  (a  clergyman  whom  be  knew),  "  for 
I  wifish  to  be  a  preacher  as  he  is." 

Young  Ferrar  was  good-natured  and  tender-hearted  ta 
the  highest  degree  ;  so  fearful  of  offending  any  one,  tbat, 
upon  the  least  apprehension  of  having  given  displeasure, 
he  would  suddenly  weep  in  the  most  submissive  manner, 
and  appear  extremely  sorry.  His  temper  was  lovely,  his 
countenance  pleasing;  hi3  constitution  was  not  robust,  but 
he  was  active,  lively,  and  cheerful.  Whatsoever  he  went 
about,  he  did  it  with  great  spirit,  and  with  a  diligence  and 
discretion  above  his  years.  When  it  was  time  to  send  him 
to  some  greater  school,  where  he  might  have  a  better  op« 
portunity  to  improve  himself  in  the  Latin  tongue,  his  pa- 
rents sent  him  and  bis  brother  William  to  Euborn,  near 
Newbery,  in  Berkshire,  the  bouse  of  Mr.  Brooks,  an  old 
friend,  who  had  many  other  pupils,  who  was  a  religious 
and  good  man,  but  a  strict  disciplinarian.  While  prepa- 
rations were  making  for  this  journey,  an  event  took  place 
which  made  the  deepest  and  mest  lively  impression  upon 
the  mind  of  young  Nicholas,  and  strongly  marks  his  cha- 
racter^ and  the  bent  of  his  disposition.  He  was  but  six 
years  of  age,  and  being  one  night  unable  to  sleep,  a  6t 
'  of  scepticism  seized  bis  mind,  and  gave  him  the  greatest 
perplexity  and  uneasiness.  He  doubted  whether  there 
was  a  God  ?  and,  if  there  was,  what  was  the  most  accepts 
able  mode  of  serving  him?  In  extreme  grief  be  rose  at 
midnight,  cold  and  frosty  ;  and  went  down  to  a  grass-plat 
in  the  garden,  where  he  stood  a  long  time,  sad  and  pen- 
sive, musing  and  thinking  seriously  upon  the  great  doubt 
which  thus  extremely  perplexed  him.  At  length,  throwing 
himself  on  his  face  upon  the  ground,  and  spreading  out  his 
hands,  he  cried  aloud,  "  Yes,  there  is,  there  must  be  a 
God  ;  and  he,  no  question,  if  I  duly  and  earnestly  seek  it 
of  him,  will  teach  me  not  only  how  to  know,  but  how  to 
serve  him  acceptably.  He  will  be  with  me  all  my  life 
here,  and  at  the  end  will  hereafter  make  me  happy.''  His 
doubts  now  vanished,  bis  mind  became  easy,  and  he  r«t 

F  E  R  R  A  It  221 

turned  to  his  apartment ;  bat  the  remembrance  of  what  be 
felt  on  this  occasion  made  him  ever  after  strongly  com- 
miserate all  who  laboured  under  any  religious  doubt  or  de- 
spair of  mind.  And,  in  the  future  course  of  his  life,  be 
had  repeated  opportunities  to  exert  his  beiievolence  to 
those  who  experienced  similar  unhappiness. 

In  1598  he  was  sent  to  Euborn  school,  where  in  Latin, 
Greek,  and  logic,  he  soon  became  the  first  scholar  of  his 
years.  He  strengthened  his  memory  by  daily  exercise ; 
he  was  a  great  proficient  in  writing  and  arithmetic,  and 
attained  such  excellence  in  short-hand  as  to  be  able  to  * 
take  accurately  a  sermon  or  speech  on  any  occasion.  He 
was  also  well  skilled  both  in  the  theory  and  practice  of 
vocal  and  instrumental  music.  Thus  accomplished,  in  his 
fourteenth  year,  his  master,  Mr.  Brooks,  prevailed  with 
his  parents  to  send  him  to  Cambridge,  whither  he  himself 
attended  him,  and  admitted  him  of  Clare-hall,  presenting, 
him,  with  due  commendation  of  his  uncommon  abilities,  to 
Mr.  Augustin  Lindsell,  the  tutor,  and  Dr.  William  Smithy 
then  master  of  the  college.  His  parents  thought  proper, 
notwithstanding  the  remonstrance  of  some  friends  against  , 
it,  to  admit  him  a  pensioner  for  the  first  year,  as  they 
conceived  it  more  for  his  grood  to  rise  by  merit  gradually^, 
to  honour.  In  this  situation,  by  excellent  demeanour  and 
diligent  application  to  his  studies,  he  gained  the  afi^ections 
and  applause  of  all  who  knew  him,  performing  all  his  exer- 
cises with  distinguished  approbation.  His  attention  and 
diligence  were  such,  that  it  was  observed  his  chamber  might 
be  known  by  the  candle  that  was  last  put  out  at  night,  and 
the  first  lighted  in  the  morning.  Nor  was  he  less  diligent 
in  his  attendance  at  chapel,  so  that  his  piety  and  learning 
went  on  baud  in  hand  together.  In  his  second  year  be 
became  fellow-commoner.  In  1610  he  took  his  degree 
of  B.  A.  At  this  time  he  was  appointed  to  make  the  speech 
on  the  king's  coronation  day,  (July  25)  in  the  college  hall; 
and  the  same  year  he  was  elected  fellow  of  that  society. 
His  constitution  was  of  a  feminine  delicacy,  and  he  was 
very  subject  to  aguish  disorders ;  yet  he  bore  them  out  in 
a  great  measure  by  his  tempei^nce,  and  by  a  peculiar 
courageousness  of  spirit  which  was  natural  to  him.  His 
favourite  sister,  married  to  Mr.  Collet,  lived  at  Bourn 
Bridge,  near  Cambridge,  and  as  the  air  of  Cambridge  w^ 
found  not  well  to  agree  with  him,  he  made  frequent  ex- 
cursions to  her  house,  where  he  passed  his  time  in  the 

2d2  F  £  R  R  A  R. 

pursuit  of  his  studies,  and  in  the  instruction  of  his  sister^s 
children.  But  his  tutor,  Mr.  Lindsell,  Mr.  Ruggle  (au^ 
thor  of  the  Latin  comedy  called  Ignoramus),  and  others  of 
the  fellows,  having  now  apprehension  of  his  health,  carried 
him  to  Dr.  Butler,  the  celebrated  physician  of  Cambridge, 
who  conceived  a  great  affection  for  him,  but  finding  th6 
disorder  baffled  all  bis  skill,  could  only  recommend  a  spare 
diet  and  great  temperance;  and  upon  his  relapsing,  in 
llie  autumn  of  1612,  the  doctor  prescribed  as  the  last  re-^ 
medy,  that  in  the  spring  he  should  1;raTeI. 

He  was  now  almost  of  seven  years*  standing  in  the  uni;^ 
versity,  and  Was  to  take  his  master^s  degree  at  the  ensuing 
Midsummer,  1613,  and  he  had  already  performed  with 
credit  all  his  previous  exercises.  It  being  made  knowp  to 
die  heads  of  tlie  university  that  he  Was  to  travel,  and  to 
have  the  opportunity  of  going  with  that  noble  company 
which  then  went  with  the  lady  Elizabeth  to  conduct  her  to 
the  Palatinate^  with  the  Palsgrave  her  husband,  his  de- 
gree was  immediately  granted  ;  and  bavii^g  set  out  in  the 
retinue  of  the  lady  Elizabeth,  he  accompanied  her  to  Hol- 
land. But  inclining  to  pursue  a  different  route,  betook 
le^ave  of  her  royal  highness  there,  and  visited  most  of  the 
German  universities,  at  some  of  which  he  studied  a  eon- 
siderable  time,  and  at  them  and  other  parts  of  Europe,  he 
spent  five  years,  returning  home  in  1618,  being  then 
twenty *six  years  of  age,  and  highly  improved  and  accom* 
plished  by  his  travels.  During  this  long  residence  abroad 
be  had  purchased  many  rare  articles  of  curiosity,  scarce 
and  valuable  books,  and  learned  treatises  in  the  language 
of  those  different  countries ;  in  collecting  which  he  cer- 
tainly had  a  principal  eye  to  those  which  treated  the  sub- 
jects of  a  spiritual  life,  devotion,  and  religious  retirement 
He  bought  also  a  great  number  of  prints,  engraved  by 
the  best  masters  of  that  time,  relative  to  historical  pas- 
sages of  the  Old  and  N'ew  Testament ;  all  which,  upon  his 
return  home,  he  had  the  satisfaction  to  find  were  safely 
arrived  there  before  him,  but  very  little  of  this  treasure  is 
now  remaining.  The  Ferrar  family  being  firm  in  their 
loyalty  to  the  king,  their  house  at  Gidding  was  plundered 
in  the  civil  wdrs ;  and,  in  a  wanton  devastation,  all  these 
things  perished,  except  some  of  the  prints,  not  of  great 
value,  which  were  in  the  possession  of  the  editor  of  Mr. 
Ferrar's  life,  the  late  Dr.  Peckard.      . 

f  £  R  R  A  R.  ass 

r  Soon  after  Mr.  Ferraris  return,  sir  Edwya  Sandys,  who 
Bad  heard  a  high  character  of  him  from  many  who  ha4 
known  him  in  Italy,  sought  his  acquaintance ;  and,  being 
exceedingly  taken  with  his  great  abiUties,  took  the  first 
opportunity  to  make  him  known  to  the  earl  of  Southampton^ 
and  the  other  principal  members  of  the  Virginia  company. 
In  a  very  little  time  he  was  made  one  of  a  particular  com- 
mittee in  some  business  of  great  importance ;  whereby  thd 
company  having  sufficient  proof  of  hb  extraordinary  abi- 
Uties, at  general  court  it  was  proposed  and  agreed 
that  he  should  be  king's  counsel  for  the  Virginia  plantation 
in  the  room  of  his  brother  John,  who  was  thQo  made  the 
deputy  governor,  And  when  his  name,  according  to  cus- 
tom, was  entered  in  the  lord  chamberlain's  book,  sir  £d« 
wyn  Sandys  took  care  to  acquaint  that  lord  with  his  yn- 
common  worth ;  which,  indeed,  daily  more  and  more  ap*- 
peared  ia  every  thing  he  undertook :  and  as  he  wanted  no 
ability,  so  he  spared  no  diligence  in  ordering  all  their  af- 
fairs of  consequenceji  and  thus  becan^  deeply  engaged  in 
cares  of  a  public  nat^re•  Yet  his  own  inclinatiops  at  his 
return  led  him  rather  to  think  of  settling  himself  agahi  at 
Cambridge,  to  which  he  was  the  more  induced  as  he  still 
held  the  physic  fellowship  in  Clare*hall.  But  this  he  now 
saw  could  not  be  done ;  and  besides,  bis  parents,  no|r 
grown  old,  requested  their  beloved  son  to  remain  with 
tbem.  Therefore  all  he  could  obtain  in  this  respect  from 
them>  and  from  his  business,  was  the  liberty  now  and  then 
to  pass  a  few  days  with  his  old  acquaintance  and  friends 
still  remaininor  in  Cambridge. 

His  transactions  while  connected  with  the  Virginia  com- 
pany,, occupy  a  very  large  portion  of  his  life  published  bj 
Dr.  Peckard,  but  will  not  now  be  thought  tlie  most  interest- 
ing part  of  it.  The'reputation,  however,  vvrhich  he  had  ac- 
quired, as  a  man  of  business,  was  such,  that  after  the  Vir- 
ginia company  had  been  dissolved,  he  was  in  1624,  chosen 
member  of  parliament.  He  must,  however,  have  sat  a 
very  short  time, '  as  he  began  soon  to  put  in  execution  his 
scheme  of  retiring  from  the  world,  and  leading  a  monastic 
life  in  the  heart  of  a  projtestant  country.  For  this  purpose, 
in  the  last  mentioned  year,  he  purchased,  the  lordship  of 
Little- Gidding,  in  the  county  of  Huntingdon,  where,  his 
mother,  his  sister  Mrs.  Collet,  with  all  her  family,  and 
other  relations  to  the  amount  of  forty  persons,  came  to 
Reside  as  soon  as  it  could  be  prepared  for  their  reception. 

f24  F  E  R  R  A  R, 

The  better  to  carry  on  this  plan,  by  his  persoifal  assistance, 
Mr.  Ferrar  applied  to  Dr.  Laud,  then  bishop  of  St.  David's, 
and  was  ordained  deacon.  On  this,  some  of  his  noble 
friends,  not  knowing  his  intention,  offered  him  prefer- 
ments in  the  church,  but  these  he  declined,  as  being  un« 
worthy  to  receive  them,  and  informed  his  friends  that  .he 
had  taken  deacon's  orders  only  that  he  might  be  legally 
authorised  to  give  spiritual  assistance  to  those  with  whom 
be  might  be  concerned. 

In  the  establishment  he  now  formed,  one  useful  branch 
was  a  school  for  the  education  of  the  children  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood, free  of  expence.  In  this  part  of  his  plan  there 
was  nothing  remarkably  different  from  the  exercises  that 
were  customary  in  those  days  in  other  schools,  except, 
perhaps,  a  higher  degree  of  strictness  and  ceremony.  In 
other  respects  the  reader  will  perhaps  think  there  was 
ceremony  enough,  from  perusing  the  following  specimens 
of  Mr.  Ferrar's  domestic  plan. 

On  the  first  Sunday  of  every  month  they  always  had  a 
communion,  which  was  administered  by  the  clergyman  of 
the  adjoining  parish ;  Mr.  Nicholas  Ferrar  assisting  as 
deacon.  All  the  servants  who  then  received  the  commu* 
nion,  when  dinner  was  brought  iip,  remained  in  the  room, 
.  and  on  that  day  dined  at  the  same  table  with  Mrs.  Ferrar 
and  the  rest  of  the  family.  When  their  early  devotions 
in  the  oratory  were  finished,  they  proceeded  to  church  in 
the  following  order :  First,  the  three  school-masters,  in 
4>lack  gowns  and  Monmouth  caps.  Then,  Mrs.  Ferrar's 
grandsons,  clad  in  the  same  manner,  two  and  two.  Then, 
her  son  Mr.  John  Ferrar,  and  her  son-in-law  Mr.  Collet, 
in  the  same  dress.  Then,  Mr.  Nicholas  Ferrar,  in  surplice, 
hood,  and  square  cap,  sometimes  leading  his  mother.  Then 
Mrs.  Collet,  and  all  her  daughters,  two  and  two.  Then  all  th& 
servants,  two  and  two.  The  dress  of  all  was  uniform.  Then, 
on  Sundays,  all  the  Psalm  children,  two  and  two,  or  chil- 
dren who  were  taught  to  repeat  the  Psalms  from  memory. 

As  they,  came  inco  the  church,  every  person  made  a  lo^** 
obeisance,  and  all  took  their  appointed  places.  The  mas- 
ters and  gentlemen  in  the  chancel;  the  youths  knelt  on 
the  upper  step  of  the  half-pace ;  Mrs.  Ferrar,  her  daughters, 
and  all  her  .grand-daughters,  in  a  fair  island  se&t.  Mr. 
Nicholas  Ferrar  at  coming  in  made  a  low  obeisance ;  a  few 
paces  farther,  a  lower  ;  and  at  the  half-pace  a  lower  still'; 
then. went  into  the  reading;-desk,  and  re^d  thQ  morning  * 

t*  £  li  R  A  ft.  Qi$ 

fti^vlce  aecordimg  to  the  book  of  Comnum  Prayer.    Thld 
service  over,  they  returned  in  the  same  order^  and  with 
the  saitie  solemnity.     This  ceremooiad  was  r^utarty  ob-^ 
served  every  Sunday,  and  that  on  every  common  day  was 
nearly  the  same*     They  rose  at  four ;  at  five  went  to  the 
oratory  to  prayers ;  hi  six,  said  tke  Psalms  of  the  hour  | 
for  every  hour  had  its  appointed  Psalms,  with  some  poftiotf 
of  the  Gospel,  till  Mr.  Ferrar  had  finished  bis  Coneordanoe^ 
when  a  chapter  of  that  work  was  substituted  in  place  of 
the  pottion  of  the  Gospel     Then  they  sang  a  short  ^ymti, 
repeated  some  passages  of  scripture,  and  at  half  past  six 
went  to  church  to  mattins.     At  seven  said  the  Psalms  of 
the  hour,  sang  the  short  hymn,  and  went  to  breakfast. 
Then  th^  young  people  repaii*ed  to  their  tespeciive  places 
of  instruction.     At  ten,    to  church  to    the   Litany.     At 
eleven  to  dinner.     At  which  season  were  regular  readingd 
in  rotation  from  scripture,  from  the  Bo(kk  of  Martyrs,  and 
from  short  histories  .drawn  up  by  Mr.  Ferrar,  and  adapted 
to  the  purpose  of  moral  instruction.     Recreation  was  per-^ 
mitted  till  one ;  instruction  was  Continued  till  three ;  church 
at  four,  for  evensong ;  supper  at  five,  or  sometimes  six ; 
diversions  till  eight.     Than  prayers  in  the  oratory :  and 
afterwards  all  retired  to  their  respective  apartments.    To 
preserve  regularity  in  point  of  time,  Mr.  Ferrar  invented 
dials  in  pjainted  glass  in  every  room  :  he  bad  also  sun^-dialsy 
elegantly  painted  with  proper  mottos,  on  every  side  of  the 
churchy  and  he  provided  an  excellent  clock  to  a  sonorous 

Four  of  Mr.  Collet's  eldest  daughters  being  grown  up  tci 

woman's  estate,  to  perfect  them  in  the  practice  of  good 

housewifery,  Mr.  Ferrar  appointed  them,  in  rotation,  to 

take  the  whole  charge  of  the  domestic  cfeconomy.     JEach 

bad  this  care  for  a  month,  when  her  accounts  were  regu* 

larly  passed,  allowed,  and  delivered  over  to  the  next  in 

succession.     There  was  also  the  same  care  and  regularity 

required  with  respect  to  the  surgeon's  chest,  and  the  due 

provision  of  medicines,  and  all  things  necessary  for  those 

who  were  sick,  or  hurt  by  any  misfortune.     A  convenient 

apartment  was  provided  for  those  of  the  fam^ily  who  chanced 

to  be  indisposed,  called  the  infirmary,  where  they  might 

be  attended,  and  properly  taken  care  of,  without  distur* 

banco  from  any  part  of  the  numerous  family.     A  large 

room  was  also  set  apart  for  the  reception  of  the  medicines^ 

and  of  those  who  were  brought  in  sick  or  hurt,  and  wantsad 

vo^.  XIV-  a 

2J4  F  E  R  R  A  R. 

imq^^diate  assistance.  The  yodug  liidies  were  requifred  to 
dress  the  wounds  of  those  who  were  hurt,  in  order  to  give 
them  readiness  and  skill  in  this  employment,  and  to  ha- 
bituate them  to  the  rirtues  of  humility  and  tenderness  of 
heart*  The  office  relative  to  pharmacy,  the  weekly 
inspection,  the  prescription,  and  administration  of  medi-' 
cines,  Mr.  Ferrar  reserved  to  himself,  being  an  excellent 
physician ;  as  he  had  for  many  years  attentively  studied 
the  theory  and  practice  of  medicine,  both  when  physic 
fellow  at  Clare  Hall,  and  under  the  celebrated  profesrsors  at' 
Padua.  In  this  way  was  a  considerable  part  of  their  in- 
eorpe  disposed  of. 

In  f}rder  to  give  some  variety  to  this  system  of  education, 
he  formed  the  ^family  into  a  sort  of  collegiate  institution, 
of  which  one  was  considered  as  the  founder,  another  guar- 
dian, a  third  as  ^moderator,  and  himself  as  visitor  of  this 
little  academy:     The  seven  virgin  daughters,  his  nieces, 
formed  the  junior  part  of  this  society,  were  called  the 
sist&rs,  and  assumed  the  names  of,   1st,  the  chief;  2d.  the 
patient ;  3d,  the  cbearful ;  4th,  the  affectionate ;  5th,  the 
8u);)miss ;  6ih,  the  obedient;  7th,  the  moderate.     These 
all  h^d  their  respective  characters  t^o  sustain,  and  exercises 
to  perform  suited  to  those  characters.     For  the  Christmas 
season  of  1631  he  composed  twelve  excellent  discourses, 
five  suited  to  the   festivals. within  the  twelve   days,  and 
seven  to  the  assumed  name  and  character  of  the  sisters. 
These  weri^  enlivened  by  hymns  and  odes  composed  by  Mr. 
Ferrar,  and  set  to  music  by  the  music-master  of  the  family, 
who  accompanied  the  voices. with  the  viol  or  the  lute* 

We  shall  notice  only  one  other  part  of  this  strange  sys-' 
tern,  which  was  their  nightly  watcbings.    It  was  agreed  that 
there  should  be  a  constant  double  night.-^ watch,  of  men  at 
one  end  of  the  house,  and  of  women  at  the  other.     That 
each  v\^.tch  should  consist  of  two  or  more  persons.     That 
the  watcbings  should  begin  at  nine  o'clock  at  night,  and 
end.  at  one  in  the.  morning.     I'hat  each  watch  should,*  in 
those  fovr  hours,  carefully  aud   distinctly  «ay   over   the 
whole  book  of  Psalms,  in  the  way  of  Aiitiphony,  one  re- 
peating one  verse,    and  the  rest  the  other.     That   they 
should  then  pray  for  the  life'of  the  kiug  and.his  sons.     The 
time  of  their  watch  being,  ended,  they  went  to  Mr.  Ferraris 
door,  ba,de   him  ,good*morrow,  and  left  a  lighted  candle 
for  him.     At  one  he  constantly  rose,  and  betodk  himself  lo 
religipus  meditatipOy  founding  this  practice <ou  the  passage, 

JF  RE  E  A  R.  22* 

^^  At  ,nyidnight  will  I  rise  and  give  thanks*/'  and  sonfe 
^ther  passages  of  similar  import.  Several  religious  per* 
sons,  both  ia  the  neigbbourhaod^  and  from  distaiyt  places^ 
attended  these  watchings ;  and .  amongst  these  the  oele* 
bratecl  Mr.  Richard  Crasbaw^  fellow  of  Peterhouse,  who. 
was  very  intimate  in  the  family,  and  frequently  came  from 
Cambridge  for  this  purpose,  and  at  his  return  often  watched 
in  Little  St.  Mary's  church,  near  Peterhouse.  It  is  some- 
whac  more  singular  that  a  late  worthy  prelate.  Dr.  Horhe; 
has  given  bis  sanction^  if  not  to  the  severity,  at  least  to  a 
moderate  observation^  of  this  mode  of  psalmody^  in  the 
following  words^  on  a  part  of  his  commentary  on  the  I34th 
Psaim  : 

.  **  Bless  ye  the  Lord,  all  y^  servants  of  the  Lord,  who 
bi/  night  stand  in  the  house  of  the  Lord.  Bless  him  in  the 
diearful  and  busy  hours  of  the  day  :  bless  him  in  the  so* 
lemn  and  f^aceful  watches  of  the  night.'* 

"  The  pious  Mr,  Nicholas  Ferrar  exhibited  in  the  last 
century  an  inst|ince  of  a  Protestant  family,  in  which' a  con- 
stant, course  of  Psalmody  was  appointed,  and  so  strictly 
kept  up,  that,  through,  the  whole  four  and  twenty  hours  of 
day  and  night,  tliere  was  no  portion  of  time  when  some  of 
the  chembers  were  not  employed  in  the  performing  that 
most  pleasant  part  of  duty  ancl  devotion." 

This  extraordinary  course  of  life  pursued  at  Gidding^' 
the  {Strictness  of  their  rules,  their  prriyers,  literally  with- 
out ceusing,  their  abstinence,  qnortiflcations,  nightly  watch-^- 
ings,  and  various  other  peculiarities^  gave  birth  to  censure 
in  sooae,  and  inflamed  the  inalevolence  of  others,  but  ex^ 
cited  the  wonder  and  curiosity  of  alL  So  that  they  were 
frequently  visited  with  different  views  by  persons  of  all 
denominations,  and  of  opposite  opinions.  They  received 
3^\  who  came  with  courteous  civility ;  and  from^  those  whd 
were  inquisitive. they  concealed  nothing,  as  indeed  there 
was'  not  any  thing  either  in  their  opinions^  or  their  prac* 
tice,  in  the  least  degree  necessary  to  be  concealed.  Not- 
withstanding this,  they  were  by  some  abused  as  Papists^ 
by  others  as  Puritans.  Mr.  Ferrar  himself,  though  pos- 
sessed of  Mncomn>on  patience  and  resignation,  yet  in  an^ 
guisb  of  spirit  complained  to  his  friends,  that  the  perpetual 
obloquy  he  endured  wa&  a  sort  of  unceasing  marty)*dom« 
Added  to.all.this^  vicflent  inve<^tives  and  inflammatory  pam^ 
phlets  were  published,  against  them.  Amongst  others,  not 
lopg  after  Mr.  Ferrar's  deaths  a  treatise  was  addressed  to 

*   Q    2  '  .    ; 

iii  F  £  R  It  Ar  R 

the  parlmment,  entitled,  '^  The  ^  Arnliiiian  Nunnery,  <ir  jkv 
brief  description  and  relation  of  the  late  erected  monasticat 
place,  called  the  Arminian  Nunnery  at  LHtW  Gidding  iti 
Huntingdottsbire :  humbly  addressed  to  the  vri^e  consider^ 
ation  of  the  present  parliament.  The  foundation  is  by  a 
company  of  Ferrars  at  Gidding/*  printed  by  Thomas  Un^ 
derhill,  1641. 

-  Among  other  articles  of  instruction  and  amusement  in 
this  monastery,  Mr.  Ferrar  engaged  a  bookbinder  who 
taught  his  art  to  the  whole  ftimify,  females  as  well  as  males, 
and  what  they  called  pksting- printing,  by  the  use  of  the 
rolling-press.  By  this  assistance  be  composed  afult  har- 
mony or  concordance  of  the  evangelists,  adorned  with 
many  beiautiful  pictures,  which  required  more  than  a  year 
)br  the  composition,  and  was  divided  into  150  heads  or 
chapters.  This  book  was  so  neatly  done  by  pi^des  pasted 
tosether  from  different  copies  of  tbe  same  type,  as  to 
have  the  appearahce'of  having  been  printed  in  the  ordinary 
way.  The  employment  of  the  monks,  in  transcribing 
books;  before  the  »ra  of  printing,  muftt  h^e  surely  gi^ren 
rise  ta  such  a  waste  of  time,  as  any  printing-press  could 
have  executed  in  a  month,  what  cost  a  year's  labour  in  this 
patch-work  way.  The  book,  however,  was  so  much  ad« 
mired  that  tbe  king  desired  to  see  it,  and  bad  another 
made  like  it,  which,  we  are  told,  was  bound  by  Mary  Col^ 
lett,  one  of  Ferraris  nieces,  **  all  wrought  in  gold,  io  a 
new  and  most  elegant  fashion." 

How  long  this  strange  institution  might  have  lasted,  if 
left  to  itself,  cannot  be  as<iertained.  In  1 635  old  Mrs.  Fer- 
rar, who  was  a  sort  of  lady  abbess,  died,  and  her  son,  the 
IFounder,  on  Dec.  2,  1637.  The  third  dny  before  his  death^ 
he  ordered  a  place  to  be  marked  out  for  his  grave,  and 
being  tpid  that  the  place  was  accordingly  marked,  he  re-* 
quested  bis  brother,  before  all  the  family,  to  take  out  of 
his  study  three  large  hampers  full  of  hooks,  which  bad 
been  there  locked  up  many  years;  and  &aid,  "  They  wc 
comedies,  tragedies,  heroic  poems,  and  romances ;  let  them 
be  immediately  burnt  upon  tbe  plaee  marked  out  for  my 
grave,  *and  when  you  shall  have  so  done,  come  back  and 
isform  me.''  When  information  was  brought  him  that  they 
were  all  consumed,  he  desired  that  this  act  might  be  con-« 
sidered  as  the  testinlony  of  his  disapprobation  of  all  soeh 
productions,  as  tending  to  corrapt  the  mind  9f  man,  «itid 
improper  for  the  pem$ai  of  every  good. and  sincere  Chris-^ 

F  E  R  R  A  R.  Q2fi 

-.  ikxin  after  bis  death,  c(»rlain  soldierg  of  the  porUaiqent 
feaaired  lo  plmider  the  house  at  Giddiug.  The  family 
being  uifbn»ed  of  their  hasty  approach,  thought  it  prudent 
tErfly;  while  these  fmlitary  zealotSf  ia  the  rage  of  wl^t 
the3r::caUed  reformtttioDy  ransacked  both  the  church  snd 
the  house ;  in  doisg  orbicfa,  they  expressed  a  particular 
SfMte  against  the  organ.  This  they  broke  in  pieces,  of 
wbidi  tiiey  made  a  large  lire,  and  at  it  roasted  several  of 
Mr.  Ferrar's  sheep,  which  they  had  kilted,  in  his  grounds. 
This  .done,  ithey  seised  ail  the  plate,  fumittire,  and  provi* 
sion,  wfasob  they  could  conveniently  carry  away.  And  ia 
this  general  devastation  perished  the  works  which  Mr.  Fer- 
rar  bad  compiled  for  the  use  of  his  household,  in  the  way 
we  ha!^  alre«ly  described,  coDsasting  chiefly  of  harmonies 
of  Abe  Old  and  New  Testament. 

The  life  of  this  extraordinary,  and  in  most  respects, 
amsabfeman,  will  be  considered  in  di£Seren,t  lights  accord- 
ing to  the  views  and  objects  of  tbe  reader.  His  ear)y 
abilities,  his  travels,  and  the  attention  deservedly  paid  to 
his  very  mignlltr  talents  and  acquisitions  at  a  period  when 
the  powers  of  tbe  mind  ate  scarcely  matured,  will  excite 
our  respect  and  admiration.  .His  very  active  and  ableeon- 
duct  in  support  <^  the  Virginia  tompany,  realizes  tbe  ex- 
pectations which  his  earlier  aUlities  bad  raised,  and  dis^ 
>plays  a  scene  in  wliicb  we  must  equally  admire  his  spirit, 
temper,  and  judgment.  To  see  openings  so  brilliant,  ta« 
lents  so  varied  and  useful,  knowledge  of  such  importance, 
buried  in  a  cloisier,  disappoints  the  eager  hopes,  and  leads 
us  to  indulge  a  spirit  of  invecti^  against  iastitutions,  once 
perhaps  defensible,  but  in  a  better  aura  of  reiinemeat  at 
least  '^  useless,"  and  often  unjust  to  society;  His  biogra- 
pher. Dr.  Peckard,  seemed  indignant  at  the  appellation  of 
*'  useless  enthusiast,"  which  Mr.  Gougb  applied  in  b|s 
British  Topography;  and  that  eaMuent  antiquary  afterwards 
allowed  that  it  was  certainly  unjust  so  fyx  as  regarded 
|lie  institution  at  Uttle  Gidding ;  for  to  assist  their  neigh- 
bours in  medicine,  in  advice,  and  in  every  thing  in  their^ 
power,  was  one  of  their  objects.  Bat  he  asks  if  the 
charge  of  enthusiasm  was  not  well  founded,  and  if  in  a 
aomparative  view  **  useless,**  was  a  term  wholly  improper? 
To  give  medicine  oocaaionally^  to  advise,  or  bestow  alms, 
within  a  limited  circle,  were  not  the  sufficient  employ- 
ments of  a  mind  equally  able  and  comprebeusive,  stored 
with  the  wisdom  of  antiquity,  experienced  in  business. 

230  F  E  R  R  A  R. 

and  matured  by  travel  and  exefeito.-  In  the  tray  in  which 
tib  devotional  exercises  were  conduot^d,  we  mutt  perhaps 
find  something  to  blame.  His  too  literal  interpretation  of 
some  passages  in  scripture^  which  Mi  him  to  rise  at  on^ 
in  the  morning,  mast  not  only  hav^  been  ultimately  inju-' 
rious  to  his  own  constitution^  but^.by  deprivihg.tfaecbnsti^ 
tution  of  repbse  at  the  time  best  and  most  naturaj^iy  adapted 
to  it,  must  have  rendered  the  body  >and  mind  less  fit  for 
tliose  social. duties  which  ace  the  great  objects  of  oar  63^- 
i^tence/  The  frequent  watchings  of  the  rest  of  the  family 
were  equally  exceptionable,  and  the  cerensonies  which  be 
used  only  as  marks  of  reverence  iDight  be  interpreted  by  bis 
weaker  dependents  as  sigps  of  adoration*  Iti  is  the  broken 
and  the  contrite  heart,  not  the  frequentiy^bentlraiee,  that 
God  seems  to  require  :  it  is  the  bowing  downrof  the  spkife, 
rather  than  the  body,  that  he  will  tiot  despise,  lifwe 
look  at  the  result  of  this  retirement,  the  works  fooolpcised 
b^.Mr.  Ferrar,  we  shall  find  notbingf.  very  advantagedus  to 
jtbe.  credit  of  this  i^istitution.  ,    .  <  c  ■ 

.  The  only  publication  by  Mr.  Ferrar,  bit  without'  bis 
<liame>  .was  a  translation  from  Valdesso,  eiltitled  ^-^  The 
l^umked;  and  ten  Considerations,  >&c.  written  in  Spanish, 
i>^ ought  out  of  Italy  by  Verg^rius,  and  first  set  foircbin 
J^^li^n,'.  at  Basil  by  Ca&lius  Secundiis -Curio, -1^50.  After* 
wards  translated  into  Srencb,  and  printed  at  Lyons, .  1563, 
and  again  at  Paris,  \5l^5.  ^nd  how  translated  out  of  the 
Italian  into  English,  with  notes.  <  Whereunto  is?  added  a 
preface  of  the  author's  to  his  Commentary- on  fhadR,6mans, 
Oxford,  printed  by  Litchfield,  1638."*      .*   •  -     -'   ; 

FERRAR  (Robert),  the  martyred  bisiiop  of  St;r^David's 
in  the  sixteenth  century,* Was  an  ancestor  of  the 'preceding, 
^nd  bom  in  UalifaK  parish,  Yoikshire,  probabl^  at  Ewood, 
He  beclime,  when  a  young  man,  a  paiion  regular  of  the 
order  of  St,  Austin^  but  in  what  priory  or  abbey  is  urtc^r*^ 
tain.  Having  parUy  received  his  academical  education* tn 
Cambridge,  he  retired  to  a  nursery^  for  the  canoiSs  of  St. 
Austin,  at  Oxford,  called  St.  Mary VcoHege  (where  .Eras^ 
mus  had  before  studied),  and  here  we  fit^.*him  in  1526, 
find  also  in  Oct.  153$,  when  as  a  member  of  the  said  cot-r 
lege,  he  was  admitted  to  th6  reading  of  the  sentences^ 
having  a  little  before  been  opponent- in  divinity.     About 

. '.    . 

^  Life  by  Packard,  1790,  8vp.— Life .  compUjed  by  Mr*  Goii^b  for  t(te  si3(t^ 
volume  of  ^be  Biograpbia  Britaunica. 

F  £  R  R  A  R.  ^3i 

the  same  time  he  became  chaj^lain  to  arohbisbop  Cran* 
aier,  after  whose  example  be  married,  a  practice  at  that 
time  disallowed  among  the  popish  clergy,  and  in  the  time 
oi  queen  Mary,  made  the  ground  of  a  criminal  charge. 
Dodd,  who  treats  him  with  more  respect  tllan  some  pro« 
testant  biographers,  adof)ts  from  Wood  the  account,  thiai 
he  was  among  the  first  iof  the  university  of  Oxford  that  re<^ 
cetTeda  tincture  of  Luflheranism,  in  which  he  was  coti^ 
firmed  by  Thomas  Garret,  curate  of  Honey-lane  in  Lon^ 
don,  who  provided  hirii  vMth  books  for  that  purpose,  and 
that  in  the  year  above'-mentioned  he  was  chosen  prior  of  d 
monastery  of  his  order,  called  Nostel,  or  St.  Oswald^s,  in 
Yorkshire,  which  be  surrendered  to  the  commissioners  upoii^ 
the  dissolution  in  1 540^  being  gratified  with  a  pension  of 
lOOL  per  annum. 

This  pension  he  enjoyed  until  his  promotion  tp  the  see 
of  St.  David^s,  to  which  he  was  consecrated  Sept.  ^,  1548.'* 
He  was  tbe  first  bishop  consecrated  upon  the  bare  noinina-^ 
lion  of  the  king,  according  to  the  statute  which  for  that 
purpose  was  published  in  the  first  year  of  his  (Edward  VI J 
reign.  He  bad  just  before  been  one  of  the  king's  visitors 
in  a  royal  visitation,  and  was  atthejsame  time  appointed 
one  of  the  preachers  for  bis  great  ability  in  that  faculty. 
As  a  bishop,  Browne  Willis  says,  he  became  a  most  miser- 
able dilapidator,  yielding  up  every. thing  to  craving  cottr«^ 
tiers^  and  Wood  speaks  of  him  with  all  the  rancour  of  a 
disciple  of  Gardiner.  The  fact,  however,  seems  to  be  that 
when  he  first  visited  bis  diocese,  he  found,  among  other 
corruptions  and  dilapidations,*  that  Thomas  Young,  the 
chaunter  (afterwards  archbishop  of  York),  had  pulled  down 
the  great  ball  in  (the  palace  for  the  sake  of  the  lead,  which  he 
Aold,  and  that  he  and  Rowland  Merick,  one  of  the  canons,  and' 
afterwards  bishop  of  St  David's,  bad  stripped  the  cathedral 
of  plate  and  ornaments,  which  they  likewise  sold  for  their 
own  benefit.  On  this  Dr.  Ferrar  issued  out  his  commission 
to  hi9  chancellor  for  visiting  the  chapter,  as  well  as  the 
riest  of  the  diocese,  and  a  mistake  in  the  drawing  up  of  this 
commission  appears  to  have  given  the  bishop's  enemies  the 
first  advantage  they  had  over  him.  The  chancellor,  to 
whom  he  left  the  form  of  it,  drew  it  up  in  the  old  popish 
words,  in.  which  the  king's  supremacy  was  not  sufficiently 
acknowledged,  although  the  bishop  professed  to  Visit  in 
the  king's  name  and  authority.  This,  Young  and  Merick, 
with  the  bishop's  register^  George  Constantine,  whotti  he 

A^  ;  E  K  R  A  It. 

Jiad  promotecl^  availed  tbemsel^^'ofy  loot  only  to  resist  die 
4Cioinniissioii,  but  to  accuse  the  biftbop  of  a  pnemumreu 
The  prosecution  coo^equeut  on  this,  prerentiDg  bim  from 
paying,  the  tenths  and  first-fruita,  aflbrded  tbein  another 
advantage,  a#d  be  was  imprisoned.  They  also  exhibited 
^fty-six  articles  and  in£(>ra)ations  ag^uinst  him»  of  the  most 
frivolous  ipnd,  all  which  be  fully  anaiwered;  but  ihe  debt 
to  the  crowffi  remaining  unpaid,  be  :w&s  de/taiiied  iotprisoa 
tJMiitil  queen  Mary^s  reign,  wbeq  he  was  atlacked  on  the 
^pre  of  l;^*e$y,  md  on  Feb*  4y  155^^  was  brought,  ia 
<pompany  with  Hooper^  Bradford,  and  other  martyrs,  be^* 
fore  Gardiner,  bishop  of  Winchester,  who»  .after  treating 
)iim  with  brutal  contempt,  sient.  him  on  the  14th  of  the 
sanie  month  to  bis.  diocese,  where  be  \ms  to  be  tiied  by 
his  successor,  Morgan,  whose  interest  it  was  that  he  should 
be  condemned.  I'he  principal  charges  against  htm  were, 
his  allowing  the  marriage  of  priests,  denying  the  corporal 
presence  in  the  sacrament,  affirming  that  the  mass  is  not 
a  sacrifice  propitiatory  for  the  quick  and  dead,  declaring 
that  the  ho^t  ought  not  to  be  elevated  or  adored,  and  asasrt^ 
ing  that  man  is  justified  by  faith  alone.     All  these  Morgan 

{pronounced  to  be  damnable  heresies,  degraded  Dr.  Ferrar 
rom  his  ecclesiastical  functions,/  aod  delivered  biin  to  the 
secular  powen  In  consequence  of  this  seatence,  he  waa 
burned  at  Carmarthen,  on  the  south  side  of  the  market*" 
cross,  March  30;  1555.  It  was  remarkable,  that  one  Jones 
coming  to  the  bishop  a  little  before  his  execution,  lamented 
the  painfulnes$  of  the  death  he  had  to  suffer;  but  was  an- 
swered, that  if  be  once  saw  bim  stir  in  the  pains,  of  his 
bmning,  be  should  th^n  give  no  credit  to  his  dofCtrioe, 
And  what  be  said  he.  fully  performed,  forsibe  stood  pa** 
Uently,  and  never  moved,  till  he  was  beat  down  with  a^ 
^itafF.  •  . 

.  His  character,  as  we  have  already  intimated,,  has  beeiv 
differiently  represented,  bishop  Godwin  asserting  that  his 
ruin  was  owing  to  his  own  rigjd,  rough  behaviour;  but 
FoK  seems  clearly  of  opinion  that  the  fii*^  prosecution 
against  him  was  unnecessary  and  malicious,  and  that  iha 
second  was  commenced  because  he  was  aprotestant.  It  is 
certain  that  many  of  the  fifty^six  articles  which  he  was  put 
to  answer  in  the  reign  of  Edward  YI.  were  to  the  last  de« 
gre^  frivolous,  and  showed  themselves  to  be  the  offspring 
of  a  revengeful  mind ;  such  as  riding  a  Scotch  pad,  with  a 
bridle  «^ith  white  studs  and  aoa^e,  white  ^cotoh  stirrups^ 

F  ERR  ah;  sift 

ind  white  spurs — wearing  a  hat  instead  of  a  cap-^whistlipff 
to  bis  child — laying  the  blame  of  the  scarcity  of  herrings 
to  the  covetousne^s  of  fishers,  who  in  time  of  plenty,  took 
•o  many  that  they  destroyed  the  breeders  ;  an^^  lastly  wisb- 
ii^,  that  at  the  alteration  of  the  coin,  whatever  metal  it 
watj  made  of,  the  pennj^  should  be  in  wei|;ht  worth  a  penriy 
of  the  same  metal,  ft  is  also  to  be  noticed  that  the  fall  of 
the  doke  of  Somerset,  then  lord  protector,  to  whom  he 
was  chaplain,  seems  to  haf e  exposed  him  to  the  resent- 
ment of  his  enemies. 

According  to  Burnetj  bishop  Ferrarwas  one  of  the  com- 
mittee nominated  to  compile  the  English  liturgy,  but  his 
name  does  not  bccur  among  tliose  who  compiled  the  new 
liturgy  in  1547,  and  therefore  Burnet  probably  means  that 
he  was  otie  of  those  appointed  to  correct  the  liturgy  in  the 
time  of  Henry  VIII.  in  1540.  It  is  more  certain  that  he 
acqaiesCi^d  in  the  brief  confession  of  faith,  in  conjunction 
with  othei*  protestant  bishops  ai^d  martyrs  imprisoned  in 
London,^  which  was  signed  May  S,  1554/ by  Feri*ar,  Tay- 
lor, Philpot,  Bradford,  Hooper,  &c.  &c.  Mr.  Butler,  in 
his  eaccellent  life  of  bishop  Hildesley,  enumerates  our  ptel 
late  among  the  bishops  of  Sodor  and  Mann,  to  which,  acr 
cording  to  that  account,  he  must  have  been  preferred-  in 
154%  and  resigned  it  some  time  before  Jan.  1546. ' 

FERRARI  (Octavian),  an  Italian  author,  was  bom  of  i 
noble  femfly  at  Milan  in  1518.  After  he  had  studied  po- 
lite leatntng,  philosophy,  and  physic,  in  the  universities 
of  Italy,  he  was  chosen  professor  of  ethics  and  politics,  in 
the  college  founded  by  Paul  Canobio  at  his  instigation } 
and'  held  this  place  eighteen  years.  The  senate  of  Venice 
engaged  him  afterwards  to  remove  to  Padua,  where  he  e3f- 
plained  the  philosophy  of  Aristotle,  with  so  much  skill  and 
elegance,  that  Vimerat,  who  was  professor  at  Paris  under 
Francis  I.  returning  to  Italy  upon  the  death  of  that  king, 
fixed  upon  him,  preferably  to  all  others,  for  the  publica- 
tion of  his  works.  He  continued  at  Padua  four  years,  and 
then  rietnrned  to  Milan  ;  where  he  continued  to  teach  phi-t 
losophy  till  his  death,  which  happened  in  1586.  Thougl^ 
be  was  excellently  skilled  in  polite  literature,  yet  he  was 
principally   famous    for    philosopbyi    being   esteemed  a^ 

1  Fox's  Acts  and  MonumentF-— Harleian  MSS.  Ko.  420>  where  there  are  seve- 
ml  p^p^cs  reflating  to  Ferrar's  trial,  not  printed  m  Fos^-^WMtson't  HaclsfaK.— > 
Strype*8  Life  of  Cranmer,  pp.  131,  147,  183,  309,  HI,  345,  3^«<RAfth.  0«» 
vol.  I.<-*-|>oad*s  Chqrch  l|i^.^aiktr  Mag.  vol,  UCI.  p,  605. 


second  Aristot;te,  nor  was  he  less  illustrioas  for  bis  probt(|' 
than  for  his  learning: 

He  was  the  author  of  several  works;  as,  1«  ^*  De  Ser* 
„mouibus  Exot^ricis,  Venet.  1575/'  in  which  he  treats  of 
that  part  of  Aristotle's  doctrine,  which  was  intended  for  all 
$o^ts  of  people,  without  meddling  with  the  Acroamatics, 
which  were  only  for  the  use  of  his  scbolare.  This  book  was 
reprinted  at  Francfort,  1606,  with  a  new  dissertation  of 
^'  De  disciplina  Encyclica,''  under  the  genetal  title  of 
**  Clavis  Philosophias  PeripateticsB  Aristotelicse."  2.  "  D,e 
Origine  Romanoruin,"  Milan,  1607,  Though  death  pre- 
vented Ferrari  from  putting  the  last  hand  to  tins  work, 
Graevius  thought  proper  to  insert  it  in  the  first  volume  of 
his  ^^  Roman  Antiquities/'  and  added  fais^  own  corrections 
to  it  3.  He  tjcanslated  Athensus  into  Latin,  and  wrote 
some  notes  upon  Aristotle.  ^ 

FERRAHI  (Francis  Bernardine),  of  the  same  family 
with  the  foirmer,  was  born  at  Milan  about!  577.  He  ap- 
plied with  grea^  success  to  philosophy 'and  divinity,  as  well 
a,s  to  the  I^tin,  Greek,  Spanish,  and  French  languages, 
ai^4  was  admitted  a  doctor  of  the  Ambrosian  college. .  His 
vast  knowledge. of  books,  and  abilities  in  all  kinds  of  learu- 
ipg,  induped  Frederic  Borronoeo,  archbishop  of  Milan,  to 
appoint  him  to  travel  into  divers  parts  of  Europe,  in  order 
%o  purchase  the  best  books  and  manuscripts,  to  form  a  li- 
brary at  Milan.  Ferrari  accordingly  went  over  part  of  Italy 
and  Spain,  and  collected  a  great  number  of  books,  which 
.laid  the  foundation  of  the  celebrated  Ambrosian  library. 
About  1638,  h|B  was  appointed  director  of  tlje  college  of 
the  nobles,  lately  erected  at  Padua;  which. pffice  he  dis*- 
charged  two  years,  a,nd  then,  on  account  of  indispo^tion^ 
returned  to  Milan.     He  died  in  1669,  aged  92. 

He  wrote,  l.  ^^  De  Antique  Ecclesiasticarum  Epistola- 
rum  Genere,  libri  tres,"  Milan,  1613.  2.  ••  De  Ritu  Sa- 
crarum  Ecclesiae  Catholioas  concionum  libri  tres,"  Milan, 
)620,  a  curious  work,  which  was  afterwards  printed  at 
Utrecht,  1692,  with  a  preface  by  Jcflin  Gr^vius.  3.  "  De 
Yeterum  acclamationibus  et  plausu  libri  septem,"  Mil^n, 
1627,  likewise  reprinted  in  the  sixth  volume  of  Grsevius's 
**  Roman  Antiquities."  Ferrari  began  several  other  works 
upon  various  points  of  antiquity,  both  ecclesiastical  and 

1  Gen.  Dict.—MorerJ.-^KicerOD|  toIs,  V.  •fid  X»— Clmnent  Bibl.  Carieuse.-* 

FERRARI.  235 


'^profatie,  but  though  he  lived  forty*two  years  after  the  pub« 
iication  of  the  last^meutioned  book^  he  did  not  publish  any 
more.  All  his  writings  are  full  of  learning  and  curious  re«- 
searcbas  into  antiquity^  and  he  wrote- with  great  clearness 
and 'method,  judgoient  andiaccuracy,  ^  . 

F£R>RARI  (OcTAVius)>  of  the  same  family  with  the  fur^ 
mery  ^^s  born  at  Milan  <in  16&7.  He  went  dirougb  Jiiis 
studies  in  theAmbrosian  Qc^Uege,  and,  after  be  had  oqque 
pleted  a  course  of  philosophy  and.  diviiyty,  applied  himself 
entirely  to  polite  Uierature,  inf  which  he  made  so  great 
progmss,  that  cardinal  Frederic  Borrpi^ieQ  pi;ocured  him 
n  ppbfessdrsbip  of  rhetoric  in  that  college,  when  he  wa$ 
but  one  ^nd  twenty  years  old«  Si^  years  aftejr^the  re*- 
pubiic  of  Yenice  invited  him  to  Padua,  to  teach  eloquence^ 
poiHiQSjiand  the. Greek  language,  in  that  iHiiversity,  which 
w^  then  extnem^ly  la  its  decline ;  but  Ferrari  restored  it 
|S6:it9  fprmei?  flourishing  state.  ThQ  repubiic  rewardefJ  hioi 
h^y  enlarging, his. pepsion  every  six  years,  which  from  fivQ 
hundred  ducats  was  at  last  raised  to  two*  thqusand.  Aftei» 
thib  -death  of  Ripamoote,  'bis};oriographer  of  the  city  of 
•Milan,  Fenrnrirwas  appojinted  .to  write  the  history  of  that 
city  }  and  a^pen^ion  of  two  hui$drfd  crowns  was  settled  on 
^im'  for.<tli9A.  ptijrpQ^^t  H^  begaa^  and  cpmpo;^ed  eight 
books ;  but.An^ing  b^  ^puld.tujit  have  access. to, the  neces^ 
sary  materiak  in  the  archiyesof  Milan,  he  desisted,  ^n4 
]ieft  what  he  bad  done  to  bis  heir,  on  condition  that  be 
should  not  publish  it.  H^s  ifepiitation  procured  him  pre* 
seots'  and'  pensions  from  foreign  princes.  Christina  of 
Sweden,  in  whose  hoiMKir  Ue  bad  made  a  public  discourse 
npon  her  mounting  the  ithrone,  presented  him  with  a  golden 
jL'hainv  s(,Qd  honoured  bjim  with  her  letters ;  and  Louis  XIV. 
of  France  gave  him  a  pension  of  five  hundred  crowns  for 
«even  years.  He,  died  .in  1682,  aged  seventy-five*  He 
was  remarkable  for  the  sweetness,  sincerity,  and  affability 
of  bis  temper ;  and  had  so  happy  a  way  of  mitigating  per^ 
ftonsnexisfpier^^d  against.^acb.Qther,  that  he  acquired  the 
title i0f -' the  Reconciler,  or^Pacificiitor." 

Hiswork^  are,  I.  ^^  De  re  vestiaria  libri  tres,^*  Padua, 
1^49.  In  16>4<he  itdded  four  books  more  to  a  second 
edition.  2.'  ^^  Analecta  de  re  vestiaria,  sive  exercitationes 
^d  Albetti'^Rubenii  Cotnmentariumv*  de  .re  vestiaria  et  lato 
clavo.  Ajcoe^sit  Dis^rtat^o  de  veterumlucernis  sepulchral 
libus,*'  Padua,   1670.     This  was  aftervrards,  in  1685,  sub- 

^  Geo.  I>ict-->Nfceron,  voU^XXyilJi.-^^Ieaieiit  Bibl.  Carieuse.««-Saxii  OoomL 

fiSS  t  EJtR  A  R  f. 

joined  to  his  book  ^'  De  re  yestiaria/^  and  both  are  ii% 
serted  in  the  sixth  and  twelfth  books  of  GrsBvios's  ^^  Rdmaii 
Antiquities.^'  3.  ^Pallas  Sueeica ;  Panegyricus  Soeco* 
rufld  RegidsB  unperium  auspicanti  dictas.''  4.  *^  De  lau« 
dibus  Francisci  Putei.**  5.  "  Prolusiones  xxvi. — Epiatola. 
' — Formulas  ad  capienda  Doctoris  insigilia.^^ — Iniscriptiones. 
- — Panegyricus  Lodovico  Magno  Francorilm  Regi  dictiis.** 
AJl  these  little  piecasy  and  several  others  which  had  been 
printed  separately,  were  collected  and  disposed  into  propef* 
order  by  John  Fabric^ius,  wht  published  tbenv  nt  Heltnstud^ 
1710,  in  2  vols.  Sro.  6.  **^Vene(?a  Si^pientia,  seu  de  op* 
time  civhatis  statuprolusiow"  7.  **  Electorom  Hbri  dtio." 
ih  this  work  our  author  treats  of  severa)  points  of  Antiquity* 
8.  Origiiies '  LinguoB  Italicae,'*  Padusi,  1676,  folio.  Thia 
author  of  the  *•  Journal  des  S^vans,  for  April  1677^*^ 
gives  the  following  judgment  of  this  work :  ^*  Scaliger  hkA 
before  treated  of  this  subject,  in  twenty-four  books^  which 
are  unfortunately  lo^t    Though  Ferrari  has  not  taken  si> 

f' reat  an  extent,  yet  we'find  a  grefat  deal  6f  learning  ia 
iniw  But  he  appears  so  jealous  of  the  language  or  his 
country,  that  he  tbkiks  every  bther  'origin,  but  what  be 
gives  it,  as  well  as  tfa^  French  and  i^ani^h  fpptti  the  Lfttin 
tongne,  would  be  injurious  to  h^  Tbi^  bindert  him  from 
assenting  to  ^the  opinion  of  cardinal  Mmbo,  who  supposes 
that  the  Italian  owes  many  of  its  words  to  the  jftrgoki  of 
Languedocand  Provence.^*  Meiiage  has  written  a  book 
upon  the  same  subject,  to  oorrcfct  the  errors  of  Ferrari. 
$.  **  De  Pantomimis  et  Mimis  Dissertatio.'*  10.  "Dis- 
sertationes  dute;  altera  de  balrteis,  de  gladiatbfibusr  akera.^ 
These  two  laist  are  posthumous,  and  were  pufotiabed  by 
John  Fabricius,  the  former  at  WoMc*ibuttel,  !714,io  8vo; 
the  latter  at  Heimstad,   1720,  inSvo.* 

FERRARI  (John  Ba1>tist),  a  Jesuit  of  Sienna,  was  the 
author  of  a  Syriac  Dictionary,  i^ublished  in  1622,  in' 4to, 
under  the  name  of  "  Nomenclator  Svriacus/*  The  chief 
object  of  the  author  is  to  explain  thO  Syriac  words  in  the 
Bible^  in  which  he  was  assisted  by  some  leik'fied  Miird* 
nites,  tie  wrote  also,  **  De  Malorum  aureorum  cultura,*^ 
1646,  aiki  <*  De  Floriim  cultora,*''  1683,  both  published  vk 
Rome.     He  died  in  1 655.* 

FERRARI  (Gaudenzio),  an  eminent  artist  of  Valdugfa,, 
was  born  in  1484.    He  is  by  Vasari  called  ^Gaudenzio 

\  Cleir.  Diet.— Bibl.  Andemie  ei  Moderne,  ▼•!.*  VI.«--Mor«ri.— ^ioerooi  taKV^ 

jr  £  }l  R  A  R  ^  fi37 

Mitatiese.*'     Some  b«^e  sMpposed  him  a  scholar  of  Peru-^ 
gino,  but  LQiBa;szq,   who  was  a  nurseling  of  his  school, 
names  Scotto  and  Luini  as  his  masters.     His  juvenile  works 
prove  what  Vasari  says,  that  he  had  profited  by  those  of 
Lionardo  da  Vinci.     He  went  young  to  Rome,  and  is  said 
to  have  been  employed  in  the  Vatican  by  Raffaelb ;  and 
there,  it  is  probable,  that  he  acquired  that  style  of  design 
and  tone  of  colour  which  eclipsed  what  before  him  had 
been  done  in  Lombardy*     He  possessed  a  portentous  fe- 
rac;ty  of  ideas,  e^jual  to  that  of  Giulio,  but  far  different ; 
instead  of  licentious  excursions  over  the  wilds  of  mytho- 
logy* he  attached  himself  to  sacred  lore,  to  represent  the 
majes^  .of  Divine  Being,  tlie  mysteries  of  religion,  and 
emotions  of  piety,  and  succeeded  to  a  degree  which  ac- 
quired him  the  name  of  ^^  e^cimie  pius^*  from  a  Novarese 
synod.     Strength  was  his 'element,  which  he  expressed  less 
by  muscles'  forcibly  marked,  than  by  fierce  and  terrible 
attitudes,  as  in  the  Passion  of  Christ,  at  the  grazie  of  Mi- 
Jano,  where  he  had  Titian  for  a  competitor ;  and  in  th|^ 
FalL  of  Paul,  at  the  conventuals  of  Vercelli,   which  ap- 
proaches th^t  of  M.  Angelo,  at  the  Paolina;  in  the  expres- 
sion of  character  and  mind,  he  is  inferior  perhaps  only  to 
Raffaelo ;  and  at  St.  Cristpforo  of  Vercelli  has  shewn  him* 
'^If  master  of  angelic  grace.     With  a  full  and  genial  vein 
of  colour,  Gaudenzio  unites  an  evidence  which  admits  of  no 
hesitation,  and  attracts  the  eye  in  the  midst  of  other  works. 
His  tone  is  determined  by  the  subject,  as  his  carnations  by 
chs^racter ;  but  his  draperies  and  parerga  are  commended 
more,  by  caprice  anid  .novelty,  than  simplicity  and  gran- 
deur.    Whether  it  were  modesty,  situation,  ignorance,  or 
envy,  that  defrauded  powers  so  eminent,  of  the  celebrity 
often  lavished  orl  minor  talents,  is  not  now  to  be  deter- 
mined.   Ferrari  was  little  known,  and  less  favoured  by 
VasarJi  whom  the  blind  herd  of  dilettanti  on  either  side*of 
the  Alps  geoefally  follow  in  their  search  of  excellence  ib 
.art     He  is  supposed  to  liave  died  in  15^0.     There  was 
another  of  the  name  John  An;dR£W  Ferrari,  or  De  Fev* 
vara,  who  was  born  at  Geno^,  in  1599,  and  was  a  disciple 
of  Bernard  Castjeili ;.  b)il,  in  order  to  obtain  a  more  ex- 
tensive knowledge  in  his  profession,  he  studied  afterwards 
f^i*  aoone  time  under  Bernardo  Strozzi.     His  appli<;ation 
was  attended  with  success,  for  h<^  at  last  attained  to  such 
a  degree  of  e^^ellence,   that  he  was  equally  expert  in 
<paiiitiii|p  i^story,  landscape^  fruit,  animals^  and  flowei:s  i 

238      ,  fc'  £  k  »  A  &  t. 

and  those  subjects  he  finished  in  a  small  sizej  but  with  eit-^ 
traordinary  beauty  and  extictriess,  so  that  few  of  the  prince* 
or  nobility  of  his  time  were  satisfied  without  possessing 
some  of  his  compositions.  Benedetto  Gastigltone  tvas  his 
disciple.     He  died  in  1669.* 

FERRARI  (Lewis),  inventor  of  the  first  method  of  re* 
solving  biquadratic  equations,  was  born  at  Bologna  about 
1520.  He  studied  mathematics  under  the  celebrated  Ciir-^ 
dan,  who,  having  had  a  problem  given  him  for  sohftion^ 
gave  it  his  pupil  as  an  exercise  of  his  ingenuity  ;  and  this 
led  to  the  discovery  of  a  new  method  of  analysis,  which  is 
precisely  that  of  biquadratics.  Cardan  published  this  me* 
tbod,  and  assigned  the  invention  to  its  real  author,  who^ 
had  it  not  been  for  this  liberal  conduct  of  the  master,  would 
imve  been^  unknown  to  posterity.  At  the  age  of  eighteen 
he  was  appointed  a  tutor  in  arithnaetic,  and  was  equal  to 
the  task  of  disputing  with  the  most  distinguished  matfae- 
^maticians  of  his  own  age.  He  was  afterwards  appointed 
professor  of  mathejnatics  at  Bologna,  where  he  die^l  in 
1565.  Ferrari,  although,  like  many  other  learned  men  of 
his  age,  addicted  to  astrology,  was  an  excellent  classical 
'scholar,- a  good  geographer,  and  well  versed  in  theprin- 
.ciples  of  architecture.* 


FERRARS  (George),  a  learned  lawyer,  a  good  histo- 
rian, a  celebrated  poet,  and  a  most  accomplished  courtier, 
in  the  reigns  of  Henry  VIII.  Edward  VI.  Mary,  and  El i-^ 
zabeth,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family  in  Hert* 
fordsbire,  and  born  in  a  village  near  St.  Alban's,  about 
1512.  He  was  bred  at  O^^ford,  and  removed  thence  to. 
I^incoln's-inn,  where  he  applied  himself  with  so  much  siic* 
cess  to  the  study  of  the  law,  that  he  was  soon  taken -no*-, 
tice  of  in  Westminster-hall'  as  an  advocate,  at  the-  same 
time  that  he  was  much  admired  at  court  for  his  wit  and 
good-breeding.  His  first  rise  in  his  profession,  and  at 
court,  was  owing  to  Cromwell  earl  of ^  Essex,  who  was 
himself  a  man  of  great  parts,  and  took  a  pleasure  in  coun- 
tenancing and  advancing  others  who  bad  talents.  Upon^ 
the  fall  of  this  patron,  he  quitted  the  publie  ex^eise  of  bi» 
profession  as  a  lawyer ;  not,  however,  before  he  had  given 
evident  testimonies  of  his  knowledge  and  learning,  m  ap^ 
pears  from,  1.  ^^  The  double,  translation  of  Magna  Charts 

,  ^  >  Pilkiogtoa.  >    ^  .     '  Mo«»rU->^iitt9ii'8  Dictioi^firy.^.    .  ^ 

F  E  H  K  A  R  S.  239 

fmia  Freoeh  into  Latin  and  English/'  2.  **  Oiket  laws  en^- 
actdd  in  the  time  of  Henry  III.  and  Edw.  I.  translated  into 

Afterwards  he  became  the.king^s  menial  servant,  whom* 
he  attended  in  war  as  well  as  in  peace,  and  served  both 
with  bis  pen  and  his  sword,  and  rose  so  m^ch  io  favour 
with  Henry,  as  to  receive  from  that  monarch  a  veiy  con- 
siderable grant  in  his  native  county,  out  of  the  king's  pri- 
vate estate.     This  was  in   1535,  yet  be  managed  so  ill, 
that  some  years  after,   when  member  of  4)arliament  for 
Plymouth,  which  he  was  elected  in  1542,  he  had  the  mis- 
fortune, during  the  session,  to  be  taken  in  execution  by  a 
sheriff's  officer,  and  carried  to  the  compter.     This,  how- 
ever, being  represented  to  the  bouse  of  commons,  occa- 
sioned  such  a  disturbance  there,  as  not  only  produced  his 
discharge,  but  a  settled  rule  with  respect  to  privilege.     Yet 
Mr*  Hatseil,  in  his  '^  Collection  of  cases  of  Privileges  of 
Parliament,''  seems  to  be  of  opinion  that  the  measures 
which  were  adopted,  and  the  doctrine  which  was  then  firsj: 
laid  down  with  respect  to  the  extent  'of  the  privileges  of 
the  bouse  of  commons,  were  more  owing  to  Ferrars's  being 
a  servant  of  the  king,  than  that  he.  was  a  member  of  the^ 
house  of  commons.     He  continued  afterwards  in  high  fa- 
vour with  Henry  all  his  reign,  who  fully  approved  what  tha 
house  of  commons  had  done ;  and  Ferrars  seems  to  have' 
stood  upon  good  terms  with  the  protector  Somerset,  in 
that  of  king  Edward ;  since  he  attended  him  as  a  commis* 
sioner  of  the  carriage  of  the  army  into  Scotland,  in  1548.' 
Edward  also  had  a  singular  kindness  for  him,  as  appeared 
afterwards  at  a  very  critical  juncttire  ;  for  when  the  unfor-* 
tunate  duke  of  Somerset  lay  under  sentence  of^'deatb,  the^ 
people  murmuring  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  king  uneasy 
and  ipielancholy  on  the  other,  it  was  thought  expedient  to 
dio  something  to  quiet  and  amuse  the  people,  and  if  pos* 
sible  to  entertain  and  divert  the  soverei<;n.     In  order  to 
this,  at  the  etitraace^  of  Christmas  holidays,  George  Fer-^ 
rars,  esq.  was  proclaimed  Lord  of  Misrule,  that  is,  a' 
prince  of  sports  and  pastimes.    This  office,  which  required 
no  common  talents,  he. discharged  for  twelve  days  together 
>    at  Greenwich,  with  great  magnificence  and  address,  and 
entirely  to  the  king's  satisfaction.     In  this  character,  at« 
tended  by  the  politest  part  of  the  court,  be  made  an  ex* 
cursion-to  London,  wbeiqp  he  wa^  very  honourably  received 
by  officer^  created  for  that  purpose,  splendidly  entertained 

by  the  lord  iiiayOr,  and  when  bd  took  leAve^  had  a  biacU 
some  present  made  bim  in  token  of  respect* 

But  although  he  made  so  great  a  figure  in  the  diveraiotii 
of  a  court,  be  preserved  at  the  same  tifne  his  credit  with 
all  the  learned  worlds  and  was  no  idle  spectator  of  pobtieal 
affairs.  This  appears  from  the  history  of  the  reign  of  Mary^ 
which  though  inserted  in  the  chronicle,  and  published  na-^ 
der  the  name  of  Richard  Grafton,  was  actually  written  by 
Ferrars ;  as  Stow  expressly  tells  us.     Our  author' was  am 
historian,  a  lawyer,  and  a  politician,  even  in  his  poetry  ; 
as  appears  from  pieces  of  bis,  inserted  in  the  celebrated 
work  entitled  <^The  Mirror  for  Magistrates,"  &c.     The 
first  edition  of  this  work  was  published  in  1559,  by  WiU 
liam  Baldwin,  who  prefixed  an  epistle  befor€i  the  second 
part  of  it,  wherein  he  signifies,  that  i(  had  been  intended 
to  reprint  "  The  Fall  of  Princes,"  by  Boccace;  as  traua* 
lated  into  English  by  Lidgate  the  monk ;  but  that,   upoa 
communicating  his  design  to  seven  of  his  friends,  all  oi 
them  sons  of  tbe  Muses,  tbcy  dissuaded  hioi  from  that,  aod 
proposed  to  look  over  the  English  Chronicles,  and  to  pick 
out  and  dress  up  in  a  poetic  habit  such  stories  as  might 
tend  to  edification.     To  this  collection  Ferrars  contributed 
the  following  pieces:  1.  ^' The  Fall  of  Robert  Tresilian, 
,  Chief  Justice  of  England,  and  other  his  fellows,  for  mift-^- 
construing  the  Laws,  and  expounding  them  to  serve  the 
Prince's  affections."     2.  "  The  Tragedy,  or  unlawful  mmr*^ 
der  of  Thomas  of  Woodstock,  duke  of  Oloucester/'     3.^ 
**  Tragedy  of  king  Richard  11.''     4.  «  The  Story  of  dame 
Eleanor  Cobbam^  dutches^  of  Gloucester,"  much  altered 
and  augmented  in.  tbe  second  edition  of  1687,  in  which  arat 
added,  to  the  four  already  mentioned,  5.  **  The  Story  of 
Humphrey  Plantagenet,  duke  of  Gloucester,  protector  of 
England."     6.  <<  The  Tragedy  of  Edmund  duke  of  So« 
merset."  A  farther  account  will  be  given  of  thb  work  when, 
we  come  to  the  article  Sackville.  .    . 

As  to  our  author's  religion,  it  is  very  probal)Ie,  if  not) 
certain,  that  he  was  a  fixed,  perhaps  a  zcfalous,  protestant.; 
This  may  reasonably  be  collected  from  his  coming  into> 
public  life  under  tbe  protection  of  tbe  lord  Cromwell^  wha 
was  undoubtedly  of  the  protestant  religion  ;  and  from  the: 
high  credit  in  which  he  stood  with  the  protector  Somerset 
aod  king  Edward,  which  it  is  scarce  possible  be  could  have  * 
attained^  if  he  had  not  been  so,  ^n  bis  history  also  of  the 
reign  of  Mary,  though  be  writes  with  much  caution  and 

ibodmmiion^  anfl  tpeaks  highly  of  the  perSotial  viHues  of 
that  priticess,  yet  be  shews  himself  clearly  of  the  reformed 
reli^ron,  especially  in  the  largfe  account  he  gives  of  the  . 
death  4^^  Gramner,  and  of  sir  Thomas  Wiat's  insurrecttom 
Hedi4d  lit  1579,  at  Flatiistead'in  Hertfordshire,  and  vfkU 
buried^in  the  parish  church* 

There  flourished  ako  at  the  same  time  with  him  Edwarb 
Ferrai^;s,  or  Farrars,  a  Warwickshire  gentleman  of  good 
family,  bred  at  Oxford,  a  po^t  likewise,  and  much  in  the 
good  graces  of  Henry  VIII.  Wood  calls  him  a  very  inge- 
Bioas  man  ;  and  sa^ys,  that. he  wrote  several  tragedies 
and^comedies,  none  of  which  are  extant  He  died  in  the  . 
year  1564. 

There  was  a  Henry  FIERrars  too,  of  the  same  county 
and  £Aini(y,  bred  at  Oxford,  and  afterwards  famous  for  hii» 
knowledge  and  skill  in  heraldry,  genealogies,  and  antiqui- 
ties. Wood  says,  thlit  out  of  the  collections  of  this  gentle* 
man,  Dugdale  laid  part  of  the  foundation  of  his  elaborate 
work  entitled  **  The  Antiquities  of  Warwickshire  illus- 
trated ;*^and  that,  after  Dugdale's  death,  several  of  Fer- 
rars*s  collections,  that  had  come  into  his  hands,  were  repo-* 
sited  in  the  Ashmolean  Museum.  Ferrars  was  well  known 
to,  and  respected  by,  Camden,  who,  in  his  discourse  of  the 
antiquity  of  Coventry,  makes  this  honourable  mention  of 
him  :  "Thus  much  of  Coventry ;  yet  have  you  not  all  this 
of  me,  but,  willingly  to  acknowledge  by  whom  I  have  pro- 
fited, of  Henry  FeiTars  of  Baldesly,  a  man  both  for  paren- 
tage And  knowledge  of  antiquity  very  commendable,  and 
my  special  friend;  who  both  in  tlixi  place,  and  also  else- 
where, bath  2ft  all  times  courteously  shewed  me  the  right- 
way  when  I  was  out,  and  from  his  candle,  as  it  were,  hath' 
Hghtened  mine.*'  Henry  Ferrars  had  also,  in  his  younger 
days,  li;  good'  talent  at  poetry,  some  specimens  of  which^ 
Wood  tells  us,  he  bad  seen  scattered  in  divers  1>ooksy 
printed  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth.  He  died  in  1633, 
aged  eighty-four  I  ♦*  leaving  behind  him,*'  says  Wood, 
*^  the  eharacter  of  a  well-bred  gentleman,  a  good  neighs 
hour,  and  an  honest  man."  ^ 

F£RRE  (ViNCENt),  a  Dominican,  born  at  Valentia,  in- 
Spain,  made^atery  distinguished  figure  among  the  divines 
of  the  seventeenth  century.     After  teaching  divinity  for 

1  Biof.  Brit — ^Warton'i  Hiitonr  q{  PMtry.-^PbiHppt'i  The'alrum,   Sir  £, 


S4S  F  E  B  R  E.    . 

come  time  at  Burgos,  be  was  appointed  first  prafiessbr^at 

-  llaiiie,  wherebe  remained  for  eighteen  years;  and:  then 
was  made  prior  of  Salamanca ;  and  three  years  after  pce^ 

^  fect«  or  regent  of  the  student^.  He  died  in  168^*  His 
wwks  consist  of  a  ^*  Commentary  on  the  sunn  of  8kiTbo* 
masy*'  which  appeared  at  Salamanca  and  Rome^  1675~<^ 
1596,  in  8  vols,  folio.  They  were  at  one  time  held  in  great 
estimation  for  p^spicuity  and  precision*  ^  , 

.  FERREIN  (Anthony),  an  eminent  French  anatoosist 
and  surgeon,  was  born  Oct.  27,  1693,  at  Frepech  in  Age* 
nois.  He  practised  at  Montpeliier,  and  was  a.  member  of 
the  faculty  of  th^t  city  and  of  Paris,  member  of  the  aca- 

-  demy  of  sciences,  and  professor  of  physic  in  the  royal  col* 
lege.     He  was  the  author  of  tyifo  works;  ,one  entitled 

.  **  Lectures  on  Medicine,-'  th^  other,  ^<  Lectures  on  the 
.  Materia  Medica ;"  each  in  three  volumes,  i2mo,  which 
were  published  in  1783,  and  proved  the  soundness  of  .his 
knowledge.  He  held,  however,  some  peculiar  notions  as 
to  the  formation  of  the  voice,  which  he  was  not  able  to  de- 
monstrate to  the  satisfaction  of  his  contemporaries.  Jle 
died  at  Paris  Feb.  28,  1765).* 

FERRERAS  (Don  John  of),  a  noble  and  learned  Spa* 
niard,  was  born  at  Labanezza,  in  1652.  After  baying 
gone  thrqugh  his  studies  at  the  university  of  Salamanca, 
be  took  orders,  and  obtained  the  cure  of  St.  James  of  Ta- 
Ltvera,  and  afterwards  was  removed  to  that  of  St.  Peter  at 
Madrid,  where  he  became  distinguished  by  his  wit  and 
learning.  He  refused  two  bishoprics,  although  he  was 
pressed  by  the  court  to  accept  them,  preferring  a.qpiet. 
and  literary  life.  The  academy  of  Madrid  cjhose  him;  for 
one  of  its  members  in  1713,  the  year  of  its  foundation  ; 
and  the  king  confirmed  this  unanimous  approbation  of  jthe 
literati,  by  appointing  him  his  librarian.  Ferreras.was 
Tery  useful  to  this  growing  academy,  particularly  by!  as* 
sisting  in  the  composition  of  a  Spanish  Dictionary,  which 
was  undertaken  and  published  by  the  academy,  1759,  in 
six  volumes,  foHo.  He  died,  four  years  before,  in  1^35. 
He  left  several  works  in  theology,  philosophy,  and  history ; 
the  most  considerable  of  which  ,was  a  general  historj  of 
Spain,  written  in  Spanish,  and  translated  into  French  by 
Hermilly,  in  ten  volumes,  4to.  Though  Mariana^s  history 
is  more  elegantly  written^  yet  all  the  Spanish  literati  agree, 

1  Aloreri.  <  Diet  Hiat. 

F  E  R  R  E  T  I.  2i2 

that  it  is  not  so  exact  and  faidiful  as  that  of  Ferreras.    It 
ends  in  the  reign  of  Philip  IL* 

FERRETI  (or  Ferretus),  ofVicensa,  a  poet  and  his* 
torian  in  the  fourteenth  century,  was  one  of  those  who  con- 
tributed to  revive  good  taste  in  Europe,  and  to  banish  bar* 
barisai«  He  wrote  a  history  of  his  own  times,  from  1230 
to  1318,  in  seven  books,  which  was  inserted  by  Murato^iy 
in  the  ninth  volume  of  the  writers  on  the  history  of  Italy. 
A  Latin  poem  by  him,  on  the  actions  of  Can  de  la  Scala^ 
or  Scaliger,  is  also  extant.  He  is  said  to  have  produced 
many  other  works  in  prose  and  verse ;  but  there  is  no  ac- 
count of  his  life  extant.* 

FERRETI  (iEMiuus),  in  Latin  Ferrettus,  one  of  the 
learned  civilians  in  the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Cas- 
teilo  Franco  in  Tuscany,  Nov.  i^th,  1489.  At  twelve  years 
old  he  was  sent  to  Pisa,  where  he  studied  the  civil  and  ' 
canon  law  for  three  years ;  be  spent  two  other  years  in  the 
university  of  Sienna,  after  which  be  went  to  Rome,  and 
was  made  secretary  to  cardinal  Salviati.  He  was  admitted, 
an  advocate  at  the  age  of  nineteen  years,  after  a  public  dis* 
putation  before  a  numerous  audience  of  cardinals  and 
jbishops.  He  then  left  his  Christian  name  of  Dominicui^ 
and  took  that  of  ^milius,  according  to  a  custom  very  pre- 
valent among  the  literati  of  Italy.  Having  accepted  of  the 
chair  of  law-professor,  he  explained  so  learnedly  the  law  de 
Itebus  crtditis  (of  things  with  which  persons  are  trusted) 
that  it  gained  him  the  title  of  secretary  to  Leo  the  Xth» 
%[e  exercised  that  office  for  some  years,  after  which  he  re- 
signed it  voluntarily,  and  retired  into  his  native  country. 
He  left  it  again  at  the  end  of  two  years,  his  father  having 
been  killed  there,  and  went  to  Tridino  in  the  dukedom  of 
Montferrat,  where  he  married ;  and  having  continued  there 
four  years,  be  attended  the  marquis  of  Montferrat  to  Rome 
and  to  Naples,  that  marquis  commanding  part  of  the  Frengh 
army.  This  expedition  of  the  French  proving  unsuccess- 
ful^ Ferreti  endeavoured  to  return  into  bis  native  country, 
but  he  was  taken  by  the  Spaniards,  and  could  not  obtain 
hU  liberty  but  by  paying  a  ransom.  He  went  into  France, 
and  taught  the  law  at  Valence  with  so  much  reputation, 
that  Francis  I.  made  him  counsellor  in  the  parliament  of 
Paris>  and  sent  him  as  envoy  to  the  Venetians,  and  to  the 

B  Morerur-^Tiraboachi.— Fabric.  Bibl.  Med.  tt  Inf.  Latin. 

R  2 

Vlorentinef.  fie  acquitted  himself  so  well  of  that  empTojr^ 
ihent^  that  it*  determined  thei  marquis  of  Montfefrai  to  seii^ 
him  to  the  court  of  Charles  V.  after  be  had  obtained  Fran-* 
CIS  I.'s  consent  for  that  journey^  Ferreti  attended  the  em^ 
peror  in  the  expedition  of  Africa  ;  and  as  soon  as  he  was 
returned  into  France^  the  king  sent  hini  to  the  Florentines 
during  the  vrar  ip  which  they  were  Ifngaged  against  the 
«mperor.  He  went  back  to  France  wlien  they  were  5ub^ 
dluedy  and  followed  the  court  to  Nic6,  where  the  pope^ 
Charles  V.  and  the  king  of  France  had  an  interview  :  hav^ 
ing  afterwards  resigned  the  post  of  counsellor  in  the  parlia^ 
nent,  he  went  to  Lyons,  and  thence  to  Florence,  wher^ 
he  wits  admitted  a  citizen.  He  was  sent  for  to  Avignon 
to  teadh  the  law  there.    His  yearly  sttpetid  was  at  first  550 

.  crowns,  then  800,  and  then  1000;  a  smn  that  had  never 
been  given  to  any  professor  in  that  university.  He  gained 
tte  love  both  of  the  inhabitants  and  of  the  students,  wh6 
shewed  it  in  a  very  remarkable  manner  after  bis  death';  for 
when  his  successor  Craveta  began  his  lectures  by  strictures 
upon  Ferreti,  the  scholars  shewed  their  attachment  to  their, 
old  master  by  hissing  and  driving  him  from  the  place.  He 
died  at  Avignon  July  14,  1552.  Ferreti  was  a  man  of  ge- 
lieral  learning,  and  well  acquainted  with  classical  literature* 
He  gave  an  edition  of  the  principal  orations  of  CScero^ 
printed  at  Lyons  by  Gryphius,  8vo,  "  M.  T.  Ciceronis  Ora^ 
tiones  Yerrinse  ac  Pbilippicae,**  dedicated  to  cardinal  Sal- 
riati.  His  *♦  Opera  Juridica**  were  published  in  1555, 
and  I59B,  4to.  An  epitaph  written  for  him  by  Antonius 
Goveanus,  speaks  of  him  in  the  most  extravagant  terms  of 

FERRETI  (John  Baptist),  of  Vincenza,  was  a  Bene- 
dictine monk,  and  eminent  as  an  antiquary.  In  1672  be 
published,  at  Verona,  his  **  Mus«  LapidaTiae,'*  in  TolioJ 
which  is  a  collection,  though  by  no  means  complete  of 
correct,  of  the  verses  fontid  inscribed  on  ancient  monii^ 
ments.  Burilfian  the  younger,  in  his  preface  to  the  "An- 
thologia  Latina,*'  seems  to  confound  this  Ferreti  with  hiiti 
who  flourished  in  the  fourteenth  century,  speaking  of  hii 

»  history  of  his  own  times.     The  exact  peribds  of  this  aU« 

thor's  birth  and  death  are  not  known.  •  | 

FERRI'  (Cmo),  a  skilful  painter,  wa^  descended  of  'i 

good  family,  and  born  at  Rome  in  1634,  where,  beinrgia 

»  Bayle  in  6cn*  Diet. — Moreri.^^Niccron,  v»K  V# 
«  Saaii  0«»B(aM.^-CUaieat  Vikl(4^«f  itii»e.r 

F  £  R  K  1.  «4$ 

^a^  cieoomstanoet}  he  ptirsued  hi8;uictiiiation«nd  Usti^ 
lor  painting.  He  was  »  faithful  ioiiutor  of  Peter  da  Cor*> 
tona,  whose  favourite  disciple  be  was^  and  to  whom  b# 
came  so  near  in  bis  ideas,  bis  invention,  and  bis  manner  of 
painting,  that  bis  cielings  particularly  are  often  mistaken 
for  Cortona^s..  Generally,  however,  Mr.  Fuseli  says,  Ferri 
has  less  grace  of  design,  less  ease  in  bis  actions  and  dra«> 
peries,  and  less,  compass  of  mind ;  but  be  has  more  «o« 
lidity  and  carefulness  of  finish  than  his  master.  Though 
be  set  great  prices  on  bis  works,  be  was  in  continual  em^ 
ploy.  .  Pope  Alexander y II.  had  a  great  esteem  for  him; 
and  his  three  «ucce^sors  were  no  less  favourable  to  him, 
The  great  duke  sent  for  him  to  Florence,  and  assigned  him 
a  large  pension  tp  finish  the  works  which  Cortona  b&d  left 
imperfect  He  entered  so  well  into  the  spirit  of  themi 
and  acquitted  himself  so  worthily,  that  the  whole  work 
seems  to  be  of  the  same  band.  The  great  duke  nominated 
him  chief  of  the  school  of  Florence,  in  which  rank  be  cour 
tinued  for  a  long  time.  Ferri  returned  to  Rome,  where 
be  appeared  a  great  architect  as  well  as  a  good  painter* 
Several  palaces,  and  .grand  altars,  as  St.  John  of  the  Fio-^ 
rentines,  and  that  of  the  CbiesaNuova,  were  raised  f|rom  bi4 
designsv^  He  diverted  himself  more  with  drawing  than 
painting.  He  was  much  importuned,  for  devices,  figurea 
for  breviaries,  imd  titles  of  books  :  several  of  which  k^yj9 
been  engraved  by  Spierre  and-Bloemart  The  pope  em- 
ployed bim  in  making  cartoons  for  the  Vatican ;  and  few 
men  have  worked  in  more  different  ways*  The  cupola  of 
St.  Agnes,  in  the  palace  of  Navona,  was  bis  last  work< 
The  chagrin  be  felt  in  seeing  the  angels  of  Bacici,  a 
Cenoese  painter,  which  were .  directly  under  it,  the  fp^e^ 
of  whose  colouring  made  his  appear  too  weak,  is  saidta 
bftve  Jbeei)  the  cause  of  his  death.  One  day  be  told  Jt^a- 
zaro.  Baldi,  hi?  companion,  that  his  cupola  appeared  very 
different  on  the  scaffold  fmm  what  it  did  from  belpw, .  and 
that  the  angels  of  Bacici  gave  bim  great  pain ;  and,  falling 
sipk  soon  after,  be  died  in  1689,  at  tbe.age  of  fifty -fivie^  ^  - 
FERRI  (P-i^ul),  in  Latin- Ferri  us,  a  most  learned  di-» 
vine  of  Germany,  was  born  of  a  considerable  fsLm'ilfAiJb 
Metz,  in  1591,  He  was  sent  to  study  divinity  at  Mqb- 
tabah,  and  made  so  uncommon  a  progress,  tbat  be  Km 
iulmitted  a  minister  at  Metz  in  1610.    Though  be  mA 

24e  F  E  R  R  L 

but  nineteen,  he  bad  then  published  a  bdok  of  poems ;  tlie 
advertisement  to  which  he  finished  in  these  words,  <*  sat 
ludo  nugisque  datum,''  He  had  eminent  talents  for  preach* 
ing  :  bis  graceful  presence,  his  venerable  countenance^ 
and  fine  delivery,  adding  great  force  to  his  eloquence, 
which  was  very  powerful  and  moving.  His  enemies  re- 
ported, falsely,  that  he  was  one  of  the  ministers  whom 
cardinal  Richelieu  had  bribed  to  procure  a  coalition  of  the 
two  religions ;  however,  it  is  certain  that  he  was  grieved 
at  the  division  of  the  protestants,  and  hoped  that  he  could 
contribute  somewhat  to  forward  a  re-uhion ;  and  it  is 
supposed  that  with  this  view  he  Isept  a  correspondence 
with  Dury  (See  Duav).  His  death  happened  in  1669, 
when  above  fourscore  stones  were  found  in  his  bladder, 
which  had  occasioned  it.  He  bad  a  very  fine  library, 
which  he  increased  by  several  works  of  his  own.  In  1616 
he  published  *^  Scholastic!  Ortbodoxi  Specimen,'*  in  which 
he  shews,  that  the  protestant  doctrine  of  grace  has  been 
taught  by  the  schoolmen.  This  treatise  gained  him  the 
esteem  of  Du  Plessis  Morqay,  who  wrote  him  a  letter  upon 
it,  in  which  he  advised  him  about  another  work  he  was 
upon,  entitled  **  Le  dernier  desespoir  de  la  Tradition,^' 
&c.  In  1630  he  published  at  Leyden,  **  Vindicim  pro 
Scholastico  Orthodoxo,"  against  Perinus,  an  eminent  Je- 
suit, who  had  published  in  1619  a  book  entitled  <*  Thra- 
sonica  Pauli  Ferrii  Calvinistse."  In  1654  he  published 
^*  General  Catecbisme  de  la  Reformation,"  which  was 
answered  by  Bossuet;  and  left  behind  him  collections  for  a 
history  of  Metz,  which  are  referred  to  by  Caimet,  as 
abounding  in  curious  researches;  and  a  vast  number  of 
sermons,  of  which  about  eleven  hundred  are  on  the  epistle 
to  the  Hebrews.  * 

FERRIER  (Armand,  or  Arnold  db),  an  eminent  law- 
yer, called  sometimes  the  Cato  of  France,  was  born  at 
Toulouse  in  1506.  He  was  admitted  a  doctor  of  law  at 
Padua ;  and  from  a  professor  in  the  university  of  Toulouse, 
was  raised  to  be  a  counsellor  in  the  parliament  of  the  same 
,  city.  It  is  remarkable  of  him,  that  though  he  was  a  pro- 
testant in  his  heart  for  a  good  part  of  his  life,  he  did  not 
profess  himself  to  be  so  till  a  little  before  his  death.  He 
had  indeed  often  discovered  that  he  was  no  bigotted  papist; 
and  was  so  strongly  suspected  of  heresy  in  1559,  that  he 

^  Bayle  ia  Gen.  Dicti«— Morari. 

r  E  R  R  I  E. JL  247 

•  *        * 

^e^uld  h^^veb^en  imprisoned  if  he  had  not  made  his  escape. 
He  harangued,  in  1562,  in  the  councit  of  Trent,  whitner 
he  was  sent  ambassador  by  the  French  king ;  and  he  ex^ 
pressied  himself  in  so  bold  a  manner  in  favour  of  the  in* 
terests  of  France,  that  the  Italian  priests  'were  highly 
offended  at  him.  He  went  afterwards  ambassador  to  Ve* 
nice,  where  he  continued  several  years ;  and  took  occastoii 
to  assist  father  Paul  in  collecting  materials  for  his  *'  His- 
tory of  the  Council  of  Trent."  On  his  return  from  Venice^ 
Bu  Plessis  Mornay,  who  knew  his  thoughts,  pressed  him 
«o  earnestly  to  declare  the  truth,  that  Ferrier  openly  pro* 
fessed  himself  a  protestant,  and  the  king  of  Navarre  mad6 
him  his  chancellor.  He  was  about  seventy-six  years  old 
at  the  time  of  his  renouncing  popery  ;  and  he  only  lived  t6 
seventy-nine.  He  died  in  1585.  It  has  been  said  that  he 
conspired  with  the  chancellor  d6  P Hospital  to  break  the 
knot  which  united  the  French  king  with  the  holy  see ;  to 
assemble  a  national  council,  in  which  the  king  of  France^ 
after  the  example  of  the  king  of  England,  should  be  de^ 
clared  head  of  the  Gallican  church ;  and  to  usurp  all  the 
estates  of  the  church  of  France.  He  was  reckoned  among 
the  greatest  men  in  Europe,  and  was  the  author  of  some 
literary  works.* 

FERRIER  (Jeremy),  a  protestant  minister  and  pro* 
fessor  of  divinity  at  Nismes,  of  the  seventeenth  century,  is, 
contrary  to  his  namesake  in  the  preceding  article,  mef- 
morable  for  becoming  a  papist,  even  after  having  main* 
tained  in  public  disputation,  in  1 602,  that  *^  Pope  Clement 
the  Vlllth  was  properly  the  Antichrist,"  yet  he  was  the 
first  who  began  to  yield  in  the  political  assemblies  of  the 
reformed  in  France.  Many  circumstances  in  his  behavioQr 
had  made  him  suspected  as  a  pensioner  of  the  court,  as  -a 
false  brother,  and  a  traitor  to  the  churches.  He  did  not, 
,  however,  openly  change  his  religion  till  a  popular  tumult 
^  arose  against  him,  in  which  bis  house  was  plundered,  and 
himself  so  near  being  murdered,  that,  for  th^  sake  of 
escaping  he  was  obliged  to  lie  three  days  concealed  in*a 
tomb.  After  this  he  settled  at  Paris,  where  he  erideavourfed 
.  to  make  his  fortune.  He  published  in  1614,  the  year  aflfer 
his  conversions^  a  book  of  controversy  upon  the  siibjfect 
of  antichrist.  The  king  cmploye4  him  iti  sevei-al  l)ii* 
portant  affkirsi;  and  in  1626  he  was  commanded  tb  attend 

»  ]pay1e  in  Gen.  Diet.— Mt reiju 

«4S  F  £  it  R  I  E  B. 

his  msyesty  to  Bxitapny^' where  he  was  honoured  with  tliA 
-title  of  state  ^nd  privy  counsellor.  Cardinal  de  Richelieu 
had  a  particular  esteem  for  him.  He  died  of  a  hectic  fever 
in  1626.  His  faoaily  was  numerous  ;  and  he  made  all  bis 
children  promise  that  they  would  live  and  die  in  the  catho- 
lic, faith.  His  only  daughter  married  M.  7'ardieu,  lieu* 
t;eiiant*crimiQel  of  Paris^  concerning  which  couple  some 
curious  anecdotes  are  jrecorded  in  Boileau^s  tenth  satire, 
and  in  the  notes  of  St.  Marc.  Ferrier  was  the  reputed 
author  of  a  famous  political  work,  entitled  ''  Catholique 
d'Etaty*'  published  in  1625,  in  answer  to  some  libels  which 
the  king  of  Sf^in^s  partizans  had  written  against  France, 
upon-  allying  herself  with  the  protestant  powers  to  the  in- 
jury of  the  catholic  religion.* 

FERRIER  (John),  a  French  Jesuit^  and  a  native  of 
Rouergue,  and  confessor  to  the  king  of  France,  was  born 
fn  1614,  and  turned  a  Jesuit  in  1632.  He  bad  taught 
philosophy  four  years,  divinity  twelve  years,  and  ethics 
two  years.  He  bad  been  principal  of  the  college  of  Tou- 
louse, and  had  acquitted  himself  very  well  of  that  employ- 
ment. The  Jesuits,  probably  looked  upon  him  as  a  very 
able  man,  since  they  designed  to  make  him  the  king^s 
confessor,  to  which  office  he  was  promoted  in  1670>  JJe 
died  in  the  convent  of  the  Jesuits  at  Paris,  October  29^ 
1674.  He  was  one  of  the  ablest  antagonists  of  Jansenius's 
followers,  and  bis  thesis  concerning  probability,  which  he 
maintained  at  Toulouse  the  8th  and  the  1 1th  of  June  1659^ 
made  a  considerable  noise.  He  wrote  a  Latin  answer  to 
father  Baron's  objections  against  the  ^^  Scientia  media,'' 
entitled  "  Responsio  ad  Objectiones  Vincentiauas,"  Tou- 
louse, 1668,  8vo.  He  intended  also  to  publish  a  body  of 
divinity,  but  only  the  first  volume  of  it  has  been  printed, 
which  treats  "  Of  the  Unity  of  God  according  to  St.  Au- 
gustin  and  St.  Thomas's  principles."  His  other  works  are 
written  in  French,  and  relate  for  the  most  part  to  Jan- 
senism. He  wrote  two  letters  against  Arnauld,  and  he 
gave  an  account  of  all  that  passed  in  1653,  concerning  the 
a£^ir  of  Jansenism.  According  to  the  bibliographer  of 
«  tfbe  Jesuits, .  he  wrote  a  book  concerning  the  immortality  of 
the  soul  in  1 660,  and  another  on  the  beauty  of  Jesus  Christ 
in.  16.57  ;  but  these  were  the  production  of  John  Ferrler,  a 
Jfsuit  of-Guienne.  * 

}  S*^yle  in  Gen.  Diet.— ^Moieri^  ^iBajrlein  Gen.  Diet  ' 

F  B  R  R  I  E  R.  (X«i 

; . '  raiRRIBR  (Claude  de)  &  learned  French  bmUaii,  vnt% 
4octor  of  }aw  in  the  university  of  Paris,  in  which  city?  he 
•  was  born  1639,  and  taught  law  at  Paris,  as  fellow,  till 
1694,  when  he  was  appointed  professor  at.  Rheims,  whei^ 
be  acquired  great  reputation,  and  died  May  1 1, 17 15,  aged 
seven -seven,  leaving  a  great  number  of  works,  which  be- 
came very  popular,  and  the^bookseilers  of  Paris,  for  whom 
be  wrote,  were  enriched,  but  he  was  not.  His  talents 
were  considerable;  but  a  certain  arrogance  of  manner^ 
lind  bigotry  to  his  own  opinions^  prevented  him  from  being 
distinguished  in  his  profession.  The  principal  of  his  works 
are,  1.*^  Commentaires  sur  la  Coutume  de  Paris,"  2  vols. 
12mo.  2.  "Traits  des  Fiefs,"  1680,  4to.  3.  "  Recueil 
des  Commentateurs  de  la  Coutume  de  Paris,"  17 14, 4  voisf, 
fol.  4.  "  La  Jurisprudence  du  Code,"  1 684,  2  vols.  4io. 
3.  «<  Du  Digeste,"  1688,  2  vols.  4to.  6.  "Des  Novelles,^* 
1688,  2  vols.  4to.  7.  "  La  Science  des  Notaires,"  1771,  2 
vols.  4to.  8.  "  Le  Droit  du  Patronage,"  1686,  4ta.  5» 
**  Institution  Coutumiere,"  3  vols.  l2mo^  10.  **  latrod^e* 
tion  a  la  Pratique,^*  1758,  2  vols.  12mo,  <<  Le  Diet,  de 
-Droit,"  1771,  2  vols.  4to,  is  by  Claudius  Joseph,  his  son, 
4vho  was  dean  of  the  law  faculty  in  the  university  of  Paris.' 

FERRON  (Arnauld  du),  a  French  lawyer,  was  bom 
in  1515,  and  was  a  counsellor  of  the  parliament  of  Bour- 
deaux.  ile  was  an  elegant  writer  in  Latin,  an  imitator  of 
the  style  of  Terence,  admired  by  Scaliger,  and  honoured 
by  him  with  the  name  of  Atttcus.  He  continued  the  his« 
tory  of  France  id  Latin  (which  Paulus  ^milius,  a  writer 
of  Verona,  had  given  from  the  reign  of  Pharamond  to 
1488)  as  far  as  the  end  of  the  reign  of  Francis  L  This 
work  was  published  at  Paris,  by  Vascosan,  Jn  1554,  foL 
and  1555,  8vo.  It  is  copious,  but  not  too  long,  an4 
abounds  with  curious  anecdotes  and  very  exact  details. 
He  wrote  also  "  Observations  sur  la  Coutume  de  Bour4 
deaux,"  Lyons,  1565,  fol.  He  had  considerable  employe 
ments.  His  death  happened  in  1563,  when  he  was  na( 
more  than  forty-eight.  • 

FESCH  (Sebastian),  an  able  antiquary,  doctor  and  law^ 
professor  at  Basil,  and  afterwards  secretary  of  that  city,| 
was  born  July  6,.  1647.  His  regular  studies  were  philo* 
sophy  and  law,  to  which  he  joined  a  knowledge  of  Greek 
and  Roman  antiquities,  induced  at  first  by  a  fine  museuot 

>  ^CorerL-r-Nictrani  vol.  XL  *»  Moreri.^Dict  ^uH 

•     .V 

^30  P  £  S  C  H. 

ivhich  his  father  had,  and  which  he  afterwards  greatly 
enriched.  Id  1667  he  went  to  Grenoble  and  Lyons,  whete 
be  contracted  an  acquaintance  with  Spon  ;  and  after  visit-' 
ing  some  other  parts  of  France,  arrived  in  England,  ami 
formed  an  intimacy  with  many  of  its  learned  men,  partf«> 
cularly  Dr.  Thomas  Gale,  who  was  then  employed  on  bis 
edition  of  Jamblicus ;  and  Fesch  sup][)lied  him  with  some 
useful  observations  from  an  ancient  manuscript  in  his  li* 
brary,  an  obligation  which  Gale  has  politely  acknowledged* 
After  his  return  to  Basil,  in  1672,  he  supported  some 
.theses  **  De  Insignibus,"  in  which  he  displayed  much 
learning,  and  which  were  reprinted  in  German  in  the  form 
of  a  treatise.  In  167S  he  set  out  on  a  tour  in  search  of 
.antiqiiary  lore,  to  Austria,  Carinthia,  and  Italy,  making 
some  stay  at  Padua  with  his  friend  Charles  Patin,  who  was 
then  professor  of  medicine.  He  was  unanimpusly  ad* 
mitted  a  member  of  the  society  of  the  Ri.covrati,  and  pro- 
.sou need  on  that  occasion  a  panegyric  on  the  republic  of 
Venice,  in  Greek  and  Latin  verse,  before  the  principal 
personages  of  the  city  of  Padua,  and  it  was  afterwards 
printed.  At  Rome  he  visited  every  object  of  cariosity, 
and  made  considerable  additions  to  his  collection  of  Greek 
and  other  rare  medals.  Having  examined  the  very  rare 
piece  of  Pylaemon  Euergetes,  king  of  Paphlagonia,  he 
wrote  a  dissertation  on  it,  which  Gronovius  reprinted  in  hrs 
Greek  Antiquities,  On  his  return  home  he  took  the  de^ 
gree  of  doctor  in  law,  and  was  soon  after  chosen  syndic  of 
the  city  of  Basil,  and  secretary,  and  regent  of  the  schools. 
.He  died  May  27,  1712.  Besides  the  works  above**men« 
tipned,  be  published  some  dissertations  on  subjects  of  law 
and  philology,  and  a  discourse  on  the  death  of  Brands 
muller,  the  learned  lawyer. ' 

FESTUS  (PoMP£ius),  was  a  celebrated  grammarian  of 
antiquity,  who  abridged  a  work  of  "  Verrius  Flaccus  de 
significatione  verborum,*^  as  is  supposed,  in  the  fourth 
century.  Flaccus^s  work  had  been  greatly  commended  by 
Pliny,  AuIusGellius,  Priscian,  and  other  ancient  writers, 
but  Festus  in  his  abridgment  took  unwarrantable  liberties ; 
for  he  was  not  content  with  striking  out  a  vast  number  of 
words,  but  pretended  to  criticize  the  rest,  in  a  manner,  as 
Vossius  has  observed,  not  favourable  to  the  reputation  of 
Flaccus.    Another  writer^  however^  in  the  eighth  century> 

*  Moreri.  • 

F  E  9  T  U  S.  251 

i^fterwards  revenged  this  treatment  of  Flaccus,  by  abridg- 
ing JPestus  in  the  same  way. '  This  was  Paul  the  deacon^ 
vi^ho  so  maimed  and  disfigured  Festus,  that  it  was  scarce 
possible  to  know  his  work,  which  lay  in  this  miserable 
state  till,  a  considerable  fragment  being  found  in  the  library 
of  cardinal  Farnese,  some  pains  were  taken  to  put  it  again 
into  a  little  order.  The  first,  or  princeps  editio,  is  without 
a  date,  but  supposed  to  have  been  printed  in  1470,  which 
was  followed  by  one  with  the  date  of  1 47 1.  Since  that  time 
there  have  been  various  editions  by  Scaliger,  Fulvius  Ursi- 
nus,  Aldus  Minucius,  and  others ;  but  the  most  complete 
is  the  Delphin  edition  of  Paris,  16S1,  in  4to,  published  by 
Oacier,  or  perhaps  the  reprint  of  it  by  Le  Clerc,  Amst. 
J699.  It  is  also  among  the  <^  Auctores  Latins  Linguae^^ 
collected  by  Gothofredus  in  1585,  and  afterwards  reprinted 
with  emendations  and  additions  at  Geneva,  in  1622.  Sea- 
liger  says  that  Festus  is  an  author  of  great  use  to  those 
who  would  attain  the  knowledge  of  the  Latin  tongue  with 
acfcuracy«  * 

FETTI,  or  FETI  (Domenico),  an  eminent  painted, 
was  born  at  Rome  in  1589,  and  educated  under  Lodovico 
Civoli,  a  famous  Florentine  painter.  As  soon  as  he  quitted 
the  school  of  Civoli,  be  went  to  Mantua ;  where  the  paint«» 
ings  of  Julio  Romano  afforded  him  the  means  of  becoming 
a  great  painter,  and  from  them  he  derived  his  colourings 
and  the  boldness  of  his  characters.  Cardinal  Ferdinand 
Gonzaga,  afterwards  duke  of  Mantua,  discovering  the 
merit  of  Fetti,  retained  him  at  his  court,  furnished  him 
with  means  of  continuing  his  studies,  and  at  last,  employed 
him  in  adorning  his  palace.  Few  painters,  according  to  a 
modem  connoisseur,  have  possessed  a  greater  freedom  of 
pencil,  a  more  harmonious  style  of  colouring,  or  a  greater 
knowledge  of  expression  than  Fetti.  If  he  painted  a  head 
of  character,  he  entered  into  the  detail  of  it  with  such  spi-^ 
rit,  that  it  produced  an  astonishing  relief ;  and  that  too 
without  the  least  hardness,  so  judiciously  are  the  tints 
varied.  It  is  the  same  with  bis  large  compositions ;  the 
light  and  shade  are  ingeniously  balanced  ;  the  figures  are 
gnauped  virith  so  much  art,  and  the  general  disposition  is  so 
well  observed,  that  they  produce  the  most  striking  and 
harmonious  effects.  His  pictures  are  scarce,  and  much 
sought  after.    He  painted  very  little  for  churches.     Going 

*  Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.^M«reri.-— Saxii  OoooMst, 

fM  .  F  E  T  T  I.  • 

to  Venice;  be  abandoned  himself  to  disorderly  courses, 
which  put  an  end  to  his  life  in  its  very  prime,  in  1624,  when 
be  ,was  only  in  bis  thirty-fifth  year.  The  duke  of  Mantua 
regretted  him  exceedingly,  a,nd  sent  for  his  father  and 
sister,  whom  he  took  care  of  afterwards.  The  sister,  who 
painted  well,  became  a  nun,  and  exercised  hjer  talent  in 
the  convent,  which  she  adorned  with  several  of  her  works^. 
Other  religious  houses  in  Mantua  were  also  decorated  with 
her  paintings. ' 

FEUILLE'E  (Louis),  a  Franciscan  friar,  of  the  order 
of  minims,  celebrated  as  a  botanist  and   natural  philoso* 
pher,  was  born  at  Mane  in  Provence,  in  1660.     He  first 
Visited  Cartbagena  and  Martinico,  in  1703  and  1704,  and 
afterwards  travelled  to  the  western  coast  of  South  America^ 
investigating  the  natural  productions  of  New  Spain  and  the 
neighbouring    islands,    from    1707   to   1712.      All  these 
voyages  he  accomplished  under  the  patronage  of  Louis 
XIV.  by  whom  he  was  liberally  .pensioned,  and  who  caused 
an  observatory  to  be  built  for  him  at  Marseilles,  in  which  • 
town  Fei|ill6e,  worn  out  with  his  labour^,  died  in  1732. 
fie  is  said  to  have  been  of  that  modest  simple  character,  . 
which  best  becomes  an  ecclesiastic  and  a  true  philosopher, , 
except  perhaps  in  his  resentment  against  Monsieur  Fre*' 
sier,   a  rival  philosopher  and  naturalist,  sent  out  likewise 
by  Louis  XIV.  whom  he  criticises  at  some  length,    in  a 
rather  contemptuous  style,  in  the  preface  to  the  Journal  of . 
one  of  his  voyages. 

Feuill^e  published  ^*  Journal  des  Observations  physiques, 
mathematiques,   &  botanlques,  faites  par  Tordre  du  Roi, 
9ur  les  cotes  orientales  (occidentales)  de  TAmerique  meri-- 
dionale,  &  dans  les  Indes  occidentales,  depuis  Pann^e  1707    . 
jusques  en  1712,''  Paris,  1714,  2  vols.  4to,  with  numerous 
plates*     This  work  is  not  elegant  in  style,  but  valuable  fot  , 
solid  information  upon  all  the  subjects  announced  in  its 
title,  with  various  incidental  matter  besides.     What  relates 
to  Peru  makes  a  principal  part  of  these  volumes.     In  his  ^ 
descriptions  of  plants,  their  reputed  medical  virtues  met 
^th  Is^udable  attention  from  FeuiU^e,  and  are  always  added 
tQ  his  botanical  descriptions,  and  he  describes  some  species 
still  unknown  to  us.    The  magnificent  Flori-pondio  (Datura 
firborea)  was  here  first  made  known  to  botanists.     He  pub<» 
liabed  another  quarto  volume,  with  a  similar  title,  in  1725|' 

»  Ar||^?iUe»  vol.  L-^-J^ilKingtoB^— Sir  H.  SUaose't  CStalogve,  p.  4L       * 

f  E  0  1  L  tre.  *n 

lathe  pre&ee  to  which  he  censures  Frezier,  as  above  inen<» 
Ironed.  The  appendix,  of  71  pages,  with  50  plates,  de<» 
scribes  many  extremely  interesting  plants  of  Chili.  These 
loo  botanical  plates  were,  according  to  Haller,  republished 
at  Nuremberg  in  1756  and  1757,  in  2  vols.  4to,  with  a 
German  translation  of  their  descriptions.  The  original 
drawings  of  Feuill^e,  many  of  which  were  never  publishedj^ 
remain  in  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  at  Paris,  but  they  are 
very  rudely  coloured,  and  without  any  pretensions  to  th^ 
•kill  of  a  painter.* 

•  FEUILLET  (Nicholas),  was  a  priest  and  canon  of  >St 
Cloud  near  Paris,  whose  preaching,  those  of  his  communion 
say,  was  zealous,  and  his  doctrine  sound.  He  had  ac- 
quired a  kind  of  licence  to  speak  with  the  utmost  freedoni 
to  persons  of  the  first  rank  at  court,  and  reprove  their  irre* 
gularities ;  from  whence  this  verse  of  the  1 13th  Psalm  was 
applied  to  him ;  ^^  I  will  speak  of  thy  testimonies  also,  even 
before  kings,  and  will  not  be  ashamed/'  Feuillet  converted 
many  sinners,  which  Boileau  alludes  to  when  he  says^ 
"  Laissez  k  Feuillet  reformer  Tunivers ;"  and  was  the  prin- 
Cipal  instrument  in  the  conversion  of  M.  de  Chanteau,  cou-< . 
Sin-german  of  M.  de  Caumartin,  counsellor  of  state.  Tb6 
'irery  instructive  History  he  gave  of  this  conversion  was  . 
printed;  with  some  of  his  other  works,  1702,  12mo,  and 
has  been  several  times  reprinted.  Feuillet  died  at  Paris^ 
September  7,  1693,  aged  seventy-one.  He  left  somd  . 
■^  Letters,"  and  a  **  Funeral  Oration*'  on  Henrietta  of  Eng* 
land,  duchess  of  Orleans.* 

FEUGIUIERES  (Manasses  de  Pas,  Marquis  de),  ona  . 
.^f  the  bravest  French  officers  in  the  seventeenth  century^ 
was  the  son  of  Francis  de  Pas,  head  chamberlain  to  Henry 
IV.  descended  from  the  ancient  house  of  Pas  in  Artois,  and 
of  Magdeleine  de  la  Fayette,  and  was  born  June  I,  1590^ 
at'Saumur.  He  rose  by  his  merit  and  birth  to  the  highest 
military  offices,  commanded  the  king's  forces  twice  as 
chief,  conducted  the  famous  siege  of  Rochelle,  where  hd 
was  taken  prisoner,  and  contributed  greatly  to  the  surren** 
der  of  that  important  place,  through  the  intrigues  of  Mad; 
de  Noailles,  his  wife's  mother.  Being  afterwards  sent 
into  Germany  as  Simbassador  extraordinury,  he  did  great 
service  to  the  state,  was  made  lieutenant-general  of  Metz,' 
T0ul,  and  Verdun  at  his  return,  and  died  at  Thionville/ 

1  Moreri.-^Dictr  Hilt.— Reea'i  CjrplopvdSa.-^HaUer  Bibl.  Bot.       ' 
*  Mm- cfi. 


lilarcb  14,  1^40,.  of  the  wouods  be  bad  received  the  pre* 
.ceding  year  at  the  siege  of  that  city>  during  which  he  w|is 
xoade  prisoner.  His  **.Negociations*'  were  printed  in  Ger* 
laanj^  1633,  and  16S4,  Paris,  1753,  3  vols.  12aio.     Isaac 

^  DE  Pas,  marquis  de  Feuquieres,  his  son,  was  also  lieute- 
nant-general of  the  king's  armies,  counsellor  of  state  in 
ordins^ry,  governor  of  Verdun,  and  lieuteuant*general  of 

.  ITouI.  He  was  sent  as  ambassador  to  Germany,  and  Swie- 
den,  1672,  gave  proofs  of  his  cpurage  ^nd  prudence  during 
this  latter  embassy,  and  died  ambassador  extraordinary  in 
Spain,  May  6,  1688,  after  having  been  viceroy  in  Ame« 
rica,  1660.*  » 

* .  FEUQUIERES  (Anthony  de  Pas,  Marquis  of),  aqvl 
pf  Isaac,  and  grandson  of  the  preceding  Manasses  de  Pas, 
.was  born  in  1648,  but  did  not  greatly  signalize  himself  by 
|iis  military  talents  till  he  was  forty  years  old,  when,  in  Ger- 
many,, he  performed  so  extraordinary  services,  at  the  head 

.  of  only  1000  horse,  tbatjn  the  ensuing  year,  1689,  he  was 
advanced  to  the  rank  of  mareschaUde-camp.  He  then  dis- 
tinguished himself  greatly  in  Italy,  and  was  promoted  to 
be  a  lieutenant-general  in  1693,  in  which  capacity  he 
served  till  his  death  in  1711.  Before  his  death  he  wrote 
to  solicit  the  protection  of  Louis  XIV.  for  his  only  son,  and 
was  successful  in  his  application.  The  marquis  of  Feu- 
quieres was  an  excellent  officer,  of  great  theoretical  know- 

.  ledge,  but  of  a  severe  and  censorious  turn,  and  rendered 
not  the  less  so  by  being  disappointed  of  the  mareschars 
staff.  It  was  said  by  the  wits,  *^  that  be  was  evidently  the 
boldest  man  in  Europe,  since  he  slept  among  100,000  of 

.  bis  enemies,''  meaning  his  soldiers,  with  whom  he  was  no 
favourite*  His  **  Memoirs,'*  are  extant  in  4to,  *and  iii  four 
Tolumes  12mo.  They  contain  the  history  of  the  generals 
of  Louis  XIV.  and  except  that  the  author  sometimes  mii^ 
represents,  for  the  sake  of  censuring,  are^  esteemed'  ^A 
among  the  best  books  on  the  art  military. ,  The  clearness 

.  of  the  style,  the  variety  of  the  facts,  the  freedom  of  the 
reflections,  and  the  sagacity  of  the  observations,  render 

.  these  Memoirs  well  worthy  of  the  attention,  not  only  of 
officers,  but  of  all  enlightened  students  and  politicians.  * 

FEUTSKING  (John  kENRY),  a  Lutheran  divine,  was 
"born  in  the  duchy  of  Holstein,  in  1672.  After  an  useful 
elementary  education^  he  studied  philosophy  and  theology 

«  Moreri.— Biet.  Hbt.  in  Pas.  »  Ibid. 

^#  «    f  «*  ^ 

F  E  U  T  S  K  I  If  G.     ■  sfS$ 

^  RostQck  and  Wifctemberg)  where  be  was  created  doctor 
lo  philosophy,  in  1692.     In  1697,  he  was  appointed  pastor 

]  and  superiotendant  of  the  diocese  of  Jessen,  and  afterwards 
became  pastor  of  the  church  of  St.  Bartholomew  at  Zerbst, 

^  preacher  to  the  court,  confessor  and  ecclesiastical  coun** 

.  sellor,'  and  snperintendant  of  the  diocese  of  Zerbst,  in  Ati* 
halt.  ,  In  ,1709  he  was  appointed  professor  of  divinity,  and 
assessor  oiP  the  ecclesiastical  consistory  of  that  city.  At  the 
same  time  he  preached  once  a  week  before  the  electress  of 
i^axony,  and  was  honoured  with  the  post  of  ecclesiastical 

'counsellor  to  the  dale  of  Saxe-Gotha.     His  last  appoint* 

.  metit  .was.  that  of  confessor  to  the  electress  of  Saxony,  in 

^'1712,  an  office  that  he  enjoyed  but  a  few  months,  as  he 

^  died  in  )7 13,  when  only  forty-one  years  of  age.  His  works, 
enumera|;ed  by  Moreri,  are  very  numerous,  and  chiefly  on 
theological  subjects,  but  are  now  little  known.' 

:  FEVARDENTIUS,  or  FEU-ARDENT  (Francis),*  a 
Franciscan  friar,  was  born  at  Coutances  in  Lower  N6r« 

,  mandy,  in  1541 ;  and  might  have  inherited  a  large  estate, 
had  he  addicted  himself  to  the  military  profession.     Bayle 

'thinks  that  he  judged  rightly  of  himself  and  his  talents, 
and  obtained  a  much  greater  reputation  as  a  divine  than  as 
asoldier.  It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  he  attainedi 
aiiy  just  eminence.  Daille  observes,  that  <' be  deserted 
his  name  Feu^ardent  perfectly  well :  for  tfiat  he  was  so  trans- 
ported with  anger,  hatred,  and  fury,  as  to  be  seldonis  in  his 
right  senses ;"  and  he  certainly  was  as  fiery  a  zealot, 
and  as  bitter  a  persecutor,  as  the  protestants  ever  bad. 
He  was  one  of  the  most  seditious  preachers  who  raised 
the  disturbances  against  Henry  III. .  and  Henry  IV.  i^or 
did  he  spare  even  the  chief  of  the  .  leaguers,   when'  *he 

^  thought  him  guilty  of  something  that  might  prejudice 
the  cause    of  the   rebels.      He   wrote  commentari)es''on 

\  some  books  of  scripture,  and  translated  somd  works 'of 
the  fttbers  into  French.  He  published  at  Paris,  1h*  1-576, 
*'  The  fiye  books  of  Irenaeus,'*  revised  and  corrected  in 
several  places  from  an  ancient  manuscript,  with  an  addi- 
tion of  five  entire  chapters,  which  were  in  his  manuscript 
at  the  end  of  the  fifth  book.  He  has  the  end  o£ 
each  chapter,  such  notes  as  be  thought  necessary  for  the 
better  understanding  of  bis  author,  which  are  for  the  most 

'-  part  useful  and  learned.     The  second  edition,  printed  at 

*  Moreri. 


MS$  t  E'V  ARB  RM  T  I  tJ  & 

Cok^iije  in  1596,  afkl  againr  id  1630,  and  at  Paris  in  lS39> 
is:beuer  than  tbe  first,  as  it  contains  the  Greek  ]>a89age8  tt 
lren0cu$,  which  were  in  Epipbanius,  and  some  other  an^ 
pient  writers.  Feuardent  published  aisd  some  books  of 
controversy,*  which  the  catholics  themselves  own  to  have 
been  written  with  too  much  passion.  He  died  at  Paris  in 
Jf>\Oy  and  before  his  death  Is  said  to  have  attained  a  more 
ealm  and  christian«>like  temper.' 

FEVRE  (Anne  lb).  See  DACIER.  , 
FEVRE  (Guy  de  Sieur  de  la  BoDErtE),  or  Guma 
Fabricius  Boderianus,  was  born  of  a  noble  ftimily  in  the 
territory  of  Boderie,  in  Lower  Normandy,  in  1541.  He 
acquired  great  knowledge  in  the  Oriental  langaages,  and 
bad,  with  his  brother  Nicholas,  the  principal  part  in  thd 
edition  of  the  Polyglott  of  Antwerp,  though  that  bonoor  ii 
Usually  given  to  the  learned  Arias  Montanus.  Le  Fevre 
was  secretary  to  the  duke  d^AIen^on,  brother  of  king 
Henry  III.  ai>d  composed  several  works  in  French,  verse 
9iid  prose,  but  in  a  style  so  vulgar  and  confused,  that  none 
of  them  are  read.  He  died  159S.  Nicholas  le  Fevre  de 
la  Boderie,  hia  brotheri  was  also  very  ingenious  ;  he  died 
after  1 605.  Anthony  le  Fevre  de  la  Boderie,  another 
brother,  distinguished  himself  in  the  reigns  of  Heivry  IV. 
tod  Louis  XIII.  by  his  skill  in  negociations,  and  his  em- 
bassies to  Rome^  the  Low  Countries,  and  England,  where 
he  was  loaded  with  presents.  He  discovered  the  marechal 
de  Biron^s  correspondence  a^  Brussels,  and  rendered  im- 
portant services  to  Henry  IV.  He  died  1615,  aged  sixty^ 
and  left  *^  Traits  de  la  Noblesse,  traduit  de  Tltalien  de 
Jean-Baptiste  Nenna/'  printed  1583,  8vo.  His  <<  Letter^ 
eo  Negociations**  were  published  1749,  5  vols.  12mo,  and 
he  is  also  supposed  to  have  been  among  the  authors  of  the 
^'  Catholicon/*  He  married  the  sister  of  the  marquis  de 
Feuquieres,  governor  of  Verdun,  by  whom  he  had  two 
daughters;  one  died  very  youngs  the  other  married  M» 
Arnauld  d'Andilli  1613,  who  by  her  obtained  the  estate  of 
Pomponne,  and  la  Briotte.' 

FEVRE  (James  LE),  or  Jacobus  Fabsr,  Stapulensis, 
a  man  of  genius  and  learning,  was  born  at  Estaples,  in 
Picardy,  about  1 440 ;  and  was  one  of  those  who  contri- 
btited  to  revive  polite  literature  in  the  university  of  Paris. 
He  became,  however,  suspected  of  Lutheranism,  and  liraa 

*  Bayle  in  Gen.  Diet.— Nicevoo,  toI.  XXXlX.—Moreri. 
»  AlorerL^Dict.  BisU— Mceron,  voU  XXXVlIL-^CIiMifepie. 

DJiKgi^  i:a  gire,  W8]/!  to  the  ourtrage  of  certain  ignorant 
2eKlqfts»  who  fwffered  him  not  to  rest  He  then  retired 
ftoQi'  Paris  to  MeauK,  where  the  bishop  was  William  Bri- 
connet,  a  lo^er  of  the  sciences  and  learned  men ;  but  th« 
persecution  raided  by  the  Franciscans  at  Meaux  obliging 
ibe  bishop,  agaiinst  his  inclination^  to  desert  Faber,  the 
latiter  was  forced  to.  retire  to  Blois,  and  from  thence  to 
Guienne%  Margaret  queen  of  Navarre,  sister  to  Francis  I; 
honoured  him  with  her  protection,  so  that  be  enjo3f  ed  full 
liberty  at  Nerac  till  his  death,  which  happened  in  1537, 
w)ien  be  was  little  short  of  a  hundred.' 

He  was  one  of  those,  who,  like  Erasmus,  though  they 
did  not  outwardly  defmrt  from  the  church  of  Rome,  and 
also  disapproved  in  some,  things  the  conduct  of  those  who 
established  the  reformation  in  Germany,  yet  at  the  bottom 
werja  inclined  to  a  change..  He  took  a  journey  to  8tras<i> 
h^Tgf  by  the  queen  of  Navarre's  order,  to  confer  with 
Bucer  and  Capito  concerning  the  reformation  of  the 
church.  He  published,  so  early  as  1512,  a  translation  of 
St.  PauPs  epistles,  with  critical  notes  and  a  commentary, 
in  which  he.  frequently  censures  the  Vulgate.  He  pub- 
lished in  1522  similar  notes  and  commentary  upon  th^ 
othec  parts  of  the  New  Testament.  Natalis  Bedda,  a  di« 
Tine  of  Pavisi  censured  his  divinity,  as  well  as  that  of 
Erasmus;  and  theinquisitor^of  Rome  under  Clement  Vill: 
put  bis,  commentary. on  the  whole  New  Testament  in  the 
catalogue  of  prohibiteid  books,  till  it  should  be  corrected 
and  purged  from  its  errors.  Father  Simon  has  passed  a 
judgment  oo  this  work^of  Faber's,  which  he  concludes  by 
observing,  that' ^^  he  ought  to  be  placed  among  the  most 
able  commentatofs  of  tiie  age.  But  Erasmus,. who  wrote 
at '  the  same  time,  and  with  infinitely  more  politeness^ 
greatly  lessened  Lds  reputation.  The  works  of  Faber  are 
BO  longer  r^ad  at  Paris;  whereas  those  of  Erasmus  are 
highly  esteemed  even  at  this  day." 

His  ^natural  moderation  left  him  when  he  wrote  against 
his 'friend  Erasmus^  and  the  quarrel  did  not  end  at  all  to 
his  advantage.  Faber  was  angry  at  Erasmus,  it  is  said, 
because  Jie  had  not  adopted  all  his  opinions  upon  certain 
parages  of  scripture,  when  he  published. his  notes  on  the 
New  Testament.  He  therefore  rudely  attacked  him,  and 
accused  him  of  having  advanced  impious  notions.  Eras-^ 
mui  defended  himself  ;v  and  when  he  had,  said  what  was 
iufficient  for  that  piirpose,  begged  of  bis  adve^rsary  tbe 

You  XIV.  S 

S5«  FEVRE. 

continuance  of  his  friendship,  assuring  him  thdt  be  ba^ 
always  loved  and  esteemed  bim.  The  letter  he  wrote  him 
on  this  occasion  is  dated  April  1517,  the  year  that  Luthet 
began  to  preach.  Erasmus  was  very  sincere  in  his  profes- 
iions  to  Faber ;  and,  accordingly,  was  much  displeased 
with  the  compliments  which  he  received  from  bis  friends 
on  his  victory,  desiring  them  not  to  change  their  opinion 
of  Faber  on  account  of  this  quarrel.  What  Erasmus  wrote 
on  this  head  to  Tonstal,  the  English  ambassador  at  Paris 
in  1517,  doe*  much  honour  both  to  himself  and  Faber. 
**  What  you  write  concerning  my  answer  to  Faber,  though 
1  know  you  wrote  it  with  a  most  friendly  intention,  yet 
gave  me  uneasiness  on  a  double  account ;  because  it  re- 
vives my  past  grief,  and  because  you  seem  on  this  occasion 
to  speak  with  less  esteem  than  I  could  wish  of  Faber ;  a 
man  who  for  integrity  and  humanity  has  scarcely  his  equal 
among  thousands.  In  this  single  instance  only  has  he 
acted  unlike  himself;  in  attacking  a  friend,  who  deserved 
iiot  such  usage,  in  so  violent  a  •  manner.  But  what  man 
was  ever  wise  at  all  times?  And  I  wish  I  could  have  spared 
my  adversary :  but  now  I  am  afBicted  for  two  reasons ; 
both  because  I  ani  constrained  to  engage  with  such  a  friend^ 
and  because  I  perceive  some  to  think  less  candidly  of  Fa- 
ber, for  whom  it  is  my  earnest  desire  that  all  should  en^ 
tertain  the  utmost  esteem.''  These  liberal  sentiments  had 
their  effect  on  Faber,  who  repented  of  his  attack,  and  made 
no  reply. 

Some  very  singular  things  are  related  of  his  last  hours. 
Margaret  of  Navarre  was  very  fond  of  Faber,  and  visited 
him  often.  He  and  other  learned  men,  whose  conversa^ 
tion  greatly  pleased  the  queen,  dined  with  her  one  day; 
when,  in  the  midst  of  the  entertainment,  Faber  began  to 
weep.  The  queen  asking  the  reason,  he  answered.  That 
the  enormity  of  his  sins  threw  him  into  grief  v  not  that  he 
bad  ever  been  guilty  of  debaucheries,  but  be  reckoned  it 
a  very  great  crime,  that  having  known  the  truth,  and  taught 
it  to  persons  who  had  sealed  it  with  their  blood,  he  bad^^ 
had  the  weakness  to  keep  himself  in  a  place  of  refuge,  far 
from  the  countries*  where  crowns  of  martyrdom  were  dis* 
tributed.  The  queen,  who  was  eloquent,  comforted  hnn; 
yet  he  was  found  dead  a  few  hours  after  going  to  bed^ 
which,  considering  bis  very  advanced  age,  was  not  very  ex- 
traordinary. He  wrote  several  works  in  divinity,  besides^ 
ibo^e  above'^pientioQedy  particularly  an   edition   of   the 

FE^V  RE.  %5i 

Pjsalter,  in  fite  languages,  Paris,  1 509,  fol. ;  ^^  Trait6  <]« 
puplici,  et  unica  .Magdalena,"  4to;/^  Agones  martyrum 
fiiensis  Jaouarii/'  foL  without  date  of  place  or  year,  but 
.of  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century ;  a  French  ver- 
sion of  the  Bible,  Antvrerpi  15^0,  foL  very  scarce,  knowR 
l^y  the  name  of  the  Emperor's  Bible,  from  the  printer'^ 
naipe.  This  translation,  say  the  catholics,  was  the  foun« 
<lation  of  those  which  the.protestants  and  doctors  of  Louvaia 
have  published.^ 

FEVRE  (James  i,e),  a  celebrated  doctor  of  the  Sor- 
bonne,  archdeacon  of  Lisieux,  and  grand  vicar  of  Bourges, 
was  born  at  Coutance,  of  a  family  which  produced  several 
persons  of  merit  and  learning.  He  gained  great  reputa- 
tion by  his  works,  which  are,  '^  Motifs  invincibles  pour 
convaincre  ceux  de  la  Religion  pretendue  Reform^e," 
12mo,  which,  like  all  his  works,  is  much  esteemed  by 
those  of  hi^  communion.  This  was  followed  by  some  pieces 
in  favour  of  the  ^MMLotifs  invincibles,"  against  M.  Arnauld^ 
who  had  attacked  some  parts  of  them ;  which  dispute  did 
Dot,  however,  prevent  the  doctors  from  being  friends.  He 
wrote  also,  I.  **  Nouvelle  Conference  avec  un  Ministre^ 
touchant  les  Causes  de.  la  Separation  des  Protestans,'' 
16%5i  2.  ^'  Recueil  de  tout  ce  qui  s'est  fait  pour  et  contre 
les  Protestaas  en -France,"  4to.  3*  "Instructions  pour 
confirmer  les  nouveaux  Convertis  dans  la  Foi  de  PEglise.*' 
4*  "  L'Anti- Journal  des  Assenabl^es  de  Sorbonne  :'Vthij 
work,  his  admirers  says,  is  full  of  wit  and  subtile  criticisms 
He  published  also  a  new  edition  of  Dominico  Me^rio's 
.work  "on  the. Agreement  of  the  seeming  Contradictions 
jn  Holy  Script  lire,"  Paris,  1685,  12mo,  in  Latin,  &c  He 
died  July  I,  17,16,'  at  Paris." 

FEVRE  (John  Baptist  le),  of  Villebrune,  where  he 
;Was  bom  in  1732,  was  a  man  of  considerable  classical 
learning!  and  the  author  of  many  useful  translations  into 
the. French  language.  Of  his  personal  history  we  are  only 
told^  that  he  was  a  doctor  of  medicine,  professor  of  orien- 
tal languages  in  the  Frisnch  college,  one  of  the  forty  mem- 
jbers  of  the  French  academy,  and  keeper  of  the  national 
library,  in.  which  he  succeeded  Chamfort.  He  was  not 
much  attached  to  the  principles  which  occasioned  the 
iffench  revolution,  and  was  proscribed  by  the  French  direc« 

.,  J  Bayle  in  Gen.  Diet. — Moreri.— Jortin's  Erasmus.-^Clemeot  Bibl.  Carieuse. 
'    *  M9r«ri.-»Marchand. 

S  2 



fory  for  having  written  a  pamphlet  in  which  h%  niaintaSned 
that  France  ought  to  be  governed  by  a  sitiigle  chief.     After 
l^esiding  occasionally  in  several  places,  he  was  made  pro- 
fiassor  oif  natural  history  at  la  Charente ;  and  when  the  cen-^ 
Ifral  school,  as  it  was  called,  was  shut  up,  he  taught  ma-'' 
thematiqs  and  humanity  in  the  college.  ,  The  last  ten  yeartf 
of  his  life  were  spent  at  Angouleme,  where  he  died  Oct.  7$ 
1S09.     His  character  was  lively,  and  his  temper  sometimetr 
impetuous  and  unguarded,   which  made  him  many  ene- 
mies in  the  literary  world.     He  was,'  however,  a  man  of 
indefatigable  study,    and  was  a  master  of  fourteen  lang- 
uages ancient  and  modem.     His  reading  was  most  exten*^ 
sive,  but  not  well  digested,    and  such   was  bis  love  of 
ariety,  that  he  seldom  adhered  to  any  one  subject  long 
enough  to  produce  a  work  in  which  it  was  completely  dis-^ 
cussed.     He  was,  however,  a  valuable  assistant  to  scholars 
employed  on  any  arduous  undertaking;  and  among  others, 
is  said  to  have  contributed  ta  the  two  editions  of  Strabo 
lately  printed  at  Utrecht  and  Oxford,  by  examining  manu- 
^icripts  for  the  editors.     Among  his  translations  are,  a  valu- 
able one  of  Atbeneeus,  and  the  only  one  France  can  boast 
of  since  that  of  the  abb<S  MaroUes  feH  into  disrepute.     He 
translated  also  Hippocrates's  Aphorisms;  Epicletus;  Ce* 
bes's  Table ;  "  Silius  Italicus,"  of  whom  also  he  published 
an   edition   of  the  original,  in    1781,  containing  various 
readings  from  fout  MSS.  and  from  Laver's  edition  of  1471, 
never  before  collated  by  any  editor.    Yet  in  this  be  ift 
sometimes  rash  in  his  conjectures,  and  pettishly  intempe- 
rate in  noticing  his  predecessors.     Le  Fevre*s  other  trans- 
lations are,  the  **  Memoivs  of  Ulloa,'*  and  *•  Cervantes's 
Tales,'*  from  the  Spanish ;  "  Carli*s  American   Letters'* 
from  the  Italian  ;  Zimmerman  **  On  Experience,**  and  on 
the    **  Epidemic    Dysentery,"    &c.    from    the    German ; 
**  Rosen's  treatise  on  Infants,'*  from  the  Swedish ;  and  the 
tvorks  of  Armstrong  and  Underwobd  cJn  the  aiarae  subjecif, 
from  the  English.     He  published  some  other  workd  rela- 
tive to  the  arts,  sciences,  and  politics,  the  titles  of  whicH 
are   not   given  in   our   authority;  and   left  complete,  or 
nearly  so,  a  translation  of  Aretseus,  which  he  ui^dejrtook  at 
the  request  of  the  School  of  health  of  Paris.'* 

FEVRE  (NICOLAS  LE),  or  Nicolaus  Faber,  a  very  in- 
genious, learned,  and  pious  man,  was  born  at  Pari«|  June.  2, 

^  DtcL  Hist. 

F  E  V.R  K»  t6l 

I  Hi,  ot  actording  to  Perrault,  July  4,  1543^  and  liberally 
eduoated  by  his  mother,  bis  father  dying  in  his  infancy. 
During  the  course  of  his  studies,  as  he  was  cutting  a  pen, 
»  piece  of  the  quill  flew  into  bis  eye,  and  gave  him  such 
excessive  pain,  that  hastily  lifting  up  bis  band  to  it^  he 
(Struck  it  out  with  the  knife*    Having  finished  bis  application 
to  the  languages,  he  was  sent  to  study  the  civil  law  at  Tho-^ 
louse,  Padua,  and  Bologda.     He  did  not  come  back  till  he 
had   travelled  through  Italy:    and  he  resided  eighteen 
months  in  Rome,  about  1571,  where  he  cultivated  a  friend- 
ship with  Sigonius,  Muretus,  and  other  learned  men.     He 
there  acquired  his  taste  for  the  investigation  of  antiquities, 
{md  brought  away  with  him  many  curiosities.     Upon  his 
retuk'n  to  France,  he  applied  himself  wholly  to  letters^  and 
would  hear  no  mention  of  marriage.     His  mother  and  bro« 
ther  dying  in    1581,  he  lived  with  Peter  Pithoeus,  with 
whoqi  he  was  very  intimate;*  and  having  no  occupation 
but  study,  be  employed  himself  in  reading  the  ancients^ 
in  correcting  them  by  MSS.  of  which  he  had  a  great  num- 
ber in  his  own  library,  and  in  writing  notes  upon  theni* 
He  laboured  particularly  on  Seneca  the  rhetorician,  whom 
he  published  in  1587,  with  a  learned. preface  and  notes,  an 
edition  which   we  do  not  find  mentioned  by  Dibdin  oir 
Clarke.     He  applied  himself  also  to , studies  of  a  different 
kind,  to  the  mathematics  particularly ;  in  which  he  sue-* 
ceeded  so  well,  that  he  discovered  immediately  the  defect 
in  Scaliger^s  demonstration  of  the  quadrature  of  the  circle. 
When  Henry  the  Fourth  of  France  became  at  length  the 
peaceable  possessor  of  the  crown,  be  appointed  Faber  pre- 
ceptor to  the  prince  of  Cond^.     During  this  important 
(rust,  he  found  time  to  labour  upon  some  considerable 
works ;  and  composed  that  fine  preface  to  the  fragments 
of  Hilary,  in  which  he  discovered  so  many  important  facts 
relating  to  the  history   of  Ariajiism,  not  known   before^ 
After  the  death  of  Henry  IV.  be  was  chosen,  by  the  queen, 
preceptor  to  Louis  XIII.     He  died  in  1611,  or  according 
jto  Perr^ult,  Nov.  4,  1612, 

.  Though  he  laboured  intensely  all  his  life,  he  was  one  of 
those  learned  men  who  are  not  ambitious  of  the  character 
of  author,  but  content  with  studying  for  themselves  and 
(heir  friends.  He  applied  himself  in  his  youth  to  the 
j^elles  lettres  and  history,  which  he  never  neglected.  Civil 
law,  philosophy,'  and  morality,  were  afterwards  his  occu-» 
pation :  and  at  the  latter  part  of  life,  he  spent  his  tim^ 

«e«  F  E  V  R  K 

cbipfly  among  ecclesiastical  antiquities.  As  he  kept  ti|^ 
a  correspondence  with  all  the  learned  of  Edrope,  when 
he  heard  of  any  person  about  to  publish  an  author,  or  to 
compose  a  work  of  his  own,  he  was  ever  ready  io  assist 
him  with  MSS.  and  to  furnish  him  with  memoirs,  but  with- 
out suffering  any  mention  to  be  made  of  his  name,  though 
his  injunctions  upon  this  point  were  not  always  observed; 
His  own  works,  which  were  but  few,  were  collected  after 
his  death  b}^  John  le  Begue,  his  friend,  and  printed  at 
Paris,  1614,  in  a  small  volume,  4to.  They  consist  of  bib- 
lical criticism,  questions  on  moj^als,  and  philological  pieces 
in  Latin  and  French.  ^ 

The  praises  bestowed  on  Nicolas  le  Fevre,  by  Baillet, 
and  almost  all  the  critics  of  the  time,  are  of  the  most 
exalted  kind ;  an  advantage  which  his  very  great  merits 
would  not  perhaps  have  gained,  had  they  not  been  en- 
hanced by  bis  modesty.  He  was  admired  and  loved,  but 
not  feared.  LIpsius  pronounced  him  a  perfect  critic,  al- 
most the  only  one  capable  of  correcting  and,  polishing  the 
works  of  others;  and  whose  learning,  judgment,  and  dili* 
gence,  knew  no  other  bounds  than  what  his  modesty  pre- 
scribed. Of  the  same  cast  are  the  eulogies  upon  him,  by 
Baronius,  Scasvola  Samarthanus,  Sirmond,  Pithoeus,  Lip- 
sius,  cardinal  Perron,  Isaac  Casaubon,  Scaliger,  Scioppius, 
and  others.  * 

FEVRE  (Tannegui  le),  or  Tanaquil  Faber,  a  very 
learned  man,  father  of  madame  Dacier,  was  born  at  Caen 
in  Normandy  in  1615.  His  father  determined  to  educate 
him  to  learning,  at  the  desire  of  one  of  his  brothers,  who 
was  an  ecclesiastic,  and  who  promised  to  take  him  into  his 
house  under  bis  own  care.  He  had  a  genius  for  music j 
and  early  became  accomplished  in  it :  but  bis  uncle  proved 
too  severe  a  preceptor  in  languages  ;  he  therefore  studied 
Latin  with  a  tutor  at  home,  and  acquired  the  knowledge  of 
Greek  by  his  own  efforts.  The  Jesuits  at  the  college  of 
La  Fleche  were  desirous  to  detain  him  among  them,  an4 
his  father  would  have  persuaded  him  to  take  orders,  but  be 
resisted  both.  Having  continued  some  years  in  Normandy, 
he  went  to  Paris ;  where,  by  his  abilities,  learning,  aud 
address,  he  gained  the  friendship  of  persons  of  the  highest 
distinction.  M.  de  Noyers  recommended  him  to  cardinal- 
de  Bichelieu,  who  settled  on  him  a  pension  of  2000  Uvres^ 

I  P^piQ,-*•Ifjcero|^  to).  yiI.«^J«rnttlt  Leslioinaei  Illttstrei* 

F.  E  V  B,  E;  t6| 

jko.  inspect  all  the  works  printed  at  the  Louvre.    The  car- 
dinal designed  to  have  made  him  principal  of  the  college 
which  he  was  about  to  erect  at  Richelieu^  and  to  settle  on 
bim  a  farther  stipend :  but  he  died,  and  Mazarine,  who 
succeeded,  not  giving  the  same  encouragement  to  learning, 
the  Louvre  press  became  almost  useless,  and  Faber's  pen- 
sion was  very  ill  paid.     His  hopes  being  thus  at  an  end,  ha 
quitted  his  employment ;   yet  continued  some  years  at 
Paris,ivpursuing  his  studies,  and  publishing  various  works. 
$ome  years  after  he  declared  himself  a  protestaut,  and 
became  a  professor  in  the  university  of  Saumur;  which 
place  he  accepted,  preferably  to  the  professorship  of  Greek 
at  Nimeguen,  to  which  he  was  invited  at  the  same  time. 
His  great  merit  and  character  soon  drew  to  him  from  all 
parts  of  the  kingdom,  and  even  from  foreign  countries, 
numbers  of  scholars,  some  of  whom  boarded  at  his  house* 
He  had  afterwards  a  contest  with  the  university  and  con- 
sistory of  Saumur,  on  account  of  having,  unguardedly  and 
absurdly,  asserted  in  one  of  his  works,  that  he  could  par- 
don Sappho's  passion  for  those  of  her  own  sex,  since  it 
bad  inspired  her  with  so  beautiful  an  ode  upon  that  subject. 
Upon  this  dispute  he  would  have  resigned  his  place,  if  he 
could  have  procured  one  elsewhere :  and  at  last,  in  1672, 
he  was  invited  upon  advantageous  terms  to  the  university  of 
Heidelberg,  to  which  he  was  preparing  to  remove,  when 
he  was  seized  with  a  fever,  of  which  he  died   Sept.  12, 
1.672.     He  left  a  son  of  his  own  name,  author  of  a  small 
tract  *^J)e  futilitate  Poetices,''  printed   1697   in   12mo, 
who' was  a  minister  in  Holland,  and  afterwards  lived, in 
London,  then  went  to  Paris,  where  he  embraced  the  Ro** 
misb  religion ;  and  two  daughters,  one  of  whom  was  the 
celebrated  madam  Dacier,  and  another  married  to  Paul 
Bauldri,  professor  at  Utrecht     Huet  tells,  that  *'  he  had 
almost  persuaded  Faber  to  reconcile  himself  to  the  church 
of  Rome,'*  from  which  he  had  formerly  deserted ;  '<  and 
that  Faber  signi6ed  to  him  his  resolution  to  do  so,  in  a 
letter  written  a  few  months  before  his  death,  which  pr€|i> 
vented  him  from  executing  his  design.^'     Voltaire,  if  fa^ 
may  be  credited,  which  requires  no  small  degree  of  qai^- 
tion, ,  says  he  was  a  philosopher  rather  than  a  Hugonat,  and 
despised  the  Calvinists  though  he  lived  among  them. 

T.  le  Fevre  was  agreeable  in  his  person,  and  his  statu^f 
above  the  common  standard ;  but  a  little  stiff  in  his^  beha* 
viour.    He  was  §ood-aatured|  but  somewhitt  blunt  in  bis 

ft«4  F  E  V  R  E. 

conversation.  He  had  a  strong  avemon  to  falsehood  and 
loquacity.  He  was  always  very  elegant  in  (lis  dress,  an4 
60  expensive  in  this  article,  that  be  is  said  to  have  sent 
constantly  to  England  for  whole  boxes  of  gloves,  silk 
stockings,  &c.  and  to  Paris,  and  even  to  Rome,  for  all 
sorts  of  essences,  perfumes,  and  powders.  He  was  subject 
tQ  sudden  starts  of  passion  in  his  family,  which,  however, 
were  soon  over.  His  books,  his  children,  and  his  garden, 
in  which  he  cultivated  all  kiuds  of  flowers  himself^  4i^ere  his 
ordinary  diversions.     He  ate  and  slept  little. 

He  published,  1.  "  Luciani  de  morte  Peregrini  libellus, 
cum  notis,'^  1653,  4to.  He  thought  this  the  best  of  Lu- 
cian's  pieces ;  and  had  a  design  to.  give  ftn  edition  of  ail 
his  works,  which,  however,  he  never  executed.  2.  •*  Dia- 
4;ribe,  Flavii  Josephi  de  Jesu  Christo  testimonium  supposi* 
turn  esse,"  1655,  8vo.  3.  "  Luciani  Timon,"  with  a  Latin 
version  and  notes.  4.  "  Epistokrum  pars  prima,"  1 65d, 
4to.  *' Pars  secunda:  cui  accedunt  Aristophahis  Con* 
cionatrices,  GrsBce   &   Latine,   cum    uotis,"     1665,     4to. 

6.  *^  JournaUu  Journal,  ou,  Censure  de  la  Censure;"  and 
•afterwards,  6.  "  Seconder  Journal ine;"  both  in  1666,  4to. 

7.  "  Abreg6  des  Vies  des  Poetes  Grecs,"   &c.  with  "  the 
marriage   of  Belphegor,    and  the  life  of  Theseus,    from 
Plutarch,"  1665,  in  12mo.     8.  "  Convivium  Xenopbontis." 
V.  "  Platonis  Alcibiades  primus."      10.  "  Plutarchus  de 
•Superstitione ;"  all  in   French  translations,   1666;  as  was 
the  year  after,   11.  "  Aristippi  Vita  a  D.  Laertio."     This 
last  was  inserted  by  De  Sallengre,  in  his  **  Memoirs  de 
Literature,"  torn.  ii.  p.  2.     In  the  same  volume  of  the  same 
work  was  published,   12. -'^  Methode  pour  commencer  les 
bumanii^b^'Grecqueset  Latines:"  translated  in  English,  and 
published  by  Phillips,    in  a  book  entitled  *^  A   compen* 
dious  way  of  teaching  ancient  and  modern  languages,  for- 
merly practised  by  the  learned  Tanaquil    Faber,  in  the 
education  of  one  of  his  sons,    and  of  his  daughter  the 
celebrated   madam   Dacier.     To   which   are  added,  some 
tracts  and  observations  on  the  same  subject  by  several  emi- 
nent men,  namely,  Roger  Ascham,  Richard  Carew,  Milton, 
Locke,  &c.     With  an  account  of  the  education  of  the 
dauphin,  by  Bossuet  bishop  of  Meaux,"  1723,  8vo.     13. 
^^  Fabulee  ex  Lodtnanis  Arabico-Latinis  versibus  redditsB,*' 
1673,   12mo;  and  subjoined,  the  year  after,  to  the  first 
-volume  of  the  second  edition  of  bis  '*  EpistolsB."     14.  He 
published  notes  upon  several  Greek  and  Latin  authois 

T  E  V  R  E.  ft&i 

of  aiujtiqiiUy. :  imnliely,  Ap<»Uodoriis,  Longinus/  AAacreon, 
Aristophanes,  j£lian|  Lucretius,  PUsedrus,  Virgil,  Horace, 
.Terence,  futrbpius,  Justin,  Dionysius  Periegetes,  and 

The  character  of  this  critic  has  been  very  variously  re- 
presented.    Bochart  calls  him  a  man  excellently  skilled  in 
tbe  Latin  and  Greek  learning,  and  of  uncommon  sagacity 
aqid  penetration.     TolUus  tells  us,  that  he  was  a  person  of 
great  wit  and  pleasantry,  and  wonderfully  polished  by  all 
the  elegance  of  the  Greek  and  Roman  literature.     Guy 
Patin,  in  a  letter  dated  at  Paris  Sept.  2i,  1666,  gives  hiia 
the  character  of  an  excellent  person,  and  one  of  the  first  rank 
of  learned  men  of  that  age.     Nicholas  Heinsius  represents  ' 
him  as  a  man  of  learning  and  genius,  but  somewhat  con- 
ceited.    Morhof  says,  that  he  ^^  was  very  learned,  a  good 
philologer,  well  skilled  in  the  Greek  language,  of  a  very 
fine  and  enterprizing  genius,  who  from  his  own  imagin%>- 
tion  made  a  great  many  alterations  in  authors,  though  desti- 
.tute  of  manuscripts ;  which  rashness,  however,  sometimes 
ancqeeded  very  well  with  him,  who  by  his  own  sagacity 
saw,  what  others  search  for  with  great  labour  in  manuscripts. 
But  he  is  more  than  once  severely  animadverted  upon  by 
other  writers  on  account  of  his  presumption;  for  he  fre- 
quently  corrects  at  his   pleasure   corrupt  passages,  and 
makes  prodigious  alterations  in  writers.     Many  of  his  con.^ 
.  jectures  are  contained  in  bis  epistles,  of  which  there  ara 
two  books,  in  which  he  explains  the  passages  of  the  an* 
cients  contrary  to  the  opinion  of  every  body  ;  though  be 
is  highly  to  be  valued  on  account  of  the  elegance  and 
•    acuteness  of  his   genius.*'     Morhof  also  applies  to  him, 
the  line 

Destruit^  ffidificat^  mutat  quadrata  rotun<fis. 

Huet,  bishop  of  Avranches,  assures  us  that  our  author 
was  well  skilled  in  the  Greek  and  Roman,  and  all  the  an« 
cient  learning.  Niceron  observes,  that  "his  Latin  style  is 
fine  and  delicate,  without  any  points  or  affectation  ;  every 
thing  is  expressed  very  happily  in  it.  He  had  lH<evyise  a 
good  genius  for  Greek  and  Latin  poetry ;  and  his  verses 
are  worthy  of  the  better  ages.  His  French  style  has  not 
the  graces  of  his  Latin.  He  knew  well  enough  the  rules 
of  our  language,  but  he  did  not  truly  understand  the  ti'ue 
genius  and  natural  propriety  of  it.  As  he  lived  in  the 
l^rovince,  that  is,  almost  out  of  the  wodd,  he  wrot^  more 

see  T-E  V  R  R 

by  study  than  custom,  and  he  has  not  always  observed  th€ 
French  turn  and  idiom.  Besides,  he  spoiled  his  style  by 
a  vicious  afifectation,  endeavouring  to  mix  the  serious  of 
Balzac  with  the  humour  and  pleasantry  of  Voiture.  Not* 
withstanding  these  defects,  what  he  has  written  in  our  lan« 
guage  will  still  please ;  and. if  his  translations  have  not  all 
the  elegance  possible,  they  support  themselves  by  theiv 
accuracy,  and  the  learned  remarks  which  accompany  them.^* 
Mr.  William  Baxter,  in  the  dedication  of  his  edition  -of 
Anacreon,  styles  him  *<  futilis  Gailus,"  and  affirms  that 
our  author  in  his  notes  upon  that  poet  every  where  trifles, 
and  with  all  his  self-conceit  and  vanity  has  shewn  himself 
absolutely  unfit  for  that  task.  In  another  place  he  writes 
thus:  *<  Nugatur  etiam  Tanaquillus  Faber,  utsolet;^'  and 
at  last  he  styles  him,  ^^Criticaster  Gallus.*'  Some  modern 
critics  have  not  been  much  more  favourable  to  his  critical 

FEVRET  (Charles),  an  eminent  French  civilian,  was 
born   at   Semur,    the  capital  of  Auxois,  Dec.    16,  1583. 
After  studying  at  Dijon,  Orleans,  and  other  places,  be 
was  received  as  an  advocate  of  parliament  in  1602,  when 
only  nineteen  years  old,  and  the  same  year  he  went  into 
-Germany  to  attend  the  celebrated  Bongars,  who  was  sent 
by  Henry  IV.  resident  from  France,  into  the  empire ;  but 
soon  left  him,  to  study  the  law  at  Heidelberg,  where  the 
well>-knbwn  Godefroy  was  at  that  time  law-professor.  Gode- 
froy    paid    great    attention    to  Fevret,   who  was  recom- 
mended by  several  persons  of  quality :  he  received  him 
into  his  house,  and  caused  him  to  hold  public  disputations, 
which  he  did  with  great  *  applause.     In  1607,  Fevret  re- 
turned to  Dijon,  whiere  he  married  Mrs.  Anne  Brunet  of 
Beaulne,  by  whom  he  had  nineteen  children ;  fourteen  of 
which  they  brought  up  together  during  eight  years.     After 
his  wife's  death,  which  happened  in  1637,  he  very  whim-" 
^ically  caused  his  bed  to  be  made  one  half  narrower,  and 
pever  would  marry  again.     He  gained  great  reputation  it 
the  bar  at  Dijon ;  and  was  chosen  counsellor  to  the  three 
estates  of  the  province.     In  1629,  Lewis  the  Thirteenth 
being  come  to  Dijon  in  order  to  punish  a  popular  insure 
rection,  Fevret  was  chosen  to  petition  the  king  that  he 
ivould  graciously  be  pleased  to  pardon   the  guilty.     {}e 
ipoke  for  all  the  corporations,  and  made  so  elegant  a  dis-  . 

*  Qen.  Diet— Morerit^^Niceron^  yole*  III.  and  X.7<-Ciement  Bibl.  CaWewie* 

F-EVR'ET.'  »6t 


coiinie,  thai  the  king  commanded  him  to  print  it,  and  to 
tend  it  to  him  at  Lyons.  His  m^esty  then  pardoned  thD 
authors  of  the  sedition,  and  granted  to  Fevret  tbe  plaste  of 
counsellor  in  the  parliaufient  of  Dijon  ;  but  not  beit>g  per- 
mitted to  employ  a  depiaty,  he  refused  it,  because  he  would 
not  quit  his  profession  of  an  advocafe,  and  contented  him- 
'«elf  witii  the  posts  of  king's  ccrunsellor  and  secretary  to 
the  court,  with  a  pensida  of  900  livres.  H6  wrote  a  his- 
tory of  this  insurrection,  which  was  published  some  time 
after.  As  he  was  frequently  sent  a  deputy  to  the  court, 
he  was  known  to  de  Morillac,  keeper  of  the  seals  of  France, 
who  honoured  him  with  his  friendship.  As  early  as  1626 
and  1627,  Monsieur,  the  king's  brother,  had  chosen  him 
for  his  counsellor  in  ordinary  in  all  his  affairs ;  and  the 
prince  of  Cohd6  had  made  him  intendant  of  his  house,  and 
of  his  affairs  in  Burgundy.  He  was  continued  in  the  same 
post  by  his  son  Louis  de  Bourbon  prince  of  Cond6  ;  and/ 
during  the  life  of  these  two  princes,  he  was  honoured  with 
their  favour  in  a  distinguished  manner.  Frederic  Casimir, 
prince  palatine  of  the  Rhine,  and  his  consort  Amelia  An« 
twerpia,  born  princess  of  Orange,  chose  him  also  their 
counsel  and  intendant  for  their  affairs  in  Burgundy.  He 
had  an  extensive  correspondence  with  all  the  learned  ci- 
vilians in  his  time.     He  died  at  Dijon,  in  1661. 

He  published  in  1645,  a  small  Latin  treatise  entitled 
**  De  Claris  Fori  Burgundici  Oratoribus,"  and  his  "  Traiti 
de  I'Abus'*'  in  1653,  which  last  celebrated  work  was  written 
at  the  solicitation  of  the  second  Lewis  de  Bourbon  prince 
of  Cdndd  he  enlarged  it  afterwards  by  one  half,  which 
occasioned  a  second  edition  of  it  after  his  death,  in  1667. 
It  was  reprinted  a  third  time  ten  years  after ;  but  the  best 
edition  is  that  of  Lyons,  1736,  in  two  volumes,  folio.  He 
made  an  excellent  translation  of  Pibrac's  (See  Faur)* 
Quatraiifs,  in  Latin  verses,  printed  at  Lyons,  1667,  with 
a  commentary  under  this  title,  "  De  bfficiis  vitas  humans^, 
sivej  in  Pibraci  Tetrasticha  Commentarius."  Several  au- 
thors have  mentioned  him  and  his  works  in  a  very  honour- 
able manner.  •  He  had  a  son  Peter,  also  a  man  of  learnings 
who  died  in  1706,  and  left  his  fine  library  to  the  Jesuits 
of  Dijon,  with  fhnds  for  increasing  it.  In  1708,  a  cata-i 
loglie  of  it  was  published  in  4to,  with  a  preface  by  father 

1  Qen.  Diet,— Marerl— rNictron;  vols,  II.  aiKJ  X. 

fees  FEVREt; 

FEVRET  DB  FoNTETTE  (Chakles  Marie),  great  graad-r 
son  of  the  former,  was  born  at  Dijon  in  1710,  and  edu? 
cated  to  the  profession  of  the  law*  By  distinguishing  bimr 
self  in  aom^  great  causes,  he  obtained  a  pension  from  tb^ 
^orernment  He  Ijsiboured  for  several  years  in  the  publir 
cation  of  a  new  edition  of  Le  Lony^s  *^  Bibliotb^que  Hi^to^ 
rique  de  la  France/'  and.  compiled  so  much  matter  as  to 
extend  that  work  from  a  single  volume  in  folio,  to  four 
vast  folios,  besides  a  fifth  containing  indexes,  &c.  At 
the  time  of  his  deaths  which  happened  in  1772,  he  was  a 
member  of  the  French  academy  of  Belles-lettres,  and  dir 
rector  of  the  university  of  Dijon.  He  was  a  man  pleasing 
in  society,  and  of  much  zeal,  both  literary  and  patriotic^ 
He  lived  to  see  only  two  volumes  of  bis  edition  of  Le  Long 
published.    The  rest  were  edited  by  Barbeau  de  BruyereJ 

FEYDEAU  (Matthew),  a  French  clergyman  of  the 
Jansenist  party,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1616,  and  studied  in 
the  college  of  the  Sorbonne,  where  he  obtained  the  estepm 
of  persons  of  all  ranks.  In  1645,  he  was  engaged  by  Mi* 
de  Bellegarde,  archbishop  of  Sens,  to  deliver  a  course  of 
•instructions  to  the  candidates  for  holy  orders  in  his  diocese 
He  obtained  some  preferment  in  the  chnrch,  and  comr 
posed  several  useful  books,  among  which  was  one  entitled 
^^  A  Catechism  on  Grace^''  which  was  afterwards  reprinted 
with  the  title  of  ^'  Illustrations  of  certain  difficulties .  re* 
Bpecting  Grace.^^  This  work  was  condemned  by  a  decree 
of  the  inquisition  at  Rome,  which  M.  Fouquet,  attorney* 
general  of  the  parliament  at  Paris,  would  not  permit  to 
be  promulgated  in  that  city.  In  1656,  M.  Feydeau  wa^ 
one  of  the  seventy-two  doctors  who  were  expelled  by  the 
faculty  of  the  Sorbonne  for  refusing  to  subscribe  to  th^ 
condemnation  of  M.  Arnauld  ;  and  on  this  account  he  wa3 
obliged  to  relinquish  his  preferments.  After  this,  for  se- 
veral years,  he  lived  chiefly  in  retirement,  and  produced 
his  '^  Reflections  on  the  History  and  Harmony  of  the  Gosir 
pels,''  in  2  vols.  12mo;  a  work  which  has  gone  through 
several  editions.  In  1665,  he  was  presented  by  the  bi* 
shop  of  Aleth  with  a  prebend  in  his  diocese,  which  he  rer 
.lugiied  in  16lf8,  in  order  to  undertake  the  cure  of  Vitri.lis 
Francois,  in  Champagne,  which  after  seven  years  he  was 
obliged  to  give  up,  in  consequence  of  the  persecutions. with 
which  his  party  was  harassed.     He  was  banished  to  Bourge»s 

I  Diet.  Bi6^ 

FE'Y'D'E  A.U.  269 

in  '1 677  ;  and  afterwards  was  sent  to  Anndnai  in  the  Vi<« 
ifdfes,  where  he  died  July  24,  1694.  He  published  many! 
w^ojrks  besides  those  above<*mentioned)  and  left  behind  hiin> 
aiany  others  that  have  not  yet  appeared,  particularly  me'^ 
noirs  of  himself,  as  far  as  1678,  and  many  letters.  A  long^ 
Latin  epitaph,  engraved  on  his  tomb,  which  is  preserved 
1>y  Moreri,  was  written  by  a  religious  of  the  Celestine 

FEYJOO  (Benedict  Jerom),  was  a  learned  physician 
of  the  order  of  St.  Benedict,  born  in  Spain,  who  died  in 
1765:  By  his  writings  many  have  thought  that  he  con- 
tributed as  much  towards  curing  the  mental '  diseases  of 
his '  compatriots  and  reforming  the  vitiated  taste  of  his 
countrymen,  by  introducing  liberal  notions  in  medicine 
ind  philosophy,  as  the  great  Michel  Cervantes  had  done 
those  of  a  preceding  age,  by  his  incomparable  history  of 
Don  Quixote.  In  the^'  Teatro  Critico,  sopra  los  Errores 
<;Dmmunes,'*  which  he  published  in  fourteen  volumes,  are 
many  severe  reflections  against  the  ignorance  of  themonks^ 
the  licentiousness  of  the  clergy,  ridiculous  privileges,  abnse 
ef  pilgrimages,  exorcisms,  pretended  miracles,  &c.  &c.  by 
whidi  he  made  a  formidable  host  of  enemies,  and  would 
eertainly  have  been  also  a  martyr,  had  the  numerous  calls 
of  vengeance  been  listened  to  by  those  in  power.  The 
leaVned  part  of  the  nation,  however,  undertook  his  de* 
fence,  and  he  escaped  the  grasp  of  the  inquisition ;  and, 
notwithstanding  the  freedom  he  had  taken  with  th^  faculty, 
the  medical  college  at  Seville  conferred  on  him  the  degree 
of  doctor^  and  honoured  him  with  a  seat  at  their  hoards 
*!•  Bourgoing  observes,  that  Dr.  Feyjoo,  or  Feijoo,  was 
one  of  those  writers  who  treated  this  conjectural  art  in  the 
most  rational  manner,  but  he  is  certainly  far  from  con« 
sistent,  and  sometimes  lays  down  a  doctrine  which  he  is 
obliged  afterwards  to  abandon.  A  considerable  part  of 
his  **  Teatro  Critico"  was  translated  into  French  by  D'Her- 
mil1y,.in  12  vols.  12mo;  and  several  of  his  Essays  have 
been  published  at  various  times  in  English,  the  largest* 
collection  of  whidh  is  entitled  "  Essays  or  Discourses,  se- 
lect^ed  from  the  works  of  Feyjoo,  and  translated  from  the 
Spanish,  by  John  Brett,  esq."  1780,  4  vols.  Svo.  The 
best  are  those  on  subjects  of  morals  and  criticism.' 

«  Morcrl.  «  Diet.  Hist. 

VtO  f  I  C  H  A  R  0* 

FICHARD  (John),  was  a  lawyer  of  Frankfort  on  lli^ 
Maine,  and  syndic  of  that  tewn,  where  he  died  in  158>1^ 
lit  tb6  age  of  sixty-ninCi  He  was  the  author  of  several 
works,  of  which  the  most  famous  was  his  *^  Virorum  qui 
snperiori  nostroque  seeculo  eruditione  et  doctrina  illustres 
atque  memorabiles  fuerunt,  Vitae,"  Francfort,  1536,  4to, 
a  work  of  so  great  rarity,  that  some  bibliographers  have 
doubted  its  existence.  He  afterwards  published,  2.  "  Vitas 
recehtioruni  jurisconsultorum,''  Padua,  1565,  4t0,  of  which 
Clement  notices  a  prior  edition  in  1537.  3.  *'  Onomas-* 
ticon  philosophico-medico  synonymum,"  1 574.  4.  '*  De 
Cautelis,'*  1577.  5.  "  Concilium  Matrimoniale,"  1680.* 
^  FICHET  (Alexander),  a  man  of  considerable  learnings 
was  born  about  1589,  and  becoming  a  Jesuit,  was  ap« 
pointed  professor  of  classics  and  rhetoric  in  the  college  of 
the  Trinity  at  Lyons.  The  time  of  his  death  is  not  qien* 
tioned.  He  is  known  principally  for  an  edition  of  thdl 
whole  body  of  poets,  which  he  corrected  and  published 
under  the  title  of  "  Chorus  Poetarum,"  Lyons,  1616,  add-* 
ing  several  pieces  of  the  lower  empire,  an  ample  index; 
and  a  '^  Musaeum  rhetoricum  et  poeticum,'*  which  seem» 
to  be  a  collection  of  the  beauties  of  the  poets.  He  pub*^ 
lished  also,  ^^  Arcana  studiorum  omnium,  et 
bib4iotheca  scientiarum,"  Lyons,  1649,  8vo,  reprinted  by 
Fabricius  in  1710,  with  additions;  "  Favus  Patrum,"  a 
collection  of  the  thoughts  of  the  fathers,  in  12mo,  above 
1000  pages,  and  some  other  works.* 

FICHET,  or  FISCHET  (William),  was  an  eminent 
prior,  and  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne  in  1454,  and  rector  of 
the  university  of  Paris  in  1467,  who  taught  rhetoric,  phi«< 
losophy,  and  divinity,  with'  great  reputation.  He  opposed 
the  plan  formed  by  Louis  XL  of  arming  the  scholars,  and 
was  entrusted  with  several  commissions  of  importance* 
Fichet  went  to  Rome  with  cardinal  Bessarion,  who  dedi* 
cated  his  orations  to  him  in  1470,  and  he  was  well  received 
by  pope  .Sixtus  IV^  and  appointed  hit  chamberlain.  We 
have  a  work  of  bison  '^Rhetoric,''  and  some  '* Epistles/' 
written  in  very  elegant  language  for  that  age,  pritited  at 
the  Sorbonne,  147 1,  4to,  aiid  which  has  been  sold  as  high  - 
as  50/.  It  was  Fichet,  who  with  his  friend  John  de  1^ 
Pierre,  brought  Martin  Crantz,  Ulric  Gering,  and  Michael 
Friburger,  from  Germany  to  the  Sorbonne,  in  order  to  in*; 

^  Moreri.-'Dkt,  Hift— Clement  Bibl.  Corisuse.  *  Moreru 

r  I  c  I N  u  s.  «7i 

troduce  printing  in  France;  and  Fichei^s  works  sibove  men« 
tioned  were  among  the  first  they  produced.  ^ 
<   FICINUS  (Marsiuus),  a  learned  Italian,  and  the  reytyef 
of  the  Platonic  philosophy  in  the  West,  was  born  at  Flo- 
rence in  1433y  where  his  father  was  physician  to  Cosmo  de 
Medici,  and  sent  his  son  to  pursue  that  study  at  the  uni- 
versity of  Bologna.    Marsilius  obeyed  him  with  some  re- 
luctance, but  having  made  a  short  trip  from  Bologna  to 
Florence,  his  father  took  him  with  him  on  a  visit  to  Cosmo 
de  Medicts,  which  gave  a  new  turn  to  his  life  and  studies. 
.Cosmo  was  so  charmed  by  his  appearance  and  his  spirited 
answers,  that  from  that  moment,  although  Marsilius  was 
at  this  time  merely  a  youth,  he  destined  him  to .  be  th^ 
principal  of  the  Platonic  school  which  he.was  about  to  form« 
With  this. view  he  brought  him  to  reside  with  him,  superin- 
tended his  studies,  and  treated  him  with  so  much  kind* 
ness,  that  Marsilius  regarded  him  ever  after  as  a  second 
parent.    He  made  such  rapid  progress  in  the  study  of  phi- 
losophy, that  be  was  only  twenty-three  years  old,  when  he, 
wrote  bis  four  books  of  the  Institutions  of  Plato.     Cosmo 
ai^d  the  learned  Landino,  to  whom  he  shewed  the  manu- 
script, highly  applaiided  his  labours,  but  advised  him  to 
learn  Greek  before  be  should  publish  them.     This  he  ac- 
cordingly studied  with  his  usual  ardour,  and  gave  the  first 
proof  of  the  progress  he  had  made  by  translating  the  hymns 
0f  Oi^heus  into  Latin.     Reading  about  the  same  time  in 
Plato  that  heaven  had  bestowed  music  on  man  in  order  to. 
ealm  his  passions,  he  learned  that  science  also,  and  am^ed 
kimself  with  chanting  the  hymns  of  Orpheus,  accompany*: 
ing  himself  with  a  lyre  resembling  that  of  the  Greeks.    He 
translated  afterwards  the  book  on  the  origin  of  the  world 
attributed  to  Mercurius  Trismegistus,  and  having  presented 
t^ese  firstofcuits  of  his  Greek  studies  to  his  patron,  Cosmo 
rewarded  him  with  a  grant  of  jsome  land  at  Careggi,  near 
J^orence,  and  with  a  house  in  the  city,  and  some  very  mag- 
Bificent  manuscripts  of  Plato  and  Plotinus. 
t    Marsilius  now  undertook  the  entire  translation  of  Plato, 
frbicfa  he  completed  in  five  years,   and  was  then  in  his 
tihirty-fifth  year.     Cosmo  was  now  dead,  but  his  son  Peter 
who  succeeded  him,  had  the  same  friendship  and  esteem 
for  our  author,  and  it  was  by  his  orders  that  he  published 
translation,  and  lectured  on  the  works  of  Plato  at  Flo-; 

^  MoFAri. — MaitUire  Annal.  Typo|^. 

rm^ce  to  ah  aitdi^nce  convposed  of  the  €nniii$iit  sc^kolari  oi 
Europe  who  w^re  most  conversant  in  ancient  phil6sophyi 
Lorien2o  also  extended  bis  patronage  to  Mar&ilkis,  whd 
baving  taken  priest's^  orders  in  his  forty-second  year.(1475)^ 
Lorenzo  bestowed  several  benefices  on  him,  which  tendered 
kirn  easy  in  his  circa  mstances.  More^benevev  wished^ 
and  when,  by  Lorenzo's  bounty^  be  had  attained  tliis  com# 
petency,  he  made  over  his  patrimony  to  hisTeladons.  Hi^ 
time  was  now  divided  between  his  ecclesiastical: dudes  and 
bis  philosophical  studies/  His  life  was  exemplary,  and  hi^ 
temper  amiable.  He  loved  retirement,  especially  at  bii 
country-seat,  where  he  enjoyed  the  consecsatioB  ^£ -a  few 
friends.  Although  bis  constitution  was  w*eak,'  and  hetjw^m 
frequently  a  sufferer  by  disease,  hik  ardour  of  study  nevwo 
abated:  The  pleasure  he  felt  in  his  retirement,  hisieon* 
tented  disposition,  and  his  respect  for  the  Medici  &miljv 
itiadehim  refuse  some  great  oSers  made  by  pope  Sixtna 
IV.  and  by  Matthias  Corvinus,  king  of  Hungary*  Hediwl^ 
at  the  age  of  sixty-six  in  1439.  :W V      .     . 

*  As  a  philosopher,  muish  cannot  now  be  said  in  favour  ol 
Ficinus,  and  the  high  encomiums  to  which  he  appeared 
entitled  in  the  fifteenth  century,  will  not  all  bear  the  te^ 
of  modern  criticism.  His  works  afford  abundant  proofe 
how  deeply  be  was  influenced  by  the  reveries. of  judicial 
astrology.  His  principal  want  was  vigour  and  accumey^if 
judgment,  with  which  if  he  bad  been  fucnkhed,  be  wmild 
hare  avoided  the  superstitious  sUitacbfoent  tnanifested  by 
bim  tothe  ^  Platonismns  Alexandrinus^V  than  whict^  fi£uc««' 
ker  observes,  no  philosophical  reveries  could  possibly  be 
more  ridiculous ;  and  he  would  have  evinced  more  sagaciibjK 
in  detecting  the  sophisms  of  tbis  sect.  He  was  devoidalso 
of  the  more  splendid  ^and  exterior  graces,  of  a  .welliouki'*' 
vated  understanding;  his  style  is  pronounced  inelegaaV 
and  his  language  confusecL  He  was  a  Platoaifit'  ev^eQ^m 
his  correspondence,  and  some  of  his  letters  are  enignolioftl 
and  mysterious.  Bruoker  also  accuses  him  of  being  of^  '^ 
timid  and  servile  spirit,  which  would  naturally  lead  bim.  to 
accommodate  his  vision  to  the  judgi»eQt,of  his  patroiij 
He  enteriained  the  notion  which  prevailed  amoDg.  the 
Christian  fathers,  that  the  doctrine  of  Plato  was,  in  some 
aort,  ofdivine  origin,  and  might  be  fairly  construed  into  a 
perfect  agreement  with  that  of  divine  revelation-  Frooi 
these  causes,  Ficinus  is  very  far  From  adhering  with  strict- 
ness to  his  author's-  meaning ;  ia  many  instances  he  rather 

F  1  C  I  N  0  S.  278 

e»pf€8ses  his  Qwiv  coDceptioas  tkan  those  of  Ptato,  tnd 
oft^n  ^ives  bis  interpretafcioa  a  bias  towards  tbe  Alexan- 
drian or  Christian  doctrine,  for  wbicb  he  has  na  sufficient 
suithority  in  the  original.  On  the  whole>  Brucker  ia  of 
opinion^  that  Ficinus  was  rather  an*  industrioua  than  a  judi^- 
cious  translator,  and  that  his  version  of  Plato  should  be 
read  with  caution^  The  chief  part  of  hia  works  are  con-' 
tained  in  the  Paris  edition  of  164 1,  in  2  vola^  folio^  amongst 
which  those  of  most  merit  are  the  versions  of  Plato  and 
Plotinus.  Of  some,  of  his  works  there  are  very  early  edi* 
tioas,  now  of  great  rarity.  * 

FICORONI  (FRAiicis),  a  famous  Roman  medallist,  au* 
tiquary,  and  Cicerone,  was  born  in  1664,,  at  Lugano,  aud 
died  in  1747.  Of  bi^  personal  history,  our  authority  furnishes 
uo  otl^r  particulars  than  that  be  was  a  disciple  of  J.  P«.  Bel^ 
lori.  He  was,  however,  the  author  of  mauy  wocks  oa  sub« 
jects  of  classical  antiquities,  written  in  the  Italian  language^ 
pisHticularly  ^^  Avertimenti  delle  Medaglie  antiche,'^  men- 
tioned by  Menckenius,  and  written  about  1694.  2.  ^<  Os- 
servaa^ni  sopra  Pautichit^  di  Rqma  descritte  nel  Diario 
]taUco  del  Montfikucon^"  &c.  1709..  3.  'V  Bella  BoUa 
dforo  de'  FanciuUi  uobili  Romamo,'*  "^c.  1732^  4.  ^^  D^ 
Tailed  aUra  Strum«^ti  lusori  degli  autichi  Romani,''  17^4^ 
5v  *^  Le  Maschere  Sceniche  e  figure  Comiche  de'  antiebi 
Rooi^m^"  1736.  (This  is  illustrated  with  engravings  front 
aiic^t  gems,  cameos,  marbles,,  and  bronzes,  upon  nearly 
100  plates  well  executed,  is  replete  with  erudition  on 
tb<e  subject,  and  Is  at  once  curious,  amusing,  and  instruc- 
tive. It  is  peculiarly  connected  with  dancing,  saltation, 
comic  scenes,  and  the  musical  declamation  and  melody  of 
the  ancients.)  6.  *'  Piombi  autichi,''  1740  i^r-M  published 
at  RoBpie.  The  two  latter  were  translated  into  Latiii^  the 
fyiU  entitled  *'  De  Lanris  Scenicis  et  figuris  comicis  auti* 
quorum  Romanorum,''  1750.  The  second  ^^  De  Plumbeis 
anti<|4iorum  niimismatibqs^  tarn  sacris  quam  profanis,^  1750, 
b<Mh  by  Dominicas  Cantagallius,  whose  real  name,  Winckel- 
saan  aeems  to  say,  was  Arcbangelo  ContuccL  He  wrote 
aWp;  7.  <^  Le  Vestigia  e  Rarita  di  Roma  antica,  richercat^ 
et  spi^ate,''  1744;  a.  second  book' entitled  ^^  La  Singcn* 
latk^  di  Ronaa  moderna,''  and  some  other  tracts. ' 


1  Guingeuft  Hist.  Lit.  d'ltalie.'— ^rressweli's  Politian.— Scbelbora's   AmcBiii- 
fates  LitterarisD.—- Niceron,  Yols.  V.  and  X.— 'Brucker.'-CI^iQeat  Bibl.CUiieaiMw  - 
»-«^iifti  Onomast.  ■  . 

<  Sazii.  Onomast.-*-R«ei'8  Cyclopaedia. 

Vol-  XIV.  '  T 

hri  F  f  b  f)  jfc  W 

FIDAUZA;     See  BONA  VENTURE.  ^ ' 

FIDDES  (Richard),  an  English  divine,  and  labofiotri 
Writer,  wa*s  born  of  reputable  parents,  at  Hunmanby  neat 
Scarborough  in  Yorkshire  in  1671.  In  his  education  he 
Was  much  encouraged  by  his  uncle  the  rev.  Mr.  Fiddes  of 
Brightwell  in  Oxfordshire,  who  was  as  a  father  to  hiiHl 
After  being  instructed  at  a  private  school  at  Wickbam  in 
that  neighbourhood,  he  was  admitted  of  Corpus ^Christi, 
arid  then  of  University  college,  in  Oxford;  where  by  hid 
parts  andi  address  he  gained  many  friends.  He  did  not, 
however,  continue  there  ;  but,  after  taking  a  bachelor  of 
arts  degree  in  1693,  returned  to  his  relation^,' and  married, 
in  the  same  year,  Mrs.  Jane  Anderson,  a  lady  of  good 
family  and  forfuhei  In  1694,  he  was  ordained  priest  by 
Dr.  Sharp,  archbishop  of  York  ;'  and  not  long  after,  pre- 
sented to  the  rectory  of  Halsham  in  that  county,  of  about 
^O/.  per  annum.  Halsham,  being  situated  in  a  marshy 
proved  the  occasion  of  much  ill  health  to  Fiddes  and  his 
family ;  and  he  had  the  misfortune,  while  there,  to  be  sud- 
denly so  deprived  of  his  speech,  as  never  after  to  be  abld. 
to  utter  words  very  articulately,  unless  his  organs  were 
strengthened  with  two  or  three  glasses  of  wine,  which,  as 
he  was  a  nian  of  great  temperance,  was  to  him  an  excess. 
His  diocesan,  however,  dispensed  with  his  residence  upon 
his  benefice  for  the  future;  on  which  he  removed  to  Wick- 
ham,  and  continued  there  »ome  months.  Being  no  longer 
able  to  display  his  talents  in  preaching,  which  before  sirere 
confessedly  great,  and  having  a  numerous  family,  he  re- 
solved to  devote  himself  entirely  to  writing.  For  this  pur- 
pose, he  went  to'  London  in  1712;  and,  by  the  favour  of 
dean  Swift,  was  introduced  to  the  earl  of  OxfcJrd,  who  re- 
ceived him  kindly,  and  nVade  hiih  one  of  his  chaplains. 
The  dean  had  a  great  esteem  for  Fiddes,  and  recommended 
his  cause  wtth  the  warmth  and  sincerity  of  a  friend.  The 
queen  soon  after  appointed  him  chaplain  to  the  garrison  at 
Hull,  and  would  probably  have  provided  handsbmfely  for 
him,  had  not  dedith  prevented  her.  Losing  his  patrons 
llpon'the  chaqge  of  the  ministry  in  1714,  he  lost  the  above 
mentioned  chaplainship ;  and  this  expences  of  his  family 
i  icreasing,  as  his  ability  to  supply  them  lessened,  he  was 
obliged,  to  apply  himself  to  writing  with  greater  assiduity 
than  ever.  Yet  he  continued  in  high  esteem  with  contem- 
porary writers,  especially  those  of  his  own  party  ;  and  was 
encouraged  by  some  of  the  mdst»  eminent  men  of 'thoise 

F  I  D  D  E  S.  $>5L 

times.     By  the  generosity  of  his  friend  and  relation  Dr.. 
vRadcliife,  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  divinity  ,was  conferredi 
upon  him  by  diploma,  Feb.  1,  1713,  and  in  1718  he  was 
honoured  by  the  university  of  Oxford  with  that  of  doctor,, 
in  considei*ation  of  his  abilities  as  a  writer.    He  died  at  the 
Jbouse  of  his  friend  Anstis  at  Putney,  in   1725,  Aged  fifty- 
four  years,  leaving  behind  him  a  family  consisting  of  a  wife 
and  six  children.     His  eldest  daughter  was  married,  to. the 
nev.  Mr.  Barcroft,  curate  of  St.  George's,  Hanover-square, 
who  abridged  Taylor's  "  Ductor  Dubitantium."  Dr.  Fiddes 
was  buried   in   Fulham  churchyard,  near  the  remains  of 
bishop  Compton,  to  whom  he  had  been  much  obliged. 
.  His  first  publication  appears  to  have  been,   1.  "A  pre- 
fatory Epistle  concerning  some  Remarks,  to  be  .published 
an  Homer's  Iliad  :  occasioned  by  the  proposals  of  Mr.  Pope 
towards  a  new  EnglisIT  version  of  that  poem,  17  14,"  12mo. 
It  is  addressed  to  Dr.  Swift.     It  would  seem  to  have  been 
his  intention   to  write  a  kind  of  moral  commentary  upon 
Homer;  but,  probably  for  want  of  encouragement,  this  never 
appeared.     The  first  work  by  which  he  distinguished  him- 
self in  any  considerable  degree,  was,  2.  ^^  Theologia  Spe- 
culativa :  or  the  first  part  of  a  body  of  (^vinity  under  that 
tiUe,  wherein  are  explained,  the  principles  of  Natural  and 
Itevealed  Religion,  1718,"  folio.     This  met  with  a  favour- 
able reception  from  the  public  : ,  yet  when  Stackhouse,  a 
man  certainly  not  of  much  higher  talents,  afterwards  exe- 
cuted a  work  of  a  similar  nature,  he  endeavoured  to  dje- 
preciate  the  labours  of  his  predecessor.     Dr.  Fiddes's  se- 
cond part  is  entitled  '^  Theologia  Practica,  wherein  are 
explained  the  duties  of  Natural  and  Revealed  Religion ;" 
and  was  pubhshed  in  1720,  folio*     The  same  year  also  he 
published  in  folio,  3.  ^'  Fifty-two  practical.  Discourses  on 
several  subjects,  six  of  which  were  never  before  printed.'* 
These,  as  well  as  his  Body  of  Divinity,  were  published  by 
a  subscription,  which  was  liberally  encouraged  at  Oxford. 
But  the  work  which  gained  him  the  most  friends,  and  most 
enemies,  was,  4.  "  The  Life  of  Cardinal  Wolsey,   1724," 
in   folio,  dedicated  to  the   chancellors,    vice^^chancellors, 
doctors,  and  other  members  of  the  two  universities ;  and 
encouraged  by  a  large  subscription.  This,  work  was  attacked 
with  great  severity  in  "  The  London  Journal,"  and  the  au- 
thor charged  him  with  being  a  papist ;  who  repelled  this 
accusation  in,  5*  "  An  Answer  to  Britannicus,  compiler  of 
the  London  Joums^l,  1725,"  in  two  letters^  in  the  first  of 

T  2 

in  F  I  D  I>  E  & 

wbich  he  endeavouri  to  obviate  the  charge  of  popery ;  ia 
the  second,  to  show  his  impartiality  iu  the  life  of  .thi&  car-i 
dinaK  Dr.  Knight,  in  the  *^  Life  of  Krasmus/'.  published  a 
little  after  our  author^s  death,  attacked  him  in  the  severest 
terms,  accuaing  him  of  speaking  irreverently  of  Erasmus, 
*i  probably,**  says  be,  f^  because  he  h^d  by  his  writings  fa«* 
Toured  the  reformati(^D.'**-r-Dr..  Fiddes,  he  says,  vilifies  the 
reformation,  depreciates  the  instruments  of  it,  and  paU 
Mates  the  absurdities  of  the  Romish  church.  He  declares 
also  that  the  life  was  written  at  the  solicitation  of  bishop 
Atterbury,  on  the  occasion  of  the  dispute  in  whi(;b  he  waa 
then  engaged  with  archbishop  Wake:  and  that  A!tterbury 
supplied  him  with  materials,  suggested  matter  and  method^ 
entertained  him  at  his  deanery,  procured  him  subscribers^ 
and  **  laid  4he  whole  plan  for  forming  such  a  life  as  might 
blacken  the  reformation,%  cast  lighter  odours  upon  popery^ 
and  even  make  way  for  a  popish  pretender.'^  Fiddes,  inV 
deed,  had  given  occasion  for  part  of  this  surmise,  by  saying, 
that  **  a  very  learned  prelate;  generously  offered  to  let  me 
compile  the  life  of  cardinal  Wolsey  in  his  house.'V  Sn^^ 
picipn  was  likewise  heightened  by  the  eulogium  he  mad» 
on  Atterbury,  a  little  before  his  deprivation.  Though  it 
may  be  difficult  to  determine  bow  far  this  author  was  at 
the  bottom  an  enemy  to  the  reformation,,  yet  in  his  Life  of 
Wolsey,  his  i^rgudices  in  favour  ef  the  i&ncient  religion 
are  unquestionably  strong,  and  in  these  he  shared  with 
some  contemporaries  of  no  inconsiderable  fame.  As  a  coU 
lection  of  facts,  however,  th&work  is  highly  valuable,  and 
he  has  the  merit  (whatever  that  may  be  esteemed)  of  placing 
the  life  and  character  of  Wolsey  in  a  more  just  light  than 
any  preceding  writer.  As  the  munificent  founder  of  Christ 
church,  he  could  not  avoid  a  certain  reverence  for  Wolsey, 
nor,  if  Attef'bury  assisted  htm,  can  we  wonder  at  that  pre- 
late's disposition  to  t\kink  well  of  so  great  a  benefactor  to 
learning,  who  would  have  proved  a  still  greater  benefactor, 
liad  he  not  been  sacrificed  to  the  avarice  and  caprice  of 
hisr  royal  master.  - 

The  great  encouragement  which  the  life  of  Wolsey  obri 
fained,  prompted  Fiddes  to  undertake  the  lives  of  airTho^ 
mas  More  and  bishop  Fisher:  but  when  he  bad  gone  through 
a  gceat  part  of  this  work,  he  loat/his  manuscript  *«     He 

'  •  i^n  advertisement  was  published,  Barcroft,  bis  i^an-in-tair,  offspring  •  r«- 
but  without  effect,  a  little  after  the  ward  to  any  t>ere6n  who  could  prodtica 
dodor'f  de^ihj  by  tbe  itverenU  Mr.     tba  mauufrctiptr    Is  the  proposali  ibr 

r  ID  D  E  s. 


fitiblisbedy  6.  ^^  A-getieral  tl'eatise'of  Morality^  foi'med  upon 
Ibe  principles  of  Natural  Reason  only ;  with  a  preface  iiC 
aAswer  to  two  essays  ktely  published  in  the  Fable  of  th^ 
Beesy  and  some  incidental  remarks  upon  an  Inquiry  con* 
oetning  Virtae,  by  the  right  honourable  Anthony  earl  of 
Shaftesbury,"  1724^  Bra,  In  his  preface,  he  defends  seme 
opinions  of  Shaftesbury  against  the  anthbr  of  the  **  Search 
into  the  Nature  of  Society  }**  and  afterwards  vindicates  Dr; 
lladcKfFe  from  the  aspersions  of  the  same  author,  on  ac* 
count  of  his* benefactions  to  the  university  of  Oxford.  ?» 
^<  A  Pfdlparative  to  the  Lord*s  Sapper.^  8.  <<  A  Letter  ia 
answer  to  one  frttn  a  Freethinker,  occasioned  by  the  late 
diike  of  Buckingham's  epitaph :  wherein  certain  passages 
iri  it  that  ha?e  been  thought  exceptionable  are  vibdicated, 
and  the  doctrine  of  the  soul's  immortality  asserted.  To 
fdiich  is  prefixed,  a  version  ^f  the  epitaph,  agreeably  to  th^ 
explication  given  of  it  in  the  Answer ;''  in  1721,  8vo.  The 
epitaph 'and  vei^sion,  which  are  here  subjoined,  will  satisfy 
the  reader  that  Fiddes  misunderstood  it,  without  being  at 
the  trouble  to  read  his  pamphlet : 

^  Pro  ^^  seepe,  pro  Republfea  semper. 

BubiuSj  non  improbus  vixi. 

IncertuB  mtnioPi  sed  inturbati^. 

Humanum  estemre,  &  nescire. 

Christum  advenerori  Deo  confido^ 

Omnipotently  benevolentissimo. 

Ens  £ntium>  miserere  meL" 

.    **  Much  for  the  prerogative^  ever  for  my  country. 

I  lived  irregular,  not  profligate. 

Though  going  to  a  state  unknown,  I  die  resigned. 

FniUty  and  Ignorance  attend  on  human  li%. 

Religiously  I  worship  Christ,  in  God  confide^ 

*- \  Aimigbty«  and  most  merciful; 

,    /         0  thou  principle  of  all  BeingSj  and  first  of 
.  *  .  Causes,  have  compassion  on  me.*' 

jtliii  undertaking,  it  is  said,  "thatUie 
iO(iin)li(er  of  cardinal  Wofoey's  Life, 
baring  in  the  progress  «f  that  work» 
met  with  several  curiods  nieiboirs  re- 
fating  to  the  character  and  conduct  of 
€)rThoaHi8  More,  som^mechantellor 
^•f  England*  and  John^l'i^er  biihopof 
Kochester,  conterifpdfariirs  ^tli  fftfe 
cardinal,  hath  beeh  advlsea^^ffibtfth 
the  LtTeaof  those  two  great  meli;  ilMi 
^otb  accordingly  propose  to  publish 
Jlbeai  ib  Micbaelmas  term  1725,  upon 
» prospect  thai  an  attempt  of  thii  kjod 
iDay  be  of  some  service,  towards  a 
better  illiutifation  of  the  history  of  tbs 

time  wherein  they  tpurished,  botli  in 
tretpeet  to  the  pf>lttical  4nd:  ecclesiasti- 
cal state  of  affairs."  These  two  Lives 
were  to  make  about  HO  sheets  in  a 
lairge  letter ;  and  tbe  first  four  sheets, 
which  are  in  the  hands  of  one  of  th« 
doctor's  intimate  friends,  are  wrtttep 
in  a  style  suitable  to  the  dignity  of 
history;  and  shew  that  be- had  not 
been  sparing  in  his  researches.  The 
late  Mr.  Oldiswortb,  who  had  seen  tb* 
manuscript  in  question,  offered  to 
complete  the  two  Lives,  in  case  they 
should  be  found.    Lift  in  QeD«  Di/^. 

ili  F  I  D  D  E  k 

Dr.  Fiddes  ^as  an  ingenious,  but  not  a  very  learned  m'aW 
He  had  so  happy  a  memory,  that  he  retained  every  thing- 
he  read,  and  never  made  use  of  notes  in  preaching.  He 
was  far  from  being  a  nervous  writer,  abounding  in  matter, 
but  was  prolix  and  tedious,  for  which  it  has  been  offered  as^ 
an  apology  that  his  necessities  did  not  allow  him  time  to 
contract  his  thoughts  into  a  narrower  compass.  It  is  rea- 
sonable to  suppo<ie,  that  he  was  sincere  in  his  professions 
concerning  the  hierarchy ;  and  as  reasonable  to  suppose, 
that  he  had  no  affection  for  popery.  In  his  Life  in  the  Ge* 
neral  Dictionary,  is  a  letter  from  him  to  a  protestant  lady, 
to  dissuade  her  from  turning  Roman  catholic,  which  sets 
this  question  at  rest.  His  misfortunes,  in  the  latter  part 
of  his  life,  were  chiefly  owing*  to  his  strong  attachment  to 
ai  party.  His  application  to  bis  studies  was  so  intense,  that 
he  would  frequently  pass  wbole  nights  in  writing,  which, 
together  with  Jiis  misfortunes,  is  supposed  not  a  little  to 
have  hastened  his  death*.  He  was  reckoned,  upon  the 
whole,  a  good  man,  but  rather  wanting  in  point  of  prtt- 
dence,  and  by  no  means  a  manager  of  his  moneyl' 

FIDELIS  (Cassandra),  a  very  learned  lady,  of  a  family 
originally  of  Milan,  is  supposed  to  have  been  born  about 
1465.  She  was  early  instructed  in  the  Greek  and  Latin 
languages,  elocution,  and  the  Aristotelian  philosophy,  to 
which  she  was  partial,  and  maintained  a  correspondence 
with  many  of  the  literati  of  her  age.  She  is  said  to  have 
been  of  unblemished  morals,  great  frankness  of  disposition, 
and  occasional  gaiety.  Politian  considered  her  as  no  less 
a  prodigy  among  her  sex  than  Picus  was  among  his,  and 
was  so  struck  with  her  character,  that  he  visited  Venice 
almost  solely  with  a  view  to  converse  with  her  ;  and  persons 
of  all  ranks  vied  in  their  respect  for  her,  while  crowned 
heads  invited  her  by  large  offers  to  visit  and  settle  in  their 
courts.     In  1487,  Cassandra  delivered  a  public  oration  be- 

*  Our  author,  about  a  year  before  contempbtioa  in  the  Bodleian  libraiy, 

bis  deaib,  being  in   Oxf« irJ,  bad  in>  that  he  did  not  take  notice  of  the  s^hut- 

vited  several  persons  of  consequence  ting  it  up;  and  might  have  spent  the 

in  that  university  to  sup  with  him  at  whole  night  there,  had  not  the   inarti« 

his  lodgings.     The  guests  came,  the  cuiat^  noise  he  mad6  from  the  window 

entertainment  was  got  ready  and  spoilt,  occasioned  a  student  wlio  was  passing 

but  the  doctor  could  not  be  met  with  i>y  to  take  notice  of  him,  and  procure 

in  any  of  the  colleges.     At  last,  how-  histrelease  by  the  assibtaoce  of  Uie 

ever,  be  appeared  j  when  it  was  found  "janitor.  ; 

that  be  had  been  so  much  wrapt  up  in 

.  1  Life  by  Dr.  Birch  in  the  Oeneral  Dictionary,  of  which  a  poor  abridgment,^ 
'without  acknowledgment!  was  made  by  Dr.  Tower6  for  the  new  edition  of  the 
Blograpbia  Britaoiiica. 

F  .i  D  E  1 1  s.  eip 

f<>«e  the  university  of  Padua,  "  pro  Alberto  Lamberto  Ca- 
jnonico  Concordiensi,"  a  philosophical  relation  of  hers,  which 
is  still  e;ctant.  Some  suppose  her  to  have  been  in  the  prac- 
tice of  delivering  public  lectures  in  that  university,  but  this 
is  doubted  by  her  biographer.  She  had  once  the  honour 
of  acjidressing  a  complimentary  oration  to  Bona  Fortia, 
que^n  of  Sarmatia,  when  visiting  Venice,  which  was  deli- 
yered  in  the  Bucentauro,  sent  out  with  a  suitable  train  to 
meet  and  escort  her  into  the  Venetian  port ;  on  which  oc- 
casion the  queen  presented  her  with  a  magnificent  gold 
(phain;  but  Cassandra,  with  that  philosophic  indifference 
which  she  had  always  evinced  for  this  precious  metal,  gave 
it  next  day  into  the  hands  of  the  doge. 

Agreeably  to  the  will  of  her  father,  she  gave  her  hand 
to  Jo.  Maria  Mapellius  of  Vicenza,  a  learned  physician,  in 
ber  connexion  with  whom  she  experienced  various  re- 
verses. In  1521  she  became  a  widow.  In  her  ninetieth 
year  ,she  was  appointed  to  preside  over  a  religious  society 
of  her  own  sex  at  Venice,  and  died  in  1558,  or  as  some 
#ay  in  1567.  She  had  composed  a  work  "De  Scientia- 
rum  Ordine,"  frequently  mentioned  in  her  letters,  but  it 
was  never  published.  Tbomasinus  wrote  her  life,  prefixed  to 
her  "Epistolae  et  Orationes  Posthumae,'*  Padua,  163jS,.  8vo.* 

FIELD  (Richard),  an  eminent  English  divine,  was  bora 
Oct.  15,  1561,  in  the  parish  of  Hempsted  in  the;  county  of 
Hertford,  of  an  ancient  family  of  good  repute  in  that 
county.  The  estate  which  came  to  him  from  his  father 
and  grandfather  had  been  in  the  family  ms^ny  years  before, 
and  it  is  recorded  as  somewhat  singular  that  out  of  his- 
grandfather's  house,  there  had  died  but  three  owners  of 
this  estate  in  160  years.  He  received  his  first  education  in 
tihe  free  school  of  Berkhampstead,  and  was  afterwards  ad- 
mitted of  Magdalen-hall,  Oxford ;  and  such  was  the  cha- 
racter he  left  behind  him,  that  his  chambers  and  study  there 
fi^ere. shewn,  for  a  time  after  he. quitted  them.  But 
.Recording  to  Wood's  account,  he  was  first  admitl:ed  of 
Magdalen  college  in  the  year  1577,  and  proceeded  A.  B. 
before  he  went  to  Magdalen-hall,  where  he.^took  his  mas- 
ter's degree,  and  ^as  esteemed  the  best  disputant  iu  vthe 
schools.  After  some  time  spent  in  the  study  of  divinity^ 
be  read  the  catechetical  lecture  in  Magdalen-hall,  which, 
though  a  private  lecture,  was  in  his  bands  rendered  so. ih^ 
.^eresting  as  to  be  much  frequented  by  the  whole  univer- 

^  Gccsswell^a  PoUtiaD,  &c«— Roscoe's  LQreDZO.«*Nrceron|  Vm.-^TirabQftcbu 

180  F  I  E  L  D. 

sity.  Dr.  John  Reynoldsi  though  greatly  his  senior^  and 
either  then  or  soon' afti^r  Margaret .professori  audpresident ; 
of  Corpus  Christi  college,  was  a  constant  ^auditor.  FieUl 
was  well  skilled  in  school  divinity,  and  a  frequent  preacher 
while  he  lived  in  Oxfordshire,  and  is  said  to  have  been  very 
instrumental  in  pi^yenting  the  increase  of  nonconformity 
in  the  university.  His  .father^ had  provided  a  match  for 
him,  as  being  his  eldest  son ;  but  his  not  taking  orders 
being  made  an  indispensable  requisite,  he  thought  fit  to 
decHne  the  choice,  and  returned  to  Oxford  ;  and  after  he 
had  spent  seven  years  tf^ere,  he  became  divinity  reader  in 
Winchester  cathedral. 

In  1594  he  was  chosep  divinity  reader  to  the  honourable 
society  of  Lincoln^s-inn,  and  soon  after  presented  by  Mr. 
Richard  Kingsmill,  one  of  the  benchers  and  smveyor  of 
the  court  of  wards,  to  the  valuable  rectory  of  Burgbclear 
in  Hampshire,  where  Mr.  Kingsmill  lived,  and  refused  the 
living  of  St.  Andrew,  fiolborn,  which  was  afterwards  of-^ 
fered  to  him^  preferring  a  retired  life,  and  passing  the 
greater  part  of  his  time  at  Burgbclear  to  his  death.  On 
April  9j,  1594,  he  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Mr.  Ri-« 
irhard  Harris,  sometime  fellow  of  New  coltege^  Oxford, 
and  r^tor  of  Hardwicke  in  Buckinghamshire,  with  which 
]ady^  S^i^^  had  received  a  very  libera^  education,  he  lived 
happtljp:  upwards  of  twenty  years.  On  Sept.  27,  1598,  he 
was  rhade  chaplain  in  ordinary  to  queen  £lizabetb,  after 
having,  on  the  23d  preceding,  preached  a  kind  of  proba- 
tionary sermon  before  her  majesty;  and  he  was  soon  after 
made  pfeb^ndary  of  Windsor.  He  was  also  joined  in  the 
spedal  eomihission  with  William  marquis  of  Winchester, 
add  Thotnas  Bilson  bishop  of  Winchester,  &c.  for  eccle- 
siastical cabse^  Within  the  diocese  of  Winchester ;  and  in 
another  to  exercise  all  spiritual  jurisdiction  in  the  said- dio- 
cese, with  Whitgift  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Charles 
earl  of  Ndttingham,  Thomas  bishop  of  Winchester,  and 
others,  by  James  I.  1603,  to  whom  be  was  also  chaplain  ivn 
ordinary,  and  sent  to  the  conference  at  Hampton  court, 
concerning  ecclesiastical  causes,  held  Jan.  14,  1603.  In 
1 605,  when  the  king  was  to  be  entertained  at  Oxford  with 
all  manner  of  scholastic  exercises,  he  was  sent  for  out  of 
the  country  to  bear  a  part  in  the  divinity  act.  Sir  Natha^ 
Diel  Brent,  afterwards  warden  of  Merton,  used  to  say.  that 
the  disputation  between  Dr.  Field  and  Dr.  Aglionby,  before 

kia^  James,  was  the  best  he  ever  heard  la  hU  Ufe>  and  tbfiSk 

F  i  E  L  D.~  fSi 

k'»was  listened  to  with  grelt  attention  a/nd  delight  by  all 
present.  The  question  was,  ^^  An  sancti  et  angeli  cognos* 
cant  c<^itationes  cordium  ?'' 

About  1610  the  king  bestowed  on  him  the  deanery  d 
Gloucester,  where  he  never  resided  long,  but  in  order  to 
pYeacb  four  or  five  times  a  year  to  a  full  auditory  who  re* 
3pe€ted  and  loved  him.  ^  The  greatest  part  of  his  time  he 
spent  at  bis  parsonage,  and  tbe  winter  at  Windsor,  where 
his  house  in  the  cloister  was  the  resort  of  all  who  were 
eminent  for  learning,  to  enjoy  his  conversation,  and  pro-^ 
fit  by  his  sentiments  on  ecclesiastical  affairs,  and  on  the 
parties  and  sects  which  divided  the  Christian  world.  Dr. 
Barlow,  dean  of  Wells,  and  Dr.  Craken thorp  were  among 
his  correspondents.  He  rejoiced  when  any  man  noted  for 
learning  was  made  prebendary  of  Windsor;  and  oftea 
visited -sir  Henry  Savile  at  £ton  college,  and  other  emi* 
nent  persons  in  that  il)sighboarhood.  He  often  preached 
before  the  king,  who,  the  first  time  he  heard  him,  said, 
^<  Is  his  name  Field  ?  This  is  a  fold  for  God  to  dwell  in  ;'* 
and  Fuller,  in  the  same  punning  age,  calls  him  *^  that 
learned  divme,  whose  memory  swelleth  like  sl  field  which 
the  Lord  bath  blessed."  In  the  king^s  progress  through 
Hampshire,  in  1609,  the  bishop  of  Winchester  appointed 
him  among  those  who  were  to  preach  before  him  j  and  in. 
1611,.  the  king  having  a  niind  to  hear  the  prebendaries  of 
Winchester  in  their  order,  the  dean  wrote  to  him  first,  and 
he  preached  oftener  than  any  of  them,  and  to  crowded  aU'*^ 
diertces.  The  king,  who  delighted  to  discourse  with  him 
on  points  of  divinity,  proposed  to  send  him  into  Germany 
to  compose  the  differences  between  £he  Lutherans  and 
Calvinists,  hut,  for  whatever  reason,  this  appointment  did 
not  take  place ;  and  not  long  before  his  death,  the  king 
would  have  made  him  bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  gave  him  a 
promise  of  the  see  of  Oxford  on  a  vacancy.  Bishop  Hall 
tells  us,  that  about  the  same  time  he  was  to  have  been 
made  dean  of  Worcester.  On  OcL  27,  1614,  he  lost  his 
wife,  who  left  him  six  sons  and  a  daughter.  After  con*, 
tinaing  a  widower  about  two  years,  he  married  the  only 
daughter  of  Dr.  John  King,  prebendary  of  Windsor  and 
Westminster,  widow  of  Dr.  John  Spenser,  some  time  pre-f 
sident  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford,  but  with  her  he* 
lived  not  much  above  a  ntontb.  She.  however  bred  up  hitf 
only  daughter,  and  married  her  to  bet  eldest  son,  of  which 
match  there  were  three  sons  and  five  daughters. 


t»a  jr  I  E  L  Di 

..Dc«  Field  had  reached  the  beginning  of  fai$  fifty -fsiztfaf 
year,  when,  on  Nov.  15,  1616,  he  died  of  an  apoplexy,  or 
some  imposthume  breaking  inwardly,  which  suddenly  de- 
prived him  of  all  sense  and  motion.  He  was  buried  in  the 
outerxhapel  of  St.  George  at  Windsor,  below  the  choir. 
Over  his  grave  was  laid  a  black  marble  slab,  with  his  figure 
in  brass,  and  under  it  an  inscription  on  a  plate  of  the  same^ 
metal,  recording  the  deaths  of  him  and  his  first  wife.  His 
whole  life  was  spent  in  the  instruction  of  others,  both  by 
precept  and  example.  He  was  a  good  and  faithful  pastor, 
an  afitictionate  husband  and  parent,  a  good  master  and 
neighbour ;  charitable  to  the  poor,  moderate  in  bis  pur- 
suits, never  aiming  at  greatness  for  himself  or  his  posterity^ 
be  left  to  his  eldest  son  very  little  more  than  what  descend- 
ed to  him  from  his  ancestors.  He  had  such  a  memory  that 
he.used  to  retain  the  substance  of  every  book  he  read  ;  but 
liis  judgment  was  ..still  greater.  Although  he  was  able  to 
penetrate  into  the  most  subtle  and  intricate  disputes,  be 
was  more  intent  on  composing  than  increasing  controver- 
sies. He  did  not  like  disputes  about  the  high  points  of 
predestination  and  reprobation,  yet  appears  rather  to  have 
inclined  to  the  Calvinistic  views  of  these  matters.  When 
be  first  set  about  writing  his  books  *^  Of  the  Church,^*  his 
old  acquaintance  Dr.  Kettle  dissuaded  him,  telling  hioi 
that  wheri  once  he  was  engaged  in  controversy,  he  would 
never  live  quietly,  but  be  continually  troubled  with  answers 
and  replies.  To  this  he  Si^id,  "  I  will  so  write  that  they 
$ball  have  no  great  mind  to  answer  mef'  which  proved  to 
be  nearly  the  case,  as  his  ptiain  arguments  were  never  re- 
futed. This  work  was  pubJidhed  at  London  in  1606,  folio, 
in  four  books,  to  whiqhv  he  added  a  fifth  in  1610,  folio, 
with  an  appendix  containing  a  defence  of  each  passage  of 
thq  former  books  that  were  excepted  against,  or  wrested  to 
the  maintenance  of  Romish  errors.  All  these  were  re- 
printed at  Oxford  in  1628,  folio.  This  second  edition  is 
<;harged  by  the  Scots  in  their  "  C.anterburian's  Self-convic- 
tion," 1641,  folio,  with  additions  made  by  bishop  Laud. 
The  purport  and  merit  of  this  work  has.  reminded  some  of 
the  judicious  Hooker,  between  wBom  and  Dr.  Field  there 
was  a  great  friendship.  Dr.  Field  published  also  a  sermon 
on  St.Jude,  v.  3,^1604,  4to,  preached^before  the.  king  at 
Windsor ;  and,  a  little  before  his  death,  had  composed 
gr^at  part  of  a  work  entitled  "  A  view  of  the  Controversies 
in  Religion,  ^vhiqh  in  times  have  caused  the  la^ 

T  I  E  L  D.  5rS3 

mentable  divisions  in  the  Christian  world  ;"  but  it  was  never 
completed^  though  the  preface  was  written  by  the  author, 
and  Is  printed  at  large  in  the  Life  of  him  by  his  Son,  toge- 
tlier  with  some  propositions  laid  down  by  him  on  election 
and  reprobation.  This  Life  was  published  from  the  origi- 
nal by  John  Le  Neve,  author  of  the  •*  Monumenta  Angli<» 
cana,"  in  16t7>  8vo,  and  from  a  copy  of  it  interleaved  X 

with  MS  notes  by  the  author,  and  by  bishop  Kennet,  Mr.  K^l  w 
Gough,  in  whose  possession  it  was,  drew  up  a  life  for  the  ' 
new  edition  of  the  Biographia  Britannica,  which,  with.a 
very  few  omissions,  we  have  here  copied.  It  only  remains 
to  be  mentioned  that  Dr.  Field  was  nominated  one  of  the 
fellows  of  Chelsea  college  in  1610,  by  king  James,  whoj 
when  he  heard  of  his  death,  expressed  his  regi'et,  and 
added,  '<i  should  have  done  more  for  that  man!"  His 
«on,  who  wrote  his  life,  was  the  Rev.  Nathaniel  Field, 
rector  of  Stourton  in  the  county  of  Wilts.  Another  son^ 
Giles,  lies  buried,  under  a  monumental  inscription,  against 
the  east  wall  of  New  college  Ante-chapel.  .  He  died  in 
1629,  aged  twenty-one.  * 

FIELDING  (Henry),  beyond  all  comparison  the  first 
novel-writer  of  this  country,  was  born  at  Sharpham  Park 
in  Somersetshire,  April  22,  1707.  His  father,  Edmund 
Fielding,  esq.  was  the  third  son  of  John  Fielding,  D.  D. 
canon  of  Salisbury,  who  was  the  fifth  son  of  George  earl 
of  Desmond,  and  brother  to  William  third  earl  of  Den* 
high,  nephew  to  Basil  the  second  earl,  and  grandson  to 
William,  who  was  first  raised  to  tbe  peerage.  Edmund 
Fielding  served  under  the  duke  of  Marlborough,  and  to- 
wards the  close  of  king  Geofge  the  First's  reign,  or  the 
accession  of  George  II.  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  a 
lieutenant-general.  His  mother  was  daughter  to  the  first 
judge  Gould,  and  aunt  to  sir  Henry  Gould,  lately  one  of 
the  judges  of  the  common  pleas.  This  lady,  besides  Henry, 
who  seems 'to  have  been  the  eldest,  had  four  daughters) 
and  another  son  named  Edmund,  who. was  an  officer  in  the 
sea-service.  Afterwards,  in  consequence  of  his  father's 
second  marriage,  Fielding  had  six  iialf- brothers,  George, 
James,  Charles,  John,  William,  and  Basil.  Of  these  no- 
thing memorable  is  recorded,  except  of  John,  who  will  be 
the  stibject  of  a  subsequent  article  :  as  will  also  Sarah)  tb« 
sister  of  Henry  Fielding.     His  father  died  in  1740. 

!  Life  as  ahoTe,<— Atli,  .Ox.  toI«  I* 


Henry  Flielding  received  the  first  rudiments  of  his  edu« 
cation  at  home,  under  the  care  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Oliver,  fot 
whom  he  seems  to  hare  had  no  great  regard,  as  he  is  said 
to  have  designed  a  portrait  of  him  in  the  very  himiorous 
yet  unfavourable  character  of  parson  Trulliber,  in  his  ^' Jo« 
seph  Andrews."  From  this  situation  he  was  removed  to 
Eton  school,  where  he  had  an  opportunity  of  cultivating  % 
very  early  intimacy  and  friendship  with  several*  young  men 
who  afterwards  became  conspicuous  personages  iti  tb^ 
kingdom,  such  as  lord  Lyttelton,  Mr.  Fox,  Mr.  Pitt,  sir 
Charles  Hanbury  Williams,  &c.  who  ever  through  life  re* 
tained  a  warm  regard  for  him.  But  these  were  not  the 
only  advantages  he  reaped  at  that  great  seminary  of  edu** 
cation ;  for,  by  an  assiduous  application  to  study,  and  the 
possession  of  strong  t^nd  peculiar  talents,  he  became,  be* 
fore  he  left  that  school,  uncommonly  versed  in  Greek 
authors,  and  a  master  of  the  Latin  classics*  Thus  accom'- 
plished,  at  about  eighteen  years  of  age  he  left  £top,  and 
went  to  Leyden,  where  he  studied  under  the  most  cele« 
brated  civilians  for  about  two  yeafs,  when,  the  remltiilqce^ 
from  England  not  coming  so  regularly  as  at  first,  he  %as 
obliged  to  return  to  London.  / .[ 

General  Fielding^ s.  family  being  very  greatly  incre^sett 
by  his  second  marriage,  it  became  impossible  foe  him  to 
make  such  appointments  for  this  his  eldest  son  as  he  could 
have  wished ;  his  allowance  was  therefore  either  very  ill  paid 
or  entirely  neglected.  This  unhappy  situation  soon  pro* 
duced  all  the  ill  consequences  which  could  arise  from  po* 
verty  and  dissipation.  Possessed  of  a  strong  constitution, 
a  lively  imagination,  and  a  disposition  naturally  but  little 
formed  for  cecoBomy,  Henry  Fielding  found  himself  his 
own  master,  in  a  place  where  the  temptations  to  every 
expensive  pleasure  are  numerous,  and  the  means  of  gra- 
tifying them  easily  attainable.  From  this  unfortunately 
pleasing  situation  sprang  the  source  of  every  misfortune  or 
uneasiness  that  Fielding  afterwards  felt  through  life.  Iii| 
very  soon  found  that  his  finances  were  by  no  means  pro^* 
portioned  to  the  brisk  career  of  dissipation  into  which  he 
had  launched;  yet,  as  disagreeable  impressions  never  con^ 
tinned  long  ujpon  his  mind,  but  only  roiized  him  to  strug* 
jgle  through  his  diflG^sulties  with  the  greater  spirit,  he  flat* 
tered  himself  that  he  abould  find  resources  in  bis  wit  and 
invention,  and  acccordingly  commenced  writer  fpr  the 
stage  in  1727,  at  which  time  he  had'  not  more  than  at« 
tained  the  completion  of  his  twentieth  year. 

F  I  EL  Dl  N  a  285 

His  first  dramatic  attempt  was  a  piece  called  ^[  Love  in 
several  Masques,*^  whieb^  though  it  immediately  succeeded 
the  long  and; .crowded  run  at  the  '*  Provoked  Husband,** 
met  with  a  favoQtaWe  reception,  as  did  likewise  bis  se- 
cond play,  <'  The  Temple  Beau/*  which  came  out  in  the 
following  year.  He  did  not,  however,  meet  with  equal 
$uccess  in  all  bis  dramatic  works,  for  he  has  even  printed, 
tfi'the  title-page  bf'Qne  of  his  farces,  ^^  as  it  was  damned 
at  the  theatre-royal  Drury-lane  ;*'  and  be  himself  inform* 
us,  in  the  general  preface  to  his  miscellanies,  that  for  the 
<^  Weddiog-Day,**  though  acted  six  nights,  his  profits  from 
the  hovise  did  not  exceed  fifty  pounds.  Nor  did  a  much 
better  fate  attend  some  of  his  earlier  productions,  so  that^ 
though  it  was  his  lot  always  to  write  from  necessity,  he 
would,  probably,  aocwithstanding  his  writings,  ))ave  la* 
boured  continually  under  that  necessity,  had  not  the  se<» 
verity  of  the  publi'ey  .and  the  malice  of  his  enemies,  met 
with  a  noble  all^viatiori  from  the  patronage  of  several  per- 
sons of  distingufshed' rank  and  character,  particularly  the 
lat'e  dukes  of  Richmond  and  Roxburgh,  John  duke  of 
Argyle,  the.  first  lord  Lyttelton,  &c.  the  last-named  of 
which  noblemen,  not  only  by  bis  friendship  softened  the 
ipigour  of  our  author^s  misfortunes  while  he  lived,  but  also 
by  ilia  generous  ardour  has  vindicated  his  character,  and 
done  justice  to  his  memory,  after  death. 

About  six  or  seven  years  after  Fielding  had  begun  to 
write  for  the  stage,  he  fell  in  love  with  isind  married  mis* 
Craddock,  a  young  lady  from  Salisbury,  possessed  of  a 
very  great  share  of  beauty,  and  a  fortune  of  about  1500/. 
and  about  the  same  time  his  father  dying,  an  estate  at 
East  Stour,  in  Dorsetshire,  of  somewhat  better  than  200& 
per  annum,  came  into  his  possession.  With  this  fortune 
which,  had  it  been  conducted  with  prudence  and  oecdnom'yj^ 
might  have  secured  to  him  a  state  of  independence  for  life, 
and,  assisted  by  the  productions  of  a  genius  unincumbered 
with  anxieties  and  perplexity,  might  have  even  afforded 
htm  an  affluent  income,  he  determined  to  I'etire  to  bis 
country  seat.  For  his  wife's  sake,  whom  he  loved  with  the 
greatest  ardour,  he  had  also  formed  the  resolution  of  bid* 
ding  adieu  to  all  th^  follies  and  intemperances  to  which  he 
had  fkddicted  himself  in  his  short  but  very  rapid  career  of 
a  town  life,  and  of  living  in  domestic  regularity. 

But  here  one  folly  only  took  placijf  of  another,  and  family 
pride  Bow  brought  oa  him  all  the  inconveniences  in  m<t 

2.96:  FIE  L  D  I  NO; 

place,  tbat  youthfal  dissipation  and  libertinism  had  done 
in  anotlier.  Fond  of  shew  and  magniBceace,.  he  encum- 
bered himself  with  a  large  retinue  of  servants;  and  led  by 
natural  disposition  to  enjoy  society  and  convivial  mirth,  \u^ 
threw  open  his  gates  for  hospitality,  and  suffered  his  whole 
patrimony  to  be  devoured  up  by  hounds,  horses,  and  en- 
tertainments. Thus,  in  less  than  tki*ee  years,  he  dissipated 
his  whole  property ;  and  from  the  mere  passion  of  being 
usteemed  a  man  of  great  fortune,  reduced  himself  to  the 
unpleasant  situation  of  having  no  fortune  at  all.  He  had 
thus,  at  the  age  of  thirty,  undermined  his  own  support?, 
and  had  now  no  dependence  but  on  his  abilities,.  Not 
discouraged,  however,  he  determined  to  exert  his  talents 
vigorously,  applied  himself  closely  to  the  study  of  the  law, 
and,  after  the  customary  time  of  probation  at  the  Temple, 
was  called  to  the  bar,*  and  made  no  inconsiderable  figure » 
in  Westrainster-halL 

To  the  practice  of  the  law  Fielding  now  adherecV  with- 
great  assiduity,  both  in  the  courts  in  London,  and  on  the 
circuits,  as  long  as  bis  health  permitted,  and  it  is  probable 
wpuld  have  risen  to  a  considerable  degree  of  eminence  in 
k,  had  not  the  intemperances  of  his  early  life  put  a  check, 
by  their  consequences,  to  the  progress  of  his  success. 
Though  but  a  young  man,  he  began  .now  to  be  molested 
with  such  violent  aCttacks  from  the  gout  as  rendered  it  im- 
possible .for  him  to  give  such  constant  attendance  at  the 
bar  as  the  laboriousness  of  that  profession  requires.  Un- 
der these  united  severities  of  pain  and  want,  he  pursued 
his  researches  with  an  eagerness  peculiar  to  him  ;  and,  as^ 
a  proof  of  tlie  degree  of  eminence  to  which  be  might  have 
risen,  he  left  two  MS  volumes,  in  folio,  on  the  crown 
law,  to  which  branch  he  had  most  assiduously  applied.  It 
gives  us  an  idea  of  the  great  force  and  vigour  of  his  mind, 
]jf  we  consider  him  pursuing  so  ardi^ous  a  study  under  the 
exigencies  of  family  distress,  with  a  wife  and  children, 
whom  he  tenderly  loved,  looking  up  to  him  for  subsistence, 
with  a  body  torn  by  the  acutest  pains,  and  a  mind^  dis- 
tracted by  a  thousand  avocations,  yet  obliged,  for  imme- 
diate supply,  to  produce  almost  extempore,  a  play,  a. 
ferce,  a  pamphlet,  or  a  newspaper.  A  large  number  of 
&]gitive  political  tracts,  which  had  their  value  when  the 
incidents  were  actually  passing  on  the  great  scene  of  busi-w 
ness,  came  from  bis  pen.  The  periodical  paper,  called 
^^Xhe.  Champion,"  owed  its  cbief  suppott  to  hist  abilitie&^ 

#IELDI>r<?*  887 

A  poetical  epistle  to  the  right  honourable  sir  Robert  Wal^^ 
pole,  written  in  1730,  shews  at  once  his  acquaintance  with 
distress,  and  the  firmness  qf  mind  with  which  he  supported 
it.  Such  other  works  as  were  produced  before  his  genial 
was  come  to  Its  full  growth  were,  *^  An  Essay  on  Conver- 
«aiion  ;"  "  An  Essay  on  the  knowledge  arid  characters  of 
Men  ;"  "  A  Journey  (mm  this  World  to  the  ndxt ;"  "  The 
History  of  Jo'tiathan  Wild  the  Great ;"  &c.  The  two  last 
mentioned' are  satires  of  a  peculiar  texture,  and  entirely 

But  his  genius  is  seen  in  full  and  vigorous  exertion,  first 
in  **  Joseph  Andrews,"  and  more  completely  in  his  "  Ton! 
Jones;"  which  are  too  well  known,  and  too  justly  admired, 
to  leave  any  room  for  expatiating  on  their  merits.  Soon 
after  the  publication  of  "  Joseph  Andrews,"  his  last  co- 
medy was  exhibited  on  the  stage,  entitled  **  The  Wed- 
ding-Day,"  which  was  attended  with  but  an  indifferent 
share  of  success^  The  repeated  shocks  of  illness  more 
and  more  disqualified  him  from  pursuing  the  law:  from 
business,  therefore,  he  derived  little  or  no  supplies^  and 
his  prospect  grew  every  day  more  gloomy  and  melancholy. 
To  these  discouraging  circumstances,  if  we  add  the  in£ir<« 
mity  of  his  wife,  and  the  agonies  he  felt  on  her  account^ 
the  measure  of  his  affliction  may  be  considered  as  nearly 
full.  That  fortitude  of  mind,  with  which  he  met  all  the 
other  calamities  ^of  life,  deserted  him  on  this  most  trying 
occasion  ;  and  her  death,  which  happened  about  this  time; 
brought  on  such  a  vehemence  of  grief,  that  his  friends  b^-^ 
gan  to  think  him  in  daiiger  of  losing  his  reason.  At  length, 
when  the  first  emotions  of  sorrow  were  abated,  philosophy 
fidministered  her  aid,  his  resolution  returned,  and  he  began 
again  to  struggle  with  his  fortune.  He  engaged  in  two 
periodical  papers  successively^  with  a  laudable  and  spiritied 
design  of  rendering  service  to  his  country.  The. first  of 
these  was  called  **  The  True  Patriot/'  which  was  under- 
taken during  the  rebellion  of  1745.  Precarious,  however,  as 
•ucif means  of  subsistence  unavoidably  must  be,  it  was  scarcely 
possible  he  should  be  thus  enabled  to  recover  his  shattered 
fortunes,  and  was  therefore  at  length  obliged  to  accept  of 
the  o6fice  of -an  acting  magistrate  in  the  commission  of  the 
f)eace  for  the  county  of  Middlesex,  in  which  station  he 
-continued  till  near  the  time  of  his  deaths  This  office^ 
4iowever,  seldom  fails  of  being  hateful  to  the  populace, 
^nd  of  course  is  liable  to  many  ii>famou9  and  unjust  impu^ 


tationsy  particularly  that  of  Tenality ;  a  charge  which  tlm 
ill-natured  world,  not  unacquainted  with  Fielding'^  want 
of  GBGononiy,  and  passion  for  expence,  were  but  too  ready 
to  cast  upon  him.     From  this  charge  Mr.  Murphy^  in  th« 
life  of  this  author,  prefixed  to  the  first  edition  of  bia  works^ 
has  taken  great  pains  to  exculpate  him;  as  likewise  baa 
Fielding  hioiseif,  in  his  '^  Voyage  lo  Lisbon,"  which  mhy^ 
with  some  degree  of  propriety,   be  considered  as  the  last 
words  of  a  dying  man.     Amidst  all  the  laborious  duties  of 
his  office,  his  invention  could  not  lie  still,  but  be  found 
leisure  to  amuse  himself,  and  afterwards  the  world,  with 
^*  The  History  of  Tom  Jones."     His  "  Amelia  "  was  en- 
tirely planned  and  executed  while  he  was  distracted  by  a 
multiplicity  of  avocations  which  surround  a  public  magis- 
trate; and  his  constitution,  now  greatly  impaired  and  en- 
feebled, was  labouring  under  severer  attacks  of  the   gout 
than  he  had  before  felt;  yet  the  activity  of  his  mind  was 
not  to  be  subdued.     At  length,  however,,  his  whole-  frame 
was  so  entirely  shattered  by  continual  inroads  of  compli- 
cated disorders,  and  the  incessant  fatigue  of  business  in 
his  office,  that,  hy  the  advice  of  his  physicians,  as  a  last 
effort  to  preserve  life,  and  support  a  broken  constitution, 
be  set  out  for  Lisbon,     Even  in  this  distressful  condition, 
bis  imagination  still  continued  OK^king  the  strongest  efforts 
lo  display  itself;  and  the  last  gleams  of  his  wit  and  hu- 
mour sparkled  in  the  ^^  JournaF'  he  left  behind  him  of  his 
<<  Voyage"  to  that  place  v  which  was  published  in   1755, 
at  London,  in  12mo.     In   1754,  about  two  months  after 
bis  arrival  at  Lisbon,  he  died  Oct.  8,  in  bis  foi*%y-eighth 
year.     His  works  have  been  publislied  in  several  sisies,  with 
f^  An  Essay  on  the  Life  and  Genius  of  the  Author,  by  At* 
Ibur  Murphy,  esq." 

Fieiding^s  genius  excelled  most  in  those  strong,  lively^ 
and  natural  paintings  of  the  characters  of  mankind,  add 
the  movements  of  the  human  l^art,  which  coastitute  the 
basis  of  his  novels;  yet,  as  comedy  bears  the  closest  afii^ 
Bity  to  this  kind  of  writing,  his  dramatic  pieces,  every*one 
of  which  is  comic,  are  far  from  being  coBtemptible*  His 
farces  and  ballad  pieces,  more  especially^  have  aspright^- 
liness  of  manner,  and  a  forcibleneas  of  charaoler>  by  which 
it  is  impossible  not  to  be  agreeably  eatertained ;  and  in 
those  which  he  has  in  any  degree  borrowed  from  Moliere^ 
or  any  other  wriler,  he  has  done  great  hoilour  and  justice 
to  his  original^  by  the  manner  in  which  be  has  ti:eat«.d  the 


I"  I  E  L  D  I  N  6.  28* 


4Ubjiect.  Having  tnaified  a  second  tihie,  he  left  a  wife 
4nd  four  children,  who  wet-e  educated  Undelr  the  care  6t 
iheir  uncle,  with  the  aid  of  a  very  generous  donatioQ 
given  annually  by  Ralph  Allen,  esq.  the  cbleibrated  maU 
bf  Bath.  One  of  hi.s  sons  is  still  living,  a  barrister  of  con« 
fiideirablfe  reputation.  Thii  second  wife  difed  at  Cahter- 
buryi  irt  May  1 802,  at  a  vfery  dd^anced .  age.  Pielding'^ 
fhline  was  naturaill^  vfery  fo'bust,  and  his  hfeigHt  rathe^ 
above  six  feet.  It  was  thought  that  no  j[)icture  was  takeii 
df  him  while  he  lived,  dnd  it  i^  certain  thiit  Ihe  portrait  pre- 
fixed to  his  Works  was  i  sketch  Executed  by  his  friend  Ho- 
frarth,  frdm  rfjemory.  We  find,'  however,  in  Mr.  Nichols's 
new  edition  of  the  Lif^  bf  fiowyer,  ii  beslutiful  engraving 
from  a  mirtiatufe  in.  th^  ^ossessidn  of  his  grand-daughter^ 
Mr^.  Sophia  Fi^ldiiilg.  Hi^  character  as  a  uian,'  tnay  iti 
great  measure  be  deduced  from  the  incidents  of  his  life^  ' 
but  cannot  perhaps^  be  delineated  better  than  by  his  bio* 
^apher  }/lr.  Murphy,  ^ith  whose  Words  this  article  ma]^ 
properly  be  closed.  ', 

"  It  will  be  ah  hdmane  and  geiftrOus  ofllcfe  to  set  dtpwii 
id  the  account  of  slaffKder  a*nd  defamation,  a  great  p'^rt  ol 
(bat  abusb  v^hich  wkd  dfischarged  against  him  by  his  enemies 
In  his  lift;  trine ;  deducing,  however,  fr6nfi  th^  whdte,  this 
usefcrl  les^sbn,'  that  cjCilck  dnd  \^arih  pa^sifons  should  be  early* 
controul^d,  and  ibat  dissipation  and  extrdvslgan't  pleasures 
are  the  most  dang^rotis  ^alliation^s  that  can  be  found  for 
dis^potntments  and  Vexatit>riS  in'  the  first  stages  of  life. 
**  We  haye  sei6n,"  adds  he,  "  how  Mr.  Fielding  vei^  soon 
sqtiandi6red  aSvay  his  sihiW  patrimony,  Which,'  with  oeco- 
nomy,  ndii'gbt  have  procured  hini'  independence ;  we  have 
seen  h6w  6e  ruined,  iuto  the  bargain,  a  constitution,  which 
iii  its  original  te^tur^  seemed  foraged  to  fast  much  longer. 
tVbfen*  ilfness  and  indigen<be  w^re  once  let  in  upon  himl 
h6  no  lohger  remained  the  liiaster  of  his  oWn  action's;  and 
that  nic^  delicacy  6f  conduct  which  alone  constitutes  and 
presferv^s  a  character,    waisi  occaisibhally  obliged  to  giVe 
way.     Whfen  he  Was  not  lind^r  thi^  immediate  urgency  of 
Wati tTj  th^s^  who  w^re  intimate* with  hini  ave  ready  tb'aver, 
that  hi  had. a:  ihlhd  greatly  siijierior  to  any  thitig  naean  or 
little ;  WhHh  his'  finances  were  Exhausted*,  he  Wa^'  riot .  the 
most  elegant  in  his  choice  of  the  means  to  redress  himself^ 
and  be  would  in^ntly  exhibit  a  farce  or  a  puppet -shew*, 
ih  the  KRiymarket  theatre^  which  was  wholly  inconsistent 
with  the  prof'essibn  hie  had  embarked  in.     But  his  intimates 
Vol.  XIV.  U 


are  witness  how  much  his  pride  suffered  when  he  was  forced 
into  measures  of  this  kind  ;  no  man  having  a  juster  sense, 
of  propriety,  or  more  honourable  ideas  of  thp  employment, 
of  an  author  apd  a  scholar/'  Many  years  after  the  death 
of  Fielding,  the  French  consul  at  Lisbon,  le  Chev.  de 
Meyrionnet,  wrote  an  ^legant  epitaph  for  him,  and  pro- 
posed to  have  erected  a  monument;  but  the  Engli^hfac- 
tocy,  stimulated  by^this  generosity  in  a  foreigner,  tpok  the 
matter  into  their  own  hands. 

[  Many  of  the.  most  eminent  critics  of  the  age  have  treated 
on  Mr.  Fielding^s  genius,  as  may  appear  from  our  referen- 
ces, and  while  they  concur  in  censuring  his  occasional  in- 
delicacies, are  yet  unanimous  in  assigning  him  the  very 
first  rank  of  genius.  "Tom  Jones,  and  "Amelia,"  are 
his  best  performances^,  and  the  most  perfect  perhaps  of 
their  .kind  ia  the  world.  With  respect  to  the  former,  Dr, 
Beattie  has  well  observed,  "  that  since  the  days  of  Homer, 
the  world  has  not  seen  a  more  ^.rtful  epic  fable.  The  cha- 
racters and  adventures  are  wonderfully  diversified,  yet  the 
circumstances  are  all  so  natural,  and  rise  so  easily  from 
one  another,  and  co-operate  with  so  mtich  regularity  in 
bringing  on,  even  while  they  seem  to  retard,  the  cata- 
strophe, that  the  curiosity  of  the  reader  is  kept  always 
awake,  and  instead  of  flagging,  grows  more  and  mpre  im-* 
patient  as  the  story  advances,  till  at  last  it  becomes  down- 
right anxiety.  .  And  when  we  get  to  the  end,  and  look 
back  on  the  whole  contrivance,  we  are  amazed  to  find  that 
of  so  many  incidents  there  should  be  so  few  superfluous  ; 
that  in  such  a  variety  of  fiction  there  should  be  so  great 
probability ;  and  that  so  complex  a  tale  should  be  so  per- 
spicuously conducted,  and  with  perfect  unity  of  design." 
The  same  author  justly  remarks  that  the  novel,  pr  "  comic 
romance,  since  the  time,  of  J^ielding,  seems  to  have  been 
declining  apace,  from  simplicity  and  nature,  into  impro- 
bability and  affectation."  .He  has,  indeed,  not  only  had 
no  equal,  no  successful  rival ;  but  among  the  many  hundreds 
who  have  attempted  the  same  species  of  writing,  there  is 
Tkot^oue  who  reminds  us  of  Fielding.  The  cause  of  his  su^ 
periority  is  to  be  sought  in  his  wit  and  humour,  of  which 
he  bad  a  more  inexhaustible  fund,  as  well  as  more  know* 

.    ^  The  author  himself  was  not   of  what  reason  he  bad  for  this,  and  think 

^t^ifi  .opinion.     Dr.  Warton  informt  us  it  still  move  unaccountable,  that  Dr. 

that  he  valued  l>is  *'  Joseph  Andrew^'*  Warton  should  add  the  words  "  as  iie 

above  all  his  writings.    We  know  not  justly  may.''    WooU's  Life  of  Warton. 

FIELD  IN  a  S91 

ledge  of  mankind,  than  any  person  of  modern  times.  Lord 
Lyttelton,  after  mentioning  several  particulars  of  Pope, 
Swift,  and  other  wits  of  that  age,  when  reminded  of 
Fielding,  said,  "  HenVy  Fielding  had  more  wit  and  humour 
than  all  the  persons  we  have  been  speaking  of  put  toge^ 
then"  And  many  parts  of  his  writings,  particularly  of  his 
**  Amelia,"  shew  that  he  could  excel,  when  he  chose,  in 
the  pathetic.  The  world,  after  so  many  years,  yet  con-^ 
curs  in  these  sentiments  of  Fielding's  excellence ;  and  his 
works  are  as  fully  established  in  popularity,  as  those  of  the 
greatest  geniuses  of  our  nation,  and  the  demand  for  them 
continues  as  great. 

There  are  not  so  many  anecdotes  preserved  concerning 
Fielding  as  might  perhaps  have  been  expected,  considering 
the  eccentricity  of  his  disposition,  and  his  talents  for  con- 
versation. But  when  he  died,  the  passion  for  collecting 
the  memorabilia  of  literary  men  was  little  felt  In  the 
Gent  Mag.  for  1786,  however,  we  have  an  anecdote  which 
19  too  characteristic  to  be  omitted.  Some  parochial  taxes 
for  Fielding's  house  in  Beaufort  Buildings  being  unpaid, 
and  for  which  demands  had  been  made  again  and  again, 
lie  was  at  length  told  by  the  collector,  who  bad  ain  esteem 
for  him,  that  no  longer  procrastination  could  be  admitted. 
Ih  this  dilemma  he  had  recourse  to  Jacob  Tonson,  the 
bookseller,  and  mortgaging  the  future  sheets  of  some  work 
he  had  in  hand,  received  the  sum  he  wanted,  about  ten  or 
twelve  guineas.  When  he  was  near  bis  own  .house,  he 
met  with  an  old  college  chum,  whom  he  had  not  seen  for 
man}"  years,  and  Fielding  finding  that  he  had  been  unfor- 
tunate  in  life,  immediately  gave  him  up  the  whole  money 
that  he  had  obtained  from  Mr.  Tonson.  Returning  home 
in  the  full-  enjoyment  of  his  benevolent  disposition  and 
conduct,  he  was  told  that  the  collector  had  called  twice 
for  the  taxes.  Fielding's  reply  was  laconic,  but  memo- 
rable :  ^^  Friendship  has  called  for  the  money,  and  had  it ; 
let  the  collector  call  again."  The  reader  will  be  glad  to 
bear  that  a  second  application  to  Jacob  Tonson  enabled 
him  to  satisfy  the  parish  demands. — Another  anecdote  af- 
fords one  of  those  happy  turns  of  wit  which  do  not  often 
occur.  Being  once  in  company  with  the  earl  of  Denbigh, 
and  it  being  nt)ticed  that  Fielding  was  of  the  Denbigh  fa- 
mily,: the  earl  asked  tb^  reason  why  they  spelt  their  nances 
diiferently ;  the  earl's  family  spelling  it  with  the  e  first, 
(Feilding),  and  Mr,  Jlenry  Fielding  with  the  i  first,  (Field- 

V  2 

??9  F  I  E  ,L  D  I  N  O. 

ing) ;  "  I  cannot  tell,  piy  lord,"  $M  pur  author,  '♦excepi 
it  be  that  my  branch  of  the  femily  were  the  first  th;^^  koevy 
bow  to  spell !"  * 

FIELDING  (Sajiah),  third  sister  of  the  preceding,  waf 
born  in  l^lf^  lived  unnnarrjed,  and  died  ^t  fiath,  where 
^he  hajd  long  re^id^d,  in  April  1768.  ShfS  made  soma 
figure  among  the  literary  ladies  pf  her  ag^^  and  possessed 
a  well  cultivated  mind.  Soon  after  th^e  appearance  of  h^r 
brother's  "  Joseph  Andrews,"  she  ppblisbed  a  novel  in  i 
vols.  r2mQ,  entitled  "  The  Adventures  of  David  Simple^ 
in  search  pf  a  faithful  friend,''  which  had  a  considerable 
share  of  popularity,  and  is  not  yet  forgotten.  In  175? 
$h^  produced  a  third  volume,  which  did  not  excite  sp  much 
attention.  I^er  npxt  prqductjon,  which  appefkre4  in  1753^ 
was  "  The  Cry,  ^  new  Drfimatic  fah^^,"  3  vojs,  hMt  this, 
although  far  frqm  being  destitute  of  ^lerit^  was  not  well 
^dap^^d  to  the  tas^te  of  ron^i^aT^cerref^d^rs.  Her  l^^t  per-f 
^ovvfid^ncp  was  "  J^enpphan's  Mepioirs  pf  Socfs^t^s,  with  tb^ 
Defence  of  Spcr^tps  befPfP  hi,^  Judges,^''  ti;^nslated  from 
the  original  Qreek,  1762,  3yo,  In  this  trs|nslaUQi>>  which 
h  e^ec^t^d  with  i^delity  $ipd  eleganc^^  ^e  ws^  favoured 
with  ^9V^^  valuab\^  notef  by  the  ^^rne4  Mr,  H:^rris,  Qf 
Saliiibury,  who  aUo  probably  contributed  to  the  correctness 
pf  the  translation.  The  qther  works  of  this  I^Yi  1^^ 
l^oowu,  were,  <^  FaQiil^iar  letters  between  the  Qha^racteirs  io 
Pavid  Simple,"  ^  vols. ;  **  The  Governess,  or  Littfl^  Fe- 
ppale  ^c^deniy ;"  "  T^p  Liyps  of  (pleopatra.^nd  Octavisi;" 
"  The  Hi  tory  pf  the  Countess  of  D^lvyyn^"  2  vols,  ;  and 
'^  Ij'be  Hi^^tory  oj^  Opheli^"  2  yols^  Dr.  Jp^n  G|oadly>  ^ho. w^s 
her  particular  fripnd,  erected  a  Inou^Inent  to  her  u^ep^tory^ 
witii^  a  haudspm^  compliment  to  ^^r  v^tv^es  and  t^sdeai^s.' 

J^I ELDING  (Sj^u  Jcxhn),  wast  half  br/^bier,  ^^  s^ve^ 
mentioned,  to,  ^enry  folding,  ^n^^  his^  sjg^es^or  yifk  th^ 
pfiice  of  justice  for  Westmi^ter,  iii,  whiob»  d¥>Mgh  hli^d 
from  his  youth,  he  acted  with  gre^^t;  s^gaciitiy  and  activi^ 
fpr  many  years.  He  received  ijbe  honoui^  pf  knightbpod 
for  his.seriric^  in  Octohei;,  1761,  and  died,  ajb  Brov^ptoo  in 
September  1780.  Ijie  published  aA  varipu;s  tii^es^  tbd^  foU 
lowing  w:orks :  1.  ^^  An*  accou.nit  o^  the  Qri^Jn,  and  Cffectjt 
of  a  Police,  set  on  foot  by  his  gface  t^he  d^Jke  of  Niewcast}^ 

1  Life  by  Marphy,  pre6xed  to  bis  Works.— Biog.  Brit.  toI.  VI.  part  I.  nn- 
pablithed.— Blair's  Lectures. — Mason^s  Life  of  Qray. — Monboddo  on  the  Origin^ 
Ice.  of  Language,  vol.  Ili.  p.  13^  S96 — 398.-:— H9,rrisfs  Pluloiogit^aj  Uwuriu* 
1^3,  164. — Beattie's  Dissertations^  p»  571.— B^attiefs  Essaysi,  p.  422S, 

9  Nichols**  Bowyer. 


ill  rtie  year  \7S%  lipon  d  Pkn  presented  to  Yixi  grace  by 
the  late  Henry  Fielding,  esq*.  To  wMch  is  added,  a  Plan 
for  preserting  th<We  deserted  Girls  in  this  Town  whb  be- 
come Pro^ituties  from  Nec^teity.  1 768f."  This  was  a  sntalf 
trace  in  »vo.  2.  "  Extra<;ts  from  such  of  the  Penal  Laws' 
As  particularly  relate  to  the  Peace  and  good  Order  of  the 
MetropoKs^"  176 1,  8vo  ;  al?irger  piA)licatiort  3.  "  l^Jie 
Universal'  Mentor ;  containing^  Essays  on  the  most  im-' 
p<Mtant  Subjects  in  Life ;  composed  of  Observati6ns,  Sen-. 
dmentSy  and'  Examples  of  Virtue,  selected  from  the  ap-' 
proved  Ethic  Writers,  Biographers,  and  Historians,  both 
dncient  a«d  moderii,"  1762,  12mo.  This  appears  to  have 
been  the  di^hai'ge  of  his  common-place  book.  4.  "  A: 
Charge  to  the  Gr^nd  Jury  of  Westminster,'*  1763,  4to, 
stated  to  have  been  published  at  the  unanimous  request  of 
die  magistrates  and  jui*y,  when  he  was  chair inan  of  thd 
quarter  sessions.  5.  "  Another  Charge  to  the  Grartd  Jury 
on  a  similar  occa^ion^'*  1766,  4to.  6.  "  A  brief  Dfescrip-' 
tion  of  the  Cities  of  London  and  Westfminster,  &c.  To' 
viHiiicb  are  added,  some  Cautions  agaiiist  the  Tricks*  of 
Sharpers,"  &c.  1777,  l'2mo.  Nothing  in  this  appears  to' 
bftve'  proceeded  firom  sir  John,  except  the  "  Cautions," 
and  the  us^e  of  his  name  wa^  perhaps  a  bookseller's' tribk.; 
It  ia  moist  to  tfie  hbnour  of  sir  John  Fifelding's  memory, 
that  he  was  »distiriguished'piromoter  of  the  Magdaleh'hos-* 
{Htal;  the  Asylum,  and  the  Marine  Society.* 

FIENNES  (William),  lord  Say  and  Sdte,  a- person  of 
literaty  merit,  but  not  so  wtell  knO\Vn  on  that  account  afr 
for  the  part  he  bore  in  the  Grand  Rebellion,  was  born  at 
Broughton  in  Oxfordshire,  in  1582,  being  the  eldest  sbn' 
of  sir  Richard  Fiennes,  to  whom  James  I.  had  re^tored'arid 
confirmed  the  dignity  of  baron  Say  and  Sele :  and;  after* 
being  properly  instructed  at  Winchester  school,  w^s  sent 
ill  1696  to  NewwcoUege  in  Oxford^  of  wHic'h,  by  virtue  of 
hUrelfttibpship  to  the  founder,  he  was  made  fellow:  AftSr 
beh^'spent  some  ye^rs  in  sthdy,  he  travelled  into  foreign 
cbuntries,  arid  then  relturned  home  with  the  reputation  of 
a^ise  and  prudent  man.  When  the  war  was  carried  on  in- 
the  Palatinate,  he  contributed  largely  to  it,  accoi-ding  to 
his  estarte^,  which  was  highly  pleasing  to  king  James ;  but, 
indulging  bis  neighbours  by  leaving  it  tp  themselves  to  pay' 
what  they  thought' fit,  he  was,  on  notice  given  to  his  ma- 
jesty, committed  to  custody  in  June  162^,     He  was,  hovv- 

>  Geat.  Mag.  passim.    See  ladex. 

2M  F  I  E  N  N  E  S. 

ever,  soon  released ;  and,  in  July  1624,  advanced  from  a 
baron  to  be  viscount  Say  and  Sele.  At  this  time,  says 
Wood,  he  stood  up  for  the  privileges  of  Magna  Charta; 
but,  after  the  rebellion  broke  out,  treated  it  with  the  ut- 
xjiost  contempt :  and  when  the  long- parliament  began  in 
3  640,  he  shewed  himself  so  active  that,  as  Wood  says,  he 
and  Hampden  and  Pym,  with  one  or  two  more,  were 
esteemed  parliament-drivers,  or  swayers  of  all  the  parlia» 
ments  in  which  they  sat.  In  order  to  reconcile  him  to  the 
court,  he  had  the  place  of  mastership  of  the  court  of  wards 
given  him  in  May  1641  :  but  this  availed  nothing;  for, 
^hen  arms  were  taken  up,  he  acted  openly  against  the 
king.  Feb.  1642,  his  majesty  published  two  proclamations, 
commanding  all  the  officers  of  the  court  of  wards  to 
attend  him  at  Oxford  ;  but  lord  Say  refusing,  was  outlawed, 
and  attainted  of  treason.  He  was  tbe  lasr  who  held  the 
office  of  master  of  this  court,  which  was  abolished  in  1646 
by  the  parliament,  on  which  occasion  10,000/.  was  granted 
to  him,  with  a  part  of  the  earl  of  Worcester's. estate,  as  a 
compensation.  In  1648  he  qpposed  any  personal  treaty 
with  his  majesty,  yet  the  same  year  was  one  of,  the  parlia^. 
ment-commissioners  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  when  they 
treated  with  the  king  abopt  peace:  at  which  time  he  is 
said  to  have  urged  against  the  king  this  passage  out  of 
Hooker^s  "  Ecclesiastical  Polity,"  that  "  thoqgh  the  king 
was  singulis  major ^  yet  he  was  universis  minor :"  that  is, 
greater  than  any  individual,  yet  less  than  the  whole  com- 
munity. After  the  king's  death,  he  joined  with  the  Inde- 
'  pendents,  as  he  had  done  before  with  the  Presbyterians ; 
and  became  intimate  with  Oliver,  who  made  him  one  of 
his  house  of  lords.  '^  After  the  restoration  of  Charles  IL 
when  he  had  acted,"  says  Wood,  "  as  a  grand  rebel  for 
his  own  ends  almost  twenty  years,  he  was  rewarded  for* 
sooth  with  the  honourable  offices  of  lord  privy  seal,  and 
lord  chamberlain  of  the  household  ;  while  others,  that  had 
suffered  in  estate  and  body,  and  had  been  reduced  to  a  bit 
of  bread  for  his  majesty's  cause,  had  then  little  or  nothing 
given,  to  relieve  them;  for  which  they  were  to  thank  a 
hungry  and  great  officer,  who,  to  fill  his  own  coffers,  was 
the  occasion  of  the  utter  ruin  of  many."  Wood  relates 
also,  with  some  sur[yise,  that  this  noble  person^^  after  be 
had  spent  eighty  years  mostly  in  an  unquiet  and  discon- 
tented condition,  had  been  a  grand  promoter  of  the  rebeU 
Uon,  and  had  in  some  respect  been  accessary  to  the  miir-* 

F  I  E  N  N.  E  S.  295 

derof  Chailes  L  died  quietly  in  his  bed,  April  14,  1662, 
and  was  buried  with  his  ancestors  at  Broughlon.     On  the 
restoration  he  was  certainly  made  lord  privy  seal,  but  not, 
as  Wood  says,  chamberlain  of  the  household.     Whitlock 
says,  that  **  he  was  a  person  of  great  parts,  wisdom,  and 
integrity:"  and  Clarendon,  though  of  a  cohtrary  party, 
doeiT  hot  deny  him  to  have  had  these  qualities,  but  only 
supposes  them  to  have  been  wrongly  directed,  and  greatly 
corrupted.     He  calls  him,  'f  a  man  of  a  close  arid  reserved 
nature,  of  great  parts,  and  of  the  highest  ambition  ;  but 
whose  ambition  would  not  be  satisfied  with  offices  and  pre- 
ferments, without  some  condescensions  and  alterations  in 
ecclesiastical  matters.     He  had  for  many  years  been  the 
oracle  of  those  who  were  puritans  in  the  worst  sense,  and 
had  steered  all  theit  counsels  and  designs.     He  was  a  no- 
torious enemy  to  the' church,  and*  to  most  of  the  eminent 
churchmen,  with  some  of  whom  he  had  particular  contests. 
He  had  always  opposed  and  contradicted  all  acts  of  state, 
.  and  ail  taxes  and  impositions,  which  were  not  ekactly  legal. 
Ice. — In  a  word,  he  had  very  great  authority  with  all  the 
disicontented  party  throughout  the  kingdom,  and  a  gpod 
reputation   with  many  who  were  not  discontented;  who 
believed  him  to  be  a  wise  man,  and  of  a  very  useful  temper 
id  an  age  of  licence,  and  one  who  would  still  adhere  to' 
the  law.*'     But  from  a  comparison  of  every  authority,  a 
recent  writer  observes,  that  he  appears  to  have  been  fair 
from  a  virtuous  or  amiable  man ;  he  was  poor,  proud,  and 
discontented,  and  seems  to  have  opposed  the  court,  partly 
at  least  with  the  view  of  extorting  preferment  from  thence. 
He  bad  the  most  chimerical  notions  of  civil  liberty,  and 
upon  the  defeat  of  those  projects  in  which  he  had  so  great 
a  share,  retired  with  indignation  to  the  isle  of  Lundy,  on 
the  Devonshire  coast,  where  he  continued  a  voluntary  pri- 
soner until  the  protector's, death. 

Besides  several  speeches  in  parliament,  he  published, 
I.-  **  The  Scots  design  discovered ;  relating  their  dangerous 
attempts  lately  practised  against  the  English  nation,  with 
the  sad  consequence  of  the  same.  Wherein  divers  matters 
of  public  concernment  are  disclosed ;  and  the  book  called. 
Truths  Manifest,  is  made  apparent  to  be  Lies  Manifest, 
1653,"  4to.  2.  "  Folly  and  Madness  made  manifest  ; 
or,^  some  things  written  to  shew,  how  contrary  to  the  word 
of  God,  and  practice  of  the  Saints  in  the  Old  and  New 
Testament,    the  doctrines  and  practices  of  the  Quakers 

996  F  I  £  N  N  E  & 

are,"  1659,  ^to.  3.  "  Tb^  Quaker^  I^etply  m^i^tf^st^d  to 
be  railing :  or,  a  pursuance  of  tnpsf  by  tl^e  light  pj(  the 
Scriptures^  who  thrpugh  tbelr  dark  imagi,nations  W9ul4^^vacte 
the  T^ruth,"  1659,  4to.  It  s^pms.  the  Qjjjakers  we^^.  pretty, 
numerous  in  bis  neighboarhood  of  Broughtou ;  and  be 
either  was,  or  pretended  to  be,  oiucb  troubled  wi^  them* 
These  tracts  are  so  scarce  and  little  kn^wn  at  this  time,  as 
to  have  escaped  ]\(lr.  f^ark's;.  i^esi^^rcb^,  yrhq  inCp;i;jw  ut 
^hat  he  was  hpt  able  to  discover  any  of  th^pi,  in  t^Q  go- 
pious  collectiop  of  printed  trs^cts^  either  in,  tl|^  Biritisih 
Museuqfi,  or  fhe  Bridg^w^tej;  li]^rary,  * 

FIENNES  (Nathana^I.),  ^ecopd  iSfpp  o^  lord  Sfty  jqst 
mentioned,    w^s.  born   at  B^rjpug^ton,  in   Qpcfordsbir^;  in 
1608;  ahd^  like  his  fj9.ther,  ai^i;  a,  proper  ediuciitipp  at 
Winchester  school^  was  adnaitted  of  New  CoU^g^  ip  Ooc- 
ford,  and  also   ij[)ade~  {ellow  in   right  oif  kiod>ip   tp!  the 
founder.     After  p,as8ip§  some  ^ears  tbei)5,  h^.  ti;;^!{f$U^d  ta 
Geneva,  and  amoijg  the  Cai^tpifs  of  S^yiritzerl^ofji,  ^l}^);e  h^ 
increased   that'd^isaijFie.ct^pu  t;o  tl)e  ehiif^ch^  vybipii,  he  bade 
been  too  much  taught,  in  bii^  infynpy.     Fi;on^,  b^^  t^ay^els  hft 
returned  th'piigh  Scotlapd^  "at.  t^?,  tipje  ^i)|^n  tl|^  ^b^- 
lion  wajs  beginning  ;'^aa,  in,  1649^  wa^.  el^ct^d  to  sjt,  iq, 
parliaiiient  for  Banbur^^  ^bei^^  it  y^a§  q^jp^ly.  disgoyer^^i 
thathe  w?js  ready  to  join  ii>/st}l  Iffjj  fai^^'fi^  i^^einpQmti^, 
njeasures, '   Afterward^  he  b^,qam^  colon,4?i|  of  i^orse  i^icter. 
tlie  earl  of  Ess^x,  and.  was  qj^de  gpvei;por  of,  ^r^^tpi,  ^ben. 
first  taken  fpr  the'use  of.  t^ie  jw^rjiaip^nt ;  but^  sviri'^Q(}0rillg> 
it  too  easily  to  prince  Rup^jrt,iq.  July  1643,  hj?  iv;a!Si  tried 
by  a  council  of^war,  ana  seij tended  to  ^lo?^  l)|s.  l^f^fid-     The, 
only  witnesses  a^aipst  hini  on  this  pqqasioii  virer^.the  celer 
brated  Clfement  Walker^  and  I'ryun^.     He  had  aftervfards, 
by  the  intere$t/pf.l)is  father,,  a  pardon  granted  hm  fpr  liCe, 
but  he  could,  not.  continue  any  loogl^r  in, the, army ;  and. 
the  shame  of  it  affected  him,  so  mf)qb»  tj^^t  b^  WAPti  for. 
spnie  time  abroad,  ^^retaining  spll,"  says  Clarendon,  ^^tbe 
same  full  disaffection  tb^tbe  government  of  thft.chufpli  andi 
state,  and  only  grieved  that  he  bad  a. less  capacity,  left.  to. 
cfo  hurt  to  either/*     When,  the  Ercjshyter^ans  wqre.  tprp^di 
out  of  parliament,  he  bf^came  an  independent,  toqk  the. 
engagement,    was   intimate,  with    Cromwell;    and    Mfhea 
Cromwell  declared  himself  Prqt^ctpr,  was  niade  ope  qf.his^ 

>  Biog.  Brit.r— Sir  E.  Brydges's  edition  of  CoHins's  Peerage.— Park's  Ro^al 
and  Noble  Author?,  vol.  Ilf.— Lloyd's  Slat^  Worthie8.*«i^Atb.  Ox.  rol.  11.-—'' 
Biog*  Brit.  vol.  VI,  Part  I,  un^ublislied. 

F  I  E  N  N  E  S.  897 

privy-councii,  lord  privy- seal  in  1655,  an^  a  membc^v  of 
his  house  of  lords.     Though  be  hjE^d  suflS^ien^ly   shewa 
bis    aversion   to   tnpaarchical   governmeot,  yet  when   be 
sj^w  what  Oliver  aimed  at,    he  because  extrenjely  food 
pf  it,  and  in  1660,  he  published  a  book  with  this  titles 
^VMooatchy  aiSserte(ji  to  be  the  best,  most  ancient,  and 
*  l,egal  form  of  goveniment,  in  a  conference  held  at  White«^ 
l^aJ^  virith  Oliver  Lord  I^rotector,  and  Comn^ittee  of  Parlia-i 
ment,   &c.  in  April   1657.'^     He  published,  also  several 
speeches  an(cl  pan^pblets,  sofoe  of  wh]ch  wei;e  a  defence  o£ 
bis.  own  conduct  at  Bristol.     Walker  informs  ua  that  he  was 
(be  author  of  a  historical  tra^t  called  ^^  Anglia  Rediviva,'* 
published  und^r  tbp  naine  of  Sprigge*     After  the  restora-« 
^on,  hi^  retired  to  Newton  Tony,  near  Salisbury  in  Wilt-. 
iblfGf  where  be  bad  an  esta|:e  that  came  to  him  by  his 
jl^ond  n^ife ;.  an.d  h^r^  continued  muok  neglected^  and  in 
grea^  obs&urity,  until  hip  deatb,  I^ec  IQ,  1669.     Claren» 
dofi;  has  spp^n.  of  his  abilities  in  very  high  terms.     '^  Colon 
njsl  Fiiann^,^^  says  b§,  '^  besides  the  credit  and  seputatiott 
gf  b^^  fMh^]^,.  ba^  a  v€ry  good  stock  ofi  estimation  in  the 
hpii^c^  of  copampns  upon  his  owxi  acore  .  for  truly  he  had* 
xery  good  pafts,Qf  learning  and.  natiure,  and  was  priiKyto, 
and^4};  ipfifiager,  iq,  the  mosjtr  secret  designs  from,  the- 
begini^ipg; ;  i^nd  if  b^  had  uot^  incumbi^red.  himself  witb  the  army,  to  which,  men  thought,  his  nature* 
nptf  so. v^ell  disposed^  he  had  sune  been  second  to  none  in 
those  councils,  after  Mn  Hap[)pden!&death.'^  ^ 

FIENUS,  or  FYENS  (THPMiWs),  a  physician   of  emi- 
nence, was  born  a^  Antw^p>  IVIar^h-28,  1,567.     His.father, 
v^lfo  ^^s.  a.  plfysici$^n,at(  Ant^erpj  and.  wha.  died  at  Dort  in. 
Iy535,  was, the  s^^bor  of  a  treatise*  entitled  "  Commenta- 
ries de  flafibas  humaniim  corpus  infestantibus^^'  Antwerp, 
hSSf,     His  sqp,  Thomas,  studied  medicine   at   Leyden, 
and.  afterward^  s^(  Bologna,  which  he  visited  in  1590.     On. 
bis  return  to  his  native  country  his  talents  were  soon  made 
known,  and  in  1593  he  was  invited  to  Louvaine,  in  order 
tp  fill  ope  of  the  vacapt  professorships  of  medicine  in  that 
university,  in  which' he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  about  the 
^d  of  that  year.     After  seven  years  of  residence,  he  was. 
aj^pointed  physician,  to  Maximilian,  duke  and  afterwards* 
elector  of  Bavaria ;  but  this  he  resigned  at  the  end  of  one, 

"'  Biog.  Brit.  vol.  VI.  Parti,  unpublished. — Ath.  6x.  vol,  tl. — ^Noble's  Me- 
mdir^  of.'Crouiwei},  vol.  i.  p.  371. — VVarburton's  Letters  to  Hurd,  4to  ediU 
p-  107. 


F  I  E  N  U  S. 

year,  and  returned  to  Loovaine,  where*  the  archduke  AI* 
bert  immediately  increased  his  salary  to  a  thousand  ducats, 
in  order  to  secure  his  services,  and  here  he  remained  untit 
his  death,  March  15,  1631,  at  the  college  of  Breughel,  of 
which  he  had  been  for  a  long  time  president.     Besides 
being  an  able  Greek  an<l  matheniatical  scholar,  be  was  re« 
garded  as  an  intelligent  and  able  physician ;  and  had  fev^ 
equals  among  his  contemporaries  in   natural  history  and 
surgery.     His  works,  which  contributed' greatly  to  advance 
his  reputation,   were,    1.  "  De  Cauteriis   libri   quinque,'* 
Louvaine,  1598.     2.  "  Libri  Chirurgici  Xli,  de  praecipuis 
Artis    Chirurgicae   controversiis,"   FranciFort,    1602,  which 
passed  through   many  editions.     3.  *^  De   viribus   Imagi- 
nationis  Tractatus,"  L,ouvaine,   1608*.   '4.  "  De  Cometa 
anni  1618,"  Antwerp,  1619,  agaihst  opinions  of  Copenii- 
cus  respecting  the  motion  of  the  earth. .   5.  *•  De  vi  forma- 
trice  foetCis   liber,    in  quo  ostenditur  animam  rationalem 
infundi' terti&  die,"  ibid.  1620.     This  work  was  attacked 
with  considerable  success,  by  Louis  du  Gardin,  a  professor 
of  Douay,  and  Fienus  replied  in,  6.  *^  De  formatrice  foetus 
adversus   Ludovicum  du   Gardin,    &c."  Louvaine,    1624. 
His  opinion  was  also  impugned  by  Santa  Cruz,  the  phy- 
sician of  Philip  IV.  which  produced,  7.  "  Pro  sua  de  ani- 
matione  fcetCls  terti&  die  opinione  Apologia,  adversus  An- 
tonium  Ponce  Santa  Cruz,  Regis  Hispaniarum  Medicum' 
Cubicularem,  &c."  Louvaine,  1629.     8.  "  Semiotice,  sive 
de  signis  medicis  Tractatus,"   Leyden,   1664.' 

.  FIGRELIUS    (Emundus),  a  learned  Swede,  a  profes- 
sor of  history,  and  an  antiquary   at  Upsal,  published  in' 
1656,    a   work  of  much  research,  entitled  **  De   Statuis 
iUustrium   Romanorum,*'    8vo,    which    he    dedicated    to^ 
Charles  Gustavus  king  of  Sweden.     He  had  passed  some 
months  at  Rome  in  his  youth,*  and  this  work  was  partly  the 

*  In  this  work  on  the  powe^  of  ima- 
gination, Fienus  relates  a  story  of  an 
hypocondriac,  whose  delusioDs  repre- 
sented his  body  so  large,  that  he 
thought  it  impossible  for  hiin  to  get  out 
of  his  room.  The  physician,  fancying 
there  could  be  no  better  way  of  rectify- 
ing his  imagination  than  by  letting  him 
see  that  the  thing  could  be  done,  or- 
dered him  to  be  carried  out  by  force. 

*  Niceron,  vols.  II.  and  X. — Moreri.' 
dia  from  £lpy. 

Great  was  the  struggle:  an^  the  patient 
no  sooner  saw  himself  at  the  outside  of 
the  door,  than  he  fell  into  the  same ' 
agonies  of  pain*  as  if  his  boaes  had 
been  all  broken  by  being  forced  through .. 
a  passage  too  little  for  him  j  and  died 
immediately  after.'    Fienus  does  not' 
relate  this  upon  bis  own  knowledge, » 
but  he  does  not  seem  in  the  least  to 
question  the  reality  of  the  fisust. 

-Foppen  Bibl.  Belg.— Rees's  Cyclops- 

F  I  G  R  E  L  I  U  S. .  €99 

result  of  his  stndies  and  observntions  there.  He  died  ia 
1676.  We  have  no  farther  partiouJar$  of  his  life,  and  be 
is  but  slightly  mentioned  in  biographieai  collections. ' 


FILANGIERI  (Gaetano,  or  Cajetan),  a  celebrated 
Itahan  pohtical  writer,  the  descendant  of  a  very  illustrious 
but  decayed  family  at  Naples,  was  born  there  Aug.  1 3,. 
1752.  His  parents  had  very  early  destined  him  for  the 
military  profession,  but  the  attachment  he  showed  to  the 
aicquisition  of  literary  knowledge,  induced  them  to  suffer 
him  to  pursue  his  own  course  of  study.  His  application 
to  general  literature  became  then  intense,  and  before  he 
was  twenty  years  of  age,,  be  was  not  only  an  accomplished 
Greek  and  Latin  scholar,  but  had  made  himself  intimately 
acquainted  with  mathematics,  ancient  history,  and  the 
laws  of  nature  and  nations  as  adipinistered  in  every  coun-- 
try.  He  had  also  begun  at  this  time  to  write  two  works, .  the . 
one  on  public  and  private  education,  and  the  other  on  the ' 
duties  of  princes,  as  founded  on  nature  and  social  order, 
and  although  he  did  not  complete  his  design  in  either,  yet  < 
he  incorporated  many  of  the  sentiments  advanced  in  his 
great  work  on  legislation,  tie  afterwards  studied  law, 
more  in  compliance  with  the  will  of  his  friends^  who  con- 
sidered the  bar  as  the  introduction  to  public  honour  and 
preferment,  than  from  his  own  inclination ;  and  the  case 
of  an  arbitrary  decision  occurring,  he  published  an  exceU 
leqt  work  on  the  subject,  entitled  *^  Biflessioni  Politiche 
sulP  ultima  legge  Sovraoa,  che  riguarda  Tamministrazione 
della  giusti:&ia,''  Naples,  1774,^  8vo.  This  excited  the 
more  attention,  as  die  author  was  at  this  time  only  in  his 
twenty-second  year,  and  a  youth  averse  to  the  pleasures 
and  amc^ements  of  his  age,  and  intent  only  on  the  most 
profound  researches  into  the  principles  of  law  and  justice. 
Nor  were  these  studies  much  interrupted  by  his  obtaining 
in  1777  a  place  at  court,  that  of  gentleman  of  the  bed- 
chamber, with  the  title  of  an  officer  of  the  marines,  which 
appears  to  h^ve  been  usually  conferred  on  gentlemen  who 
w£re  near  the  person  of  the  monarchr  In  1780  he  published 
tl>e  first  two  volumes  of  his  celebrated  work  on  Legislation, 
**  Scienza  della  Legislatione,''  at  Naples ;  the  third  and 
fourth  appeared  in  1783;  the  fifth,  siiith^  and  seventh  in 
1785;  aud  the  eighth,  after  his  death,  in  1789.     This  was 

)  Diet.  His^.— Witt^s's  Diarium  Bio^rapbicum.-^Cleiaei|t,  Bibl,  Curieuse. 

500  S'  I  L  A  N  G  I  E  R  I. 

lepvkited  at   Naples^  YeBieey  Fforence,  MiliHi'^  &c.   antf 
translated  int^  FFenefa,  GermaK,  and  Spanrisi).     The  en- 
comiums bestowed  ofi  it  were  general  tbraugliaitt  Europe, 
and  although  some  of  his  sentiments  were  opp<)sed  with 
considerable  viol'ence,  and  some  of  ihem  afre  perhaps  more 
beautiful  m  theory  than  ia  practice,  a  common  ease  witit 
specuJators>  vfko  take  upon  them  to  legislate  for  the  wfaote 
world;  yet  it  has  been  said  with  justice,  that  be  brought 
to.  his  great  task  qaalifications  ia  which  hot4i  legi^lutorsr  antP 
author9^  who-  haye*  raadie  great  exertions  on*  the  same  sub- 
ject, have  been*  lamentably  deficient, — knowledge^  temper; 
and  moderation  ;  and'  if  assent  i»  withheld  tVom'  any  pro- 
position»  OP  Gonfietion  does  not  attend*  evei^  argntnent, 
the*  sentiment  of  esteem  and  respect  for  an-  enlightened, 
iadustniouS)  and  yirtuoiis  man',  labouring  for  the  benefit' of 
his  feUow-ereatures,  and  seeking*  their  good  by  tetnperate' 
amd:  isational  means^    is  never  for  a  moment  suspended'. 
Tbfis  valuable  writer  bad  not  quite  completed'  his   plan, 
when- his  llEtbours  were  ended  by  a'  premature'  death;  in- the' 
spring  of  178S,  when  he  wasonly  in' bis-  thirty-sixth  year. 
He  was  universally  lamented  by  his  countrymen*  at  large; 
andahe  king,  who*  a  little  before  his- death  bad  called  him 
to  >  die  administration*  of  rtie  fitiances,  testified  his  high*  re- 
gard for  so  useful  a  servant',  by  providing'  for  his  chiTdret^ 
by  a  wifewhomcbe  liadmarriedMn  1783;     His  biographer 
applies'  to-  him,  with  the-  change  of  name,  what  Tacitus 
says  of  Agricola,  "  Q'uidquid   ok  Filangterio   amavtmus, 
quidquid'mirati  sumus>  manet  mansurumque  est  in  animis 
hominum^  in  setemitate  teiuporam,  femarerum."— Iti  1806, 
sir  Richard  Clayton*  published  an*  excellent  translation'  of 
Filangierii  in  2  vols<  8vo^  as  fkr  as  relates- to -pdiiticaL  add 
obconomical  laws^  and*  omitting*  what  is  said'  on-  crtminal^ 
legislation/  which  the  translator  conceived  was-  not*  wanted 
in  this  country,  where  the  distribution' of  public  justice  is 
scarcely  snsceptiblfe  of  amendment.  * 


FILESAG  (John),  was  a  native  oP  Pflrris,  who  taught 
eihics)  and-  afterwards  philosophy,  at  the  college  de  la 
Mlirebe^  and  was  rector  of  the  university  in  158&.  He 
took'  his  doctor^s*  degree,  April^^^  1590,  and  became  cu- 
rate* of  St;  J^hB  e»'  Greve.  Filesac,  who  was  eminent 
among  his  contemporaries  for  his^  firmness,  learning,  and 

I'FabfonlVitflB  Ilfttoriira,  toI.  XV.^Brit.  Grit;  yo).XXX> 

F-I  L  E  S  A  C.  301 

piety,  diad  at  Paris,  senior  of  the  Sorbonne,  and  dean  of 
the  facjulty  of  theology,  May  27,  1638,  leaving  several 
very  learned  Vorks,  the  piino^ipal  of  which  are,  ^^  A  Trea-^ 
tise  on  the  sacred*  Authority  of  Bisbo|>s,"  in  Latin,  Pari9| 
1606,  dvo;  another  '<  on  Lent;"  a  treatise  on  the  ^'  Ori« 
gin  of  Parishes;"  treatises  on  ^'  Auric  eiar  Confession  ;'*  on 
**  Idolatry,"  and  on  <^  the  Origin  of  the  andent  Statmeo 
of  the  Faculty  of  Paris."  They  are  united  under  the  tttl# 
of  '<  Opera  Pleraque,"  Paris,  1621,  3  vols.  4to,  but  he  baa 
on  the  whole  too  much  in  the  form  of  comptlationB  from 
other  authors  to  entitle  him  to  the  credit  of  an  original 
writer.  * 

FILICAIA  (Vincent  i>£),  a  celebrated  Italian  poet,  wan 
horn  December  SO/  1 642^  of  a  noble  family  at  Florence; 
He  studied  philosophy^  law,  and  divinity  five  years  at 
Pisa,  and  took  a  doctov  of  law^s  degree  there.  H^  then 
returu^d  to  Florence,  where,  after  several  years  spent  m 
his  closet,  with  no  other  employment  than  poetry  and  th€» 
belle84ettres,  the  grand  duke  appointed  him  senator*  He 
died  September  ^2:7,  1707,  aged  sixty^flve.  Filieaia  was 
mieoher  of  the  aeademies  delta  Crusca,  and  degii  Areadt* 
fiis  poems  are  much  admired  for  their  delicacy  and  nobkl 
sentiments.  They  have  been  publi^faed  together  by  Scipio 
Fiiicaia,  his  sou^  under  the  title  of  ^^  Poeaie  Toscane  dif 
Vincenzo  da  Filieaia,"  &c.  1707,  foi. ;  tbe  aame  with  the 
Latin  pvo$e,  Venice,   1747^  S  vela.  12mo.  ^ 

FILIPPI  (Bastiako),  of  Ferrara,  an  aitistborn  in  1532) 
was  nicknamed  Graieila  by  his  couiiirymen^  because  be  wad 
ibefisst  wbo  introduced  the  method  of  squaring  lavge  pic- 
tures, in  order  to  reduce  them  with  exactness  to  soM^ler  pre»- 
portions)  which  the  Italtane  call  ^a^iito^e,.  a  method  which 
be  had  learned  from  Michel  Angeio,  whose  scholar  he  wair 
at  Rome^  tboogh  unknown  to  Vasairi,  at  leaat  not  men^^ 
tinned  in  his:  life.  He  was  tbe  son  of  Camillo  Filippi^  wbd 
died  in  151%,  an  artiste^  uncettatn  scbool,  bsi;  who  paifited 
in  a  neat  and  limpid  manner ;.  and  if  we  may  jwdge  frodnr  ^ 
half-figure  of  Si  Pawl,  in^an  Annuisziata  of  hia  in  S,  Maria 
in  Vado^  not  without  some-  aim  at  the.  style  of  Michel  Ah« 
^elo*  From  him  tberefone  Baatiatio  probably  derived*  that 
ardent  diesire  for  it  which  made  him  secretly  levve*  his 
fetber's  houAC,  ai»i  journey  to  Borne,,  whece  he  became  on^ 

*  Dupio. — Moreri. 

•  Fabr.  Vitae  Ualojom>  tor.  vn.<*-TirabosckJ, — ^Niceron,  vol.  t' 

S02  F  I  L  I  p  p  r. 

of  the  most  indefatigable  copyists  and  dearest  pupils  of 
Buonarotti.  What  p6wers  he  acquired  is  evident  from  the 
**  Universal  Judgilient,*'  v^bich  he  painted  in  three  years, 
in  the  choir  of  the  metropolitan  ;  a  work  nearer  to  Michel 
Ang^lo  than  what  can  be  produced  by  the  whole  Florentine 
school.  It  possesses  grandeur  of  design  with  great  variety 
of  imagery,  well  disposed  groupes,  and  repose  for  the  eye. 
It  appears  incredible  that  in  a  subject  pre-occupied  by 
Buonarotti,  Filippi  should  have  been  able  to  appear  so 
novel  and  so  grand.  He  imitated  the  genius,  but  dis-^ 
darned  to.  transcribe  the  figures  of  his  mod^l.  He  too,  like 
Dante  and  Michel  Angelo,  made  use  of  that  opportunity 
to  gratify  this  aflPections  or  animosities,  by  placing  his 
friends  among  the  elect,  and  his  enemies  with  the  rejected. 
In  that  hapless  host  he  painted  the  faithless  mistress  who 
had  renounced  his  nuptials,  and  drew  among  the  blessed 
another  whom  he  had  married  in  her  place,  casting  a  look 
of  insult  on  her  rival.  At  present  it  is  not  easy  to  decide 
on  the  propriety  or  intemperance  of  BaruflFaldi  and  other 
Ferrarese  writers,  who  prefer  this  painting  to  that  of  the 
Sistina,  for  decorum  and  colour,  because  it  has  been  long 
retouched  ;  and  already  made  Barotti,  in  bis  description  of 
Ferrarese  pictures,  lament  "  that  the  figures  which  formerly 
appeared  living  flesh,  now  seem  to  be  of  wood.'*  Of  Fi- 
Ijppi's  powers,  however,  as  a  colourist,  other  proofs  exist 
at  Ferrara  in  many  an  untouched  picture  :  they  appear  to 
advantage,  though  his  flesh -tints  are  too  adust  and  bronzed, 
and  bis  colours  too  often  united  into  a  misty  mass. 
.  In  the  nudities  of  those  pictures,  especially  in  those  of 
the  colossal  figure  of  S.  Cristophano,  Filippi  adopted  the 
line  of  Michel  Angelo ;  in  the  draped  figures  he  followed 
other  models,  as  is  evident  in  the  Circumcision  on  an  altar 
of  the  Duomo,  'which  resembles  more  the  style  of  his  father 
than  his  owu.r.  Want  of  patience  in  invention  and  practice 
m$^de  him  often  repeat  himself ;  such  are  his  Niinziatas, 
re^produced'at  least  seven  times  on  the  same  idea.  The 
worst  is,  that  if  the  Last  Judgment,  the  large  altar-piece 
of  S.  Catherine  in  her  church,  and  a  few  other  public 
works  be  excepted,  he  more  or  less  hurried  on  the  rest ; 
content  to  leave  in  each  some  master  trait,  and  less  so- 
li^^us  to  obtain  the^  praise  of  diligence  than  of  power 
from  posterity.  What  he  painted  for  galleries  is  not  inuch, 
but  conducted  with  more  care  :  without  recurring  to  what 
may  be  seen  at  Ferrara/  the  Baptism  of  Christ  in  the  house 

F  IL  I  P  P  I.  303 

A<:qua  at  Osicao,  and  some  of  bis  copies  from  Michel  An- 
gelo  at  Rome,  are  of  that  number.  In  his  earliest  time 
he  painted  grotesques,  a  branch  which  he  afterwards  left 
entirely  to  his  younger  brother  Cesare  Filippi,  who  was  as 
eminent  in  the  ornamental  style,  as  weak  in  large  figures 
and  history.  '  He  died  in  1602.* 

FILMER  (Sir  RcBERr),  son  of  sir  Edward  Filmer,  of 
East  Sutton,  in  Kent,  by  Elizabeth  his  wife,  daughter  of 
Richard  Argall,  esq.  was  born  in  the  end  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  educated  in  Trinity-college,  in  Cambridge, 
of  which  he  was  naatriculated  July  5,  1604.  His  works 
are,  1.  "  The  Anarchy  of  a  limited  and  mixed  Monarchy," 
16  i.6,  which  was  an  answer  to  Hunton's  "  Treatise  on  Mo- 
narchy," printed  in  1643.  Sir  Robert's  work  was  reprinted 
in  .1652  and  1679,  8vo.  2.  "  Patriarcha,"  in  which  he 
endeavours  to  prove,  that  all  government  was  monarchical 
at  first,  and  that  all  legal  titles  to  govern  are  originally  de- 
rived from  the  heads  of  families,  or  from  such  upon  whom 
their  right  was  transferred,  either  by  cession  or  failure  of 
the  line.  He  also  wrote,  "  The  Freeholders'  Grand  In- 
quest,  &c."  On  the  trial  of  the  celebrated  Sidney,  it  was 
m^ide  a  charge  that  they  found  in  his  possession  a  manu- 
script answer  to  Filmer's  *^  Patriarcha,"  but  this  was  after- 
wards more  completely  answered  by  Locke,  in  his  ^'  Two 
Treatises  on  Government,"  published,  in  1689;  Filmer 
died  in  1647.*    . 

FINiEUS  (Orontius),  in  French  Fine,  professor  of 
mathematics  in  the  Royal  college  at  Paris,  was  theson  of 
a  physician,  and  born  at  Brian^on,  in  Dauphin^,  in  1494. 
He  went  young  to  Paris,  where  his  friends  procured  him  a 
place  in  the  college  of  Navarre.  He  there  applied  him- 
self to  polite  literature  and  philosophy ;  yet  devoted  him>* 
self  more  particularly  to  mathematics,  for  which  he  had.  a 
strong  natural  inclination,  and  made  a  considerable  pro- 
gress, though  without  the  assistance  of  a  master.  .  He  ac- 
quired likewise  much  skill  in  mechanics ;  and  having  both 
a  genius  to  invent  instruments,  and  a  skilful  hand  to  make 
them,  he  gained  high  reputation  by  the  specimens  he  gave 
of  his  ingenuity.  He  first  made  himself  knov^n  by  cor- 
recting and   publishing  Siliceus's  "  Arithmetic,"  and  the 

Margareta  Philpsoptiica."     He  afterw^ards  read  private 

>  Pilkington  by  Fnsell. 

A  Atb.  Ox.  tol.  II.— Burnetts  Own  Times.— Cole's  MS  .\thenae  in  Brit.  Mus. 


S04  F  I  N  ^  U  S. 

lectures  iri  ctiatbematics,  and  then  taught  that  sciencfe  pub- 
licly in  the  college  of  Gervais ;  by  which  he  became  so 
fattious,  that  he  was  recommended  to  Francis  I.  as  the  fitir 
test  person  to  teach  mathematics  in  the  new  college  which 
that  prince  had  founded  at  Paris.     He  omitted  hotbing  to 
support  the  glory  of  his  profession  ;  and  though   he  in- 
Btrubted  his  scholars  with  great  assiduity,  yet  he  found 
time  to  publish  a  great  many  books  upon  almost  every  part 
of  the  mathematics.     A  remarkable  proof  of  his  skill  in 
mechafiics  is  exhibited  in  the  clock  which  he  invented  in 
1553,  and  of  which  there  is  a  description  in  the  Journal 
of  Amsterdam  for  March  2S^,   1694.     Yet  his  genirte^  hh 
labours,  his  inventions,  and  the  festeem  which  an  infinite 
nombef  Of  persons  shewed  him,  could  riot  Secure  him  frona 
that  fate  which  so  often  befalls  meti  of  letters.     He  was 
obliged  to  struggle  all  his  life  with  pfoverty ;  and,  when  he 
/iied,  left  a  wife  ^nd  six  children,  and  many  debts.     His 
^hildWrt,  hdwevef,  found  patrons,  ^ho  for  their  father*s 
sake  assisted  his  family.     He  died  in  155i,  aged  sixiy-one'. 
Lik^itll  the  other  mathematicians  and  dstronomers  of  thosk. 
times,  he  was  greatly  addicted  to  astrology ;  and  had  ihh 
liiisfc^ttfinfe  to  be  a  long  time  imprisoned,  becat/se  h*6  bad 
foreHoM  so*«  things  which  were  not  accefptable   to  the 
eourt*  of  France.     He  ^as  one  of  those  whoVainfy  boasted 
of  having  fbdnd  out  the  quadrature  of  the  circle.     His 
works  were  collected  ih  3  vols,  folio,  in  1532f,   i542,  an'd 
155^,  and  there  rs  an  Itialian  edition  in  4to,  Venice,  15^7.* 
FINCH  (Heneage),  first  earl  of  Nottingham,  and  k)rd 
high*  chant^ellor  of  Ertgknd,  the  son  of  ^ir  Heneage  Fin<jB', 
kiH.  recorder  of  London,  was  born  Dec.  21  or  ^3,  1621,  in 
the  county  of  Kent     He  was  educated  at  Westminkter-  . 
school,    st&d!  became  a   gentleman    conimorier  df  Christ 
chureb^in  O^yford,  1635.     After  he  had  prosecuted  Ms  stuV'^ 
di«s  there  fof  two  or  three  years,  he  removed  to  the  fniier 
Temple,  whefe,  by  diligence  and  good  p^rts,  he  became  \ 
remarkable  for  his^  knowledge  of  the  municipal  Ikv^s,  i^ai  ' 
successively   barrister,    bencher,    treasurer,    readfei*,    &C. 
CbArles  11.  on  his  restor'ation,   made  him  solicitor  general,  : 
ilnd  advanced  him  to  the  dignity  of  a  barohet.     H'e  WaK.!! 
reader  of  the  Inner  Terhplfe  the  next  year,  and  chose  for 
his  subject  the  statute  of  39  E)iz.  cortceriiing  the  payment 
and  recovery  of  the  debts  of  the  crown,  at  that  time  very  ^- 

«  G«n.  Diet— Nicerpn,  vol.  XXXVIU.— Moreri: 

ff  I  N  C  H.  805 

^^eatoliaUe  an.d  necessary,  and  whtdi  be  treated  with  grtet 
'^r^gth  pf  reason,  and  depth  of  law.  Uncommon  honours 
were  paid  to  him  on  this  occasion,  the  reading  and  enter- 
tatnixient  lasting  from  the  4th  to  the  nth  of  August.  At 
the  first  dfty*8  entertainment  were  several  of  the  nobility  ef 
die  kingdom,  and  privy  counsellors,  with  divers  otbera  ef 
his  friends ;  at  the  second,  were  the  lord  mayor,  aldermen, 
and  prineipal  citizens  of  London ;  at  the  third,  which  was 
two  days  a&er  the  former,  was  the  whole  college  of  pby- 
aicians,  who  all  came  in  their  caps  and  gowns;  at  the 
li^urtb,  all  the  judges,  advocates,  doctors  of  the  civil  law, 
and  all  the  society  of  Doctors'  Commons ;  at  the  fifth,  tfa^ 
arcbbisJbLops,  bishops,  and  chief  of  the  clergy ;  and  at  the 
last,  which  wns  on  August  15,  his  majesty  king  Charles  11, 
did  him  the  honour  (never  before  granted  by  any  of  faia 
fdyal  prof enitors)  to  accept  of  an  invitation  to  <!ine  with 
him. in  the  great  hall  of  the  Inner  Temple. 

As  s^icitor-generaJ,  he  took  an  active  part  in  the  trials 
of  the  regicidesi  and  in  April  1661,  by  the  atrong  reborn* 
mendattoB  of  lord  Clarendon,  he  was  chosen  a  member  of 
parliament  for  the  university  of  Oxford  ;  but,  toys  Wood, 
^  be  did  ns  no  good,  when  we  wanted  his  assistance  for 
taking  off  the  tribute  belonging  to  hearths."  In  1665,  after 
the  parliament  then  sitting  at  Oxford  had  been  prorogued, 
iie  was  in  full  convocation  created  doctor  of  dvil  law;  and-, 
the  creation  being  over,  the  vice-chancellor,  in  the  pre« 
aence  of  several  parliament-med^  stood  up  and  spoke  to 
the  yublic  orator  to  do  bis  gffice,  who  aaid,  among  othir 
things,  ^'  That  the  university  wished  they  bad  more  col- 
leges to  entertain  the  parliament  men,  and  more  chambers, 
but  by  n6  means  more  chimuies ;"  at  which  sir  Heneage 
was  observed  to  change  countenance,  and  draw  a  little 
back.  When  the  disgrace  of  lord  Clarendon  drew  on,  ia 
I667V  aad  he  was  impeached  in  parliament  for  some  sup* 
posed  high  crimes,  sir  Heneage,  noA  forgetting  his  ohL 
friend,  appeared  vigorously  in  his  defence.  In  1670,  the 
kbig  appointed  bim  attorney  general ;  and,  about  three 
years  after,  lord  keeper.  Soon  after  he  was  advanced  to 
the  degree  of  a  faaron,  by  the  title  of  Lord  Finch  of  Da* 
Tteiary,  in  the  county  of  Northampton,  and  upon  the  suv- 
sender  of  the  great  seal  to  his  majesty,  Dec.  19,  167 &;<  he 
«ecei¥ed  it  imdoeiediately  back  again,  with  the  title. of  Lord 
ifoh  Chancellor  of  England. 

The  conduct  of  Xatd  fihancellor  Finch  ia  the  disposal  of 

Vol.  XIV.  X 

^8*6  r  1  N  C  fi. 

<  church  livings  merits,  particular  approbation.    AiiaichtAs$(3 
-  the  interests  of  the  church  of  England,,  he  bad  considered 
the  necessity  of  inquiring  into  the  characters  ^f  those  who 
-might  be  candidates  for  benefices  in  the  disposal  of:tbe 
.  se^«    But  tlie  many  avocations  of  his  high  office  preveM^ 
his  personal  attention  to  this  point;  lie  therefore  addressed 
his  chaplain  (Dr.  Sharps  afteiTwards  archbishop  of  Yorik)  to 
^  this  effect:  **  The  greatest  difficulty^  Iitpprebend,  in<die 
execution  of  my  office^  is  the  patronage  of  ecclesiastieal 
-  prefer  iBents.     God  is  my  witness-  that  I  would  not  know* 
lingly  prefer  an  unworthy  person  ;  but  as  my  course  of  .ikfe 
and  studies  bais  lain  another  way,  I  caiiDot  think  myself  ao 
good  a  judge  of  the  merits  of  such  suitors  an  you  are ;  I 
therefore  charge  it  upon  your  conscience, ,  as  you  will  an- 
bwor  it  to  Almighty  God|  that  upon  ^every  such  occasioti; 
you  make  the  best  inquiry^  and  give  me  the  best  advice 
you  can,  that  I  may  never  bestow  any  ^voiir  upon^ui  uii« 
deserviag  man ;  which  if  you  neglect  to  do,  the  guilt  will 
be  entirely  yours,  and  I  shall  deliver  my  own  soul."     This 
trust,  so  solemnly  committed  to  his  care^  Dr.  Sharp  (saj^s 
his  recent  biographer  Mr.  Todd)  faithf uHy  dischai^ed  ;  asd 
his j|d vice  was  no  less  faithfully  followed  by  his  patro%  as 
long  as  he  continued  in  office.     By  so  conscientious  a  dis- 
posal   of   ehurchrpreferment  in   the   dissolute  *  reigli  of 
.rCharles  II.  the  cause  of  religion  must  have  been  emiiiendy 
-advanced. •  v      ...?...  ,-i 

.,    He  performed  the  office  of  high, steward,^ »t  the  trialjof 
.lord  l^talFordy.who  was  found  guilty  of  high  treason  kyjbis 
-pe^rs,  for  being  concerned  in  the  popish  plot.   'Qn:Mhj 
.12,  1681,  he  was  created  earl  of  Nottingham,  anddasd, 
quite  worn  out,  at  his  house  in  Queen«street»'<  Limii^lii^jH 
inn-^elds,  Dec.  1  a,  1682,  and  was. buried  inr  the  chtHr^h'^f 
.  Raunston  near  Olney  in  .Buckioghainshirf^  whei^ehia^saa 
erected  a  sYiperb  monument  to  his  meiMry.    Theugbolie 
.  li^ed  iu  very  troublesome  and  difficult  timesy  yet  he.tioo- 
4f]cted  himself  with  such- eveo. steadiness^  that  h^pretakicd 
;  the  good  opinion  of  both  prince  and  people,   -ibriii^aar'dis- 
.  tinguished  by  his  wisdom  and  >elo(|iience  ^^ and. \va&suich^ 
:  excellent  orator,   that  some  of  his  co«tempoi!ai!ies;«lisuie 
.  styles}  him  the  English  Roscius,  tb^.  English  Gscere^  Ac. 
Burnet,  intbe  preface  to  his  *^  History.of  ,tbe  .Refdi 
>tion,''  tells  us,  that  his  great  parts  find  greater  nrtmdd 
:  so  conspicuous,  that  it  would  be  a  high  presumptsoop  t»ihim 
..  io  My  any  thing  io  his  commendation^}  ^beingm>i)e^kMSg 

^:So0re  mninh^tf  than  in  hhi  zeal  for^  and  care  oi^  ih(5  thiirch 
'"-of 'England. ;  His  character  is  described  by  Dryden^,  or 
itatber  Tate>  in  the  second  part  of  *^  Absalom  and  Achito*- 
phdl^'V under  the  name  of  Amri;  but  more  reliancre  litay  fee 
'fia^ed  on  ifae  opinidii  of  judge  Blackstoner  ^*  He  was  a 
jfiecson,'-  says  this  learned  cbmrnentator^  "  of  the  greatest 
abilitiesi  and  fiiost  incorrupted  inl^egrity ;  a  therougb  mas- 
ter and  2^ealoq$.  defender  of  the  laws  and  constitution  of  bis 
country;  and  endfued  with  a  pervading  genius  that  ^iMiabled 
biin^todiseofef  and  to  pursue  the  true  spirit  of  justice^ 
'notwithstanding  the  embarrassments  raided  by  the  nar^ow 
aad  teiihnical  nodoita  which  then  prevailed- in  the 'couns  of 

-  iaw^'^nd  t^  impi&rfect  ideas  of  redress  which  had  possesstd 
Jtbe  courta  of  eq^ity•    The  reason  and  necessities  of  nian- 

(.kindy  arising  ^romthe  great  change  in  property^  by  the 
-vBxtensioaof  :trad€;  and.  the  aboli|ion  of  miUtafy  tenures^ 

-  4so-cq>eraied  an  establieihing  his  plan>  and  enabled  -him,  ia 
t  tfaeicourseof  nine  years^  to  build  a  system  of  juriaprudence 

"«and  jurisdictbn.  upon  wide  and  rational  foundatimis^  which 
1  ha;^e,al0o  been  extended  and  improved. by  many  great 
bsuen^  Mdiobave  since  presided. in>  chancery ;  and  from  that 
^^iqietoibis^y  thie'pqwer  and  basiness  of  the  courts  have  in^ 
-Hsreased  to  an  amazing,  degree/'  ■/•.:^'i^t' 

'^\  .  .Under  bis  Bame^tre  published^  1*  Set^eral  speeches  isttld 
^Xdi&ciMicseaiti {the  trial  of  the  jodges  of  Cfad:rielil.  ii^'t^e 

book  entitled  **  An  exact  and  most  impartial  accourift'^f 
Ijtltei'ilifdictHient^  Arraignmenft,  Trialy^^nd  JudgmeiH^ '  (ac« 
ricbi^dliii^^lo  law;)  iOf't^enty^nine  regicides^  &c.  1660/*  4«o, 
\AiS^9QSy<k  ■■'.  2i  '<  Speeches  to  both •  Housies  of  Parliameiu, 
viiZtb  Jaoi  1633  |.ISth  of  April  and  13th  of  Oct.  1075$  I^th 

<6frFeh.jl'6^J^;.4th  of  Marcb^  1678  ;  and'SOkh  of  April, 
tA^-B^y  S^hes&wei^e  spoken^Twhile  he  was  lord  kee^per  at^d 
xtchanceHiH^**^  3.'  Mc:j3peeeb  at  the  SeotetKe  of  WittiaG(^  Vis- 
^4;od§t)Staffprd>-7i;h>Dee.  16ao^-'  printed  in <me  sheets  folio; 

-  fivmlt^in  ifa^  Trial  o£  •  the  said  Viscount,  p.  a  1 2.  4.  ^'  An- 
^aweraibyibia  M^^ty'a  command,  ^  upon  several  Addresses 
- (fireaeiited^  to  l&i' >m|ijie8ty  at  Hfunpton  Court,  the>  «l  9th  -^f 
i::4May,  Ld^l  /' )in -pne  sheet,  in  folio.  5.  <^  His  Argumenti ; 
\'ij^ajwbicdi;he<^iiiade'tbe  Decree  in  the  caase  between  the 

?lto9oiiral33& Charles  Howard,^esq.  plaintiff,  Henry  late  duke 
"jai'Ktorfblk,  Henry  lord  Mowbray  his  son,  Henry  marquis 
^irf*^  Dorciiester^  &nd  Richard  Marriott,  esq.  defendants ; 
r^iAeteibf^'iia^^i&wnA  ways  and  inethpds  of  limiting  a  trust  of 
-:aeraEi<for  y%ars^(e  fully  debated,  1615/*  folio.    6.  «  Aa 

lot  mx^vvL 

(A^rgmtient  on  this  ckitn  of  the  Crown  to  pftrddn  en"  loli^ 
ipeachment,^*  folio.  He  also  left  (behind  bim,  written  with 
ills  own  hand,  **  Chaneeiy  Reports/*  MS.  in  folio,  and  not^ 
©«  Coke's  Institute.^  .      -    .  ; 

FINCH  (DANiei.)^  second  earl  of  Kotiinghaniji  son  of 
t^e  preceding,  by  his  iadj  Elizabe^,  daughter  of  Mr; 
Daniel  Hervey^  merchant  in  Ixmdon,  was  bornaboat  i64T^ 
«ind  educated  at  Christ  ehurch,  Oxford ;  but  entered  early 
into  public  life,  and  served  in  several  paiiiaments.  in  the 
reign  of  Charles  11.  for  the  city  of  Lichfield,  and  for  the 
borough  of  Newton  in  the  eonnty  of  Southampton;  In 
1679  he  was  constituted  first  commissioner  of  the-  Ad^^ 
teiralty,  and  sworn  of  the  privy-council ;  and  in  the  lattet 
«nd  of  the  year  following,  spoke  with  much  vigour  in  th6 
iiouse  of  commons  against  the  bill  for  the  exclustoh  of  tfat 
duke  of  York,  declaring  ^'diat  the  kings  of  England  di> 
'Hot  rule  by  virtue  of  any  statute-law,*'  aa  bad  been  aug^* 
'gested  b V  some  f>ersons  on  the  other  side  "Of  the  question, 
'**.  since  tneir  right  was  by  so  ancient  a  prescription,  thatt 
it  might  justly  be  i^d  to<be  from  God 'alone;  and  aucb  as 
no  power  on  earth  ought  tO'^ispute.**  ^ 

On  the  decease  of  his  father  in  I€Bf ,  he  Succeeded  litiii 
in  his  titles  and  estate ;  and  on  the  death  of  Charles  IIi, 
•was  one  Of  ihe  prirvy^eouneil  who  aigned  the  order,  xULted 
-at -Whitehall,  Feb.  6,  i^M-iS,  for  proclaiming  the  duke  ctf 
•York  king  of  England.  In  that  rei^n  he  was  one  of  the 
tdiief  opposers  of  the  abrogation  of  the  test  actj  which  he 
c^sidered  as  the  strongest  fence  of  the  protestant  religiod. 
Upon  the  trial  of  ihe  keven  bishops, 4ie  was  present  in  court 
'With  seveml  other  noblemen ;  and  his  brother  'Heneage, 
afterwards  earl  of  Aylesford,  was  of  the  counsel  foridiose 
.prelates;-  lie  was  likewise  one  of  the  patribtis,  'who,  from 
a  true  sseal  for  their  religion  and  their  country,  often  mift 
to  concert  such  advices  and  advertisements  as  migfartbfe 
*fit  for  the  prince  of  Orange  to  know,  that  he  might  govern 
•bimself  by  them.  When,  however,  it  Was  secretly  prirr 
.posed  to  him  to  invite  that  prince  into  England,  be  t^  k 
conscientious  hesitation  on  the  subject,  and  informed'tfae 
iriends  of  that  meastire  that  be  could  not  penonally  adopt 
jt,  yet  would  preserve  the  secret  with  which  they  had  in*- 
trusted  him.     Upon  the  prince's  landing  in  the  Wes^  fat 

.  1  Coirms'sPeerage.---Biog.  Brit.-p»Tod4*f  DeaiiioC.Cto^n^iiiqry^^J^ 
Koy at  and  Koble^utbon  by  Park«-All^  ^x*  toL  II.  ' 

riNciR  mm 

^9^  otie  oCtkote  lords  who  wtmdu  » last  altempt  on  the  obf«( 
ftthiacy  of  the  king,  by  pieioiitHig  a  petition  to  his  m^>*j 
j^itfi  advismg  him  to  call  a  parliaaent  regohiratid  frae  in 
all  respect%  to  which  be  was  even  for  adding^  ^^  that  thet 
pieera  who  had  joined  the  prince  might  sit  in  that  free  par^^ 
liameat  ;'^  bat  this  by  the  other  lords  was  thought  nnaeces^ii 
siry.     He  was  afterwards  one  of  the  commissioners  sent  by 
bis  tnajeaty  to  treat  with  the  prinee.     When  afterwards  the' 
convention  was  opened^  he  was  the  principal  manager  of 
the  debates  in  favour  of  a  regent,  agatitst  those  who  were 
f6r  setcii^  up  another  king ;  supporting  his  opinion  by  • 
ttmXiy  argamente  drawn-  from  the  English  history,  and  add* « 
lAg  a  reoent  instauce  in  Portugal^  where  Don- Pedro  had; 
onTy  the  tide  of  regent  conferred  upon  him,  while  hisde*. 
posed  brother  lived*     However^  he  owned  it  to  be  a  prin^ 
ciple  gfMtided  on  the  law  and  history  of  England,  that: 
oi^dieace  and  allegiance  were  due  to  the  king  for  the  time 
(beh^^  even  in  opposition  to  one,  with  whom  the  right  was 
thought  sttU  to  remsnUi    He  likewise  told  bishop  Burnet, 
that  thoogh  he  ooitld  not  argue  nor  vote,  but  according  to 
the  notions  which  be  had  iiarmed  concerning  our  laws  and  • 
coosl^ittition,  he  should  not  be  sorry  to  see  his  own  side: 
Oiit<«i^oted ;    and  that  though  he  could  not  agree  to  the ' 
shaking  cf  i  king,  as  things  stood,  yet  if  he  rfonnd  ooa-^ 
.lAade,  he  woeld  be  more  faithful  to  him  than  those vWfao.' 
Blade  him  could  be,  according  to  their  prindple&    ,  * 

When  king  WilKam  aind  queen -Mary  therefore  were^ 
advanced  to  the  throne,  he  waa  offered  the  post  of  lord^ 
high  chancellor  of  England,  which  be-excused  bimtelf  from 
accepting,  alledging  his  unfitness  for  an  employment  that' 
roqtffired  a  constant  application ;  but  was  appointed  one  of 
the  principal  secietaries  of  state.    In  1690,  he  attended^ 
JMs^  migesty  to  the  fisitious  congress  at  the  Hague;   and^ 
Jdng^  James  JI.  look  sUfch  umbrage  at  bis  services,  that  in 
fabdecbration  upon  bis  intended  descent  in  1692,  his  lord<* 
ahlp  war  excepted  out  of  his  general  pardon.    In  Marchi 
J  693-4,  he  resigned  his  place  of  principal  secretary  of 
state ;   and  the  year  following  had   a  public   testimony, 
given  to  the  integrity  of  bis  conduct  in  a  very  remarkable: 
-instance;  for,  upon  an  examination  in  parliament  into  the 
.bribery  and  corroptiAn  of  some  of  their  own  members,  in' 
order  to  obtain  a  new  charter  for  the  Eust-India  Company^^ 
it  appeared  by  the  deposition  bf  sir  Basil  Firebraice,  tha|' 
bis  lordfibip  had  absolutely  refused  to  take  five  thouiiand^ 

3|<i:  FINC  Hi 

gpiioeaft  for  hi&inteF€8|  in  promoting  that  cbitrler|<  aiid-fiiAr 
tbousand  pounds  on  pas^ng-the  act  for  tbat  puriyne.  v  :^:.: 
:  Upon  tbe  accession  of  queen  Anne  he  .was  aga»i\^p-* 
]^Hfited  one.  of  the  principal  secretaries  of  state,  and.  ip^ 
that  station  bad  a-jirote  of  the  house  of  coaamona  passed^  ii)t 
his 'favour^  ^>tbat  he  had.  tngbly  merited  the  tritsl^bjec 
majesty^  had  reposed  in  hioi/'  and  the  like  sanction  U^Bk 
the  bouse  of  lords.  However,  on  th'e  i7th  of  April  17P4, 
he  resigned  that  employment,  and  accepted  of  .no  oth^* 
potMuring  all  that  reign,  though  large  offers  were  .m$i^ 
to  engage  him  in  the  court  interest  and,measures,<u{>oii  ^the 
change  of  the  ministry  in  17  iO,  his  refusal  of  wbic^  so  eiirr 
asperated  the  opposite  party,  tbat  he  was  ^tttacb^  Pi^il^li 
great  .virulence  in  several  libels  both  in  verse  and  pco^ 
He  continued  therefore  to  give  his  opinion  uponall^oQcai^ 
mma  with,  great  freedom,  and^  in. December  the  ^me^ye^T- 
distingaisbed  himself  by  a  vigorous  speech  in  tb&:b(ws.e.<lf 
lords,  irepresenting,  that  po  peace  could  be  safe) or.  ho- 
nourable to  Great  Bcttain,.. if  Spain  and  the  Wes^tlpdi^ 
^vjere  allotted  to  any  bvaneh  of  the  house  of  Bourbeti;  :w4 
had .sd/ much, weight  in  that  house,  that  the  claAis^  wbiob* 
he  offered  to  that  purpose  to  be  inserted  in  tbe  ad4r6s^iitf . 
thanks,  in.  answer  to  her  majesty's  ^eech,  was  after- i^i 
warm  debate  carried.  He  soon  after  moved  likewiis^  fi)r 
an  address  to  the  queen,  that  her  majesty  would  not  tr4$9|t 
except  iii  concert  with  her  allies.  When  bis  late  majesty, 
•long  Geor^  succeeded  to  the  crowo»  his  lordship  was  pjie 
cf  the  lords  justices  for  the  administration  of  affairs  tilLhis. 
iwrivial ;  and  on  tbe  24th  of  September  1714,  was  declar^ 
lord- president  of  thecouncil.  But  on  the  29th  of  February 
1715-16,  he  retired  from,  all  public  business  to  a stqdi^QU^ 
course  of  life  ;  the  fruits  of  which  appeared  in  his  elabprate 
answer  to  Mr.  Whiston's  letter  to  him.  upon  the  subj^t  of 
the  trinity  ;  for  which,  on  the  22d  of  March.  1720-Si|L,  be 
hod  the  unanimous  thanks  of  the  university  of  Oxford^  in 
full  convocation  *.    He  died  January  21st,  1729.-30,.haviQg . 

4P  On  March  22,  1720-1,  tbe  uni-  tbe  Holy  Ghost ;  and  that  Dr.  Sbipi>en, 

:T«nity  of  Chcford,  in  a  full  cooYOca-  Tice-chaDcellor,  William  Bromleyt  ^nd' 

■■  tion,  mMDimously  decreed,  '*  Tbat  the  George  Clark,  es<|rs.  repceseotativee-ef 

•  Kolema  thanks  of  that  university  be  the  university,  wait  on  the  said^arl, 

returned  to  the  right  bonoarable  the  and  present  to  his  lordship  the  thapks 

««i1  of  Nottingham,  for  his  roost  noble  aforesaid  of.  the  whole  university.*'  On 

defence  of  the  Christian  faith,  con-.  April  11  following,  pr.  John  Robinson,, 

tained  in  his  lordship's  answer  to  Mr.  bishop  of  London,  at  the  head  of  Uie 

^hision^s  letter  to  him,    concerning  (iiergy  of  his  diocese,  waited  on  ^is 

the,  ctemity  of  the  Son  of  God,  and  oC  lordship,  awl  (etarniBd  him  their  thai^ki 

PINCH;  111^ 

jl(it  before  isucceeded  ^o  the  title  of  «aii  of  Wiiichelse% 

into  wbicb  that  of  .Nottingham)  merged. 

By  his  fifst  wife,  the  lady  Et^sex  Rich,  second  daughter 
and  one  of  the  co-heirs  of  Robert  earl  of  Warwick,  he  had 
issue  one  daughter;  and  by  his  second,  Anne,  onlydaugb* 
ter  of  Christopher  lord  viscount  Hatton,  he  bad  five  sons 
and  eight  daughters^ 

He  was  remarkably  skilled  in  the  whole  system  of  the 
English  law,  as  well  as  in  the  records  of  parliaments; 
and  these  qnaliftcations,  joined  to  a  copious  and. ready 
eloquence,  of  which  he  was  master^  gave  him  great  weigbl 
in  all  public  assemblies.  Besides  the  pamphlet  against 
Whiston,  his  lordship  wrote  "  A  Letter  to  Dr.  Waterland,'* 
printed  at  the  end  of  Dr.  Newton's  treatise  on  Pluralities; 
and  a  pamphlet  entitled  **  Ohservations  upon  the  State  of 
the  Nation  in  January  1712<r]3,"  has  been  ascribed  to  himt 
but,  as  lord  Orford  thinks,  he  was  not  the;author  of  it. '  r 
^  FINCH  (Anne,  countess  of  Winchelsea),  ^  lady  of 
considerable  poetical  talents,  was  the  daughter  of  sir  Wil« 
Itaxn  Kingsmill,  of  Sidmonton,  in  the  county  of.  Southamp^ 
ton,  but  the  time  of  her  birth  is  not  meationecL  Sheiwas 
maid  of  honour  to  the  duchess  of  York,  second  wife  of 
James  II. ;  and  afterwards  married  to  Heneage,  s^oud  soa 
pf  Heneage  earl  of  Winchelsea ;  which  Heneage  was,  in 
bis  father's  life-time,  gentleman  of  the  bed-chamber  to 
the  duke  of  York,  and  afterwards,  upon  the  death  of  bis 
nephew  Charles,  succeeded  to  the  title  of  earl  of  Win- 
chelsea. One  of  the  mbst  considerable  of  this  lady^s 
poems  was  that  ^^  upon  the  Spleen,^'  printed  in  '^  A  nem 
miscellany  of  original  Poems  on  several  occasions,''  pub- 
lished by  Mr.  Charles  Gildon  in  1701,  8vo.  That  poem 
occasioned  another  of  Mr.  Nicholas  Rowe,  entitled  "  An 
£pist]e  to  Flavia,  on  the  sight  of  two  Pindaric  Odes  on  tha 
Spleen  and  Vanity,  written  by  a  lady  to  her  friend*"  A 
collection  of  her  poems  was  printed  in  1713,  8vo;  cqi^5> 
taining  likewise  a  tragedy  called  ^^  Aristomenes/*  never 

on  the  same  account;  as  also  did  the  Qreetham,mKotlatid8h|re,  all  the  tithes 

clei^y  of  the  diocese  of  Peterborongb.  of  corp,  hay,  &e.  arising  and  growiaf 

-  His  lordship  bad  before  manifested  his  in  Woolfox,    in-  the  *  sai4    parisii  of 

regard  for  the  private  interest  of  the  Greetham,'for  an  augroentatioa,  ofai 

olerity,  havio*  by  indenture,  Sept.  11,  least  8/.  per  annum,  to  the  said  vit 

1702,  freely  derised  to  the  vicarage  of  oarage  for  ever.   . 

'  Col!iris*8  Peerage,  by  sir  E.  Brydges. — Birch's  Lives. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II.— « 
Diralpele's  Royal  and  Noble  Authors,  by  Park.*-Swifi*s  Works ;  see  lndex,'-« 
WhisionU  J4f^.— NiQhols's  Atterbury,  vol.  I.  ISl,  160,  162|  HI,  9Q,  '' 

it»  F  I  N  c  a 

;  and  many  still  continue  unpnbKsIied,  a  few  df 
which  may  be  seen  in  the  General  Dicttonacy,  whieh  Dr; 
^irch  inserted  there  by  permission  of  the  cottintessof  Hert- 
ford, in  whose  possession  they  were.  Her  ladyship  ob- 
tained the  good  will  of  Pope,  who  addressed  some  verses 
to  her  which  drew  forth  ^n  elegant  replication,  printed  w 
Cibber's  Lives.  She  died  August  5,  1720,  without  issue; 
as  did  the  earl  her  husband,  Sept.  3a,  1726.' 

FINCH  (Henry),  of  the  family  of  the  lord  keeper,  ivas 
the  son  of  sir  Thomas  Finch  of  Eastwell  in  Kent,  andnras 
born  in  that  county,  and  educated  at  .Oriel  college,  Ox- 
ford. From  that  be  went  to  Gray*s  Inn,  and  after  pursuing 
the  usual  course  of  law  studies,  became  a  counsellor  of 
reputation,  and  was  autumn  or  summer  reader  of  that 
house  in  2  James  I.  In  1 6 1 4  be  attained  the  rank  of  a 
sei^eantj  and  two  years  after  was  knighted.  He  died  Oct* 
11,  1625,  leaving  a  son,  John,  who  was  afterward  created 
lord  Finch  of  Fordwicb,  and  was  keeper  of  the  great  seal. 
Sir  Henry  Finch  wt-ote  ^'Nomotechnia,  oil  descnption  diel 
Commun  Leys  d^Angleterre,  &c.**  Lond.  1613,  fol.  This 
**  Deacription  of  the  Common  Law'*  was  afterwards  pub- 
fished  by  himself  in  English,  under  the  title  **  Of  Law,  or 
a  Discourse  thereof,'*  Loud.  1627,  1636,  and  1661,  Svo. 
But  a  better  translation  was  published  in.  1758  by  an  anony- 
toons  hand.  He  published  also  ^*  On  the  Calling  of  the 
Jews,"  a  work  which.  Wood  has  so  imperfectly  described ' 
tbat  it  IS  not  easy  to  discover  its  drift.* 

FINET  (Sir  John),  a  man  considerable  enough  to  be 
remembered,  was  son  of  Robert  Finet  of  Soulton,  near 
Bover,  in  Kent,  and  born  in  157  L*.  His  great  grandfa* 
ther  was  of  Sienna,  in  Italy,  where  bis  family  was  ancient; 
and  coming  into  England  a  servant  to  cardinal  Campegius, 
the  pope*8  legate,  married  a  maid  of  honour  to  queen  Ca» 
therine,  consort  to  Henry  VIII.  and  settled  here.  He  wa^ 
bred  up  in  the  court,  where,  by  his  wit,  mirth,  and  nncom«* 
mon  skill  in  composing  songs,  be  very  much  pleased  James' 
I.  In  1614  he  was  sent  into  France  about  matters  of  pub** 
lie  concern  ;  and  the  year  after  was  knighted.  In  1616  he 
was  made  assistant  to  the  master  of  the  ceremonies,  being^ 
then  in  good  esteem  with  Charles  J.  He  died  in  164L^ 
aged  seventy.     He  wrote  a  book  entitled  **  Fineti  Philoxe- 

.  1  Gtnenl  Diet.  toI.  X.  art.  Wiocbeliea.— Gibber's  Lives.-~Park*t  edit  of  tbe 
Hojal  and  N«ble  AutboTf.  .«  Atb.Ox.  Td^  U 

ma  ET.^  :  as 

Ittk  I' Some  cfhoic^obsewatioMtoitciiiiig  the  twatfpAon  and^ 
precedency,  the  tiMtmeiH  and  8iidienc6»  the  pufkctUiotf* 
and'  contexts  of  foreign  a«bassad«f^  in  j^ngiand^  1656,**^ 
Sp6:  published  by  Jasie»  Howel,  and  dedicated  to  10fd> 
L'kle.  He  also  trandated  firom  f  rench  into  English  ^  Thtf 
liKBgiriiiing,  contmuance,  and  decay  of  Estates,  ^c«  1606  f*"* 
written  originally  by  R.  de  Lusing. ' 

FIOEAVANTI  (Leonard),  a  physician  of  Bologna,  lit* 
the  sixteenth  century,  who  possessed  a  considerable  de*" 
grieeof  reputation  among  bis  contemporaries,  appears  to^ 
have  been  an  arrant  empiric  in  the  modem  sense  of  the 
word.  In  his  writings  be  dwells  at  great  length  on  the 
exceHence  of  the  secret  remedies  which  he  possessed,  and; 
is  violent  in  his  condemnation  of  blood-letting.  He  died 
on  the  4th  of  September  1588.  The  titles  of  bis  work«y 
which  are  all  in  Italian,  and  have  ^one  through  sereraJ^. 
edmons>  are,  *'Del  Specchio  di  Scientia  Universale," 
Venice,  1564;  **  Regiroento  della  Peste,'*  ibid.  1565; 
**Capricci  Medicinali,''  ibid.  1568.  "  IlTesoro  delki  vitst 
humana,'^  ibid.  1570.  **  Compendio  dei  Secreti  Natu* 
rali/'  Turin,  1580,  Venice,  1581,  &c.;  «*  Delia  Fi^ica, 
dtvisa  in  libri  quattro/*  Venice^  1594;  **  Cirurgiai**  ibid. 

FIRENZUOLA  (Ahoblo),  so  called  from  bis  native 
city^  Florence  (in  Italian  Firenze),  though  bis  family  name 
wits  Nannini,  was  celebrated  in  his  time  as  a  poet,  but  his 
works  are  now  in  less  repute,  which,  from  their  light  cha« 
raicter  and  indecencies,  is  not  much  to  be  regretted.  He^ 
originally  practised  as  an  advocate  at  Rome,  and  then  be-* 
CBme  an  ecclesiastic  of  the  congregation  of  Vallombrota* 
He  was  pe^rsonally  esteemed  by  pope  Clemefit  VH.  who* 
was  also  an  admirer  of  his  works.  He  died  at  Rome  in 
1545.  His  works  in  prose  were  published  in  8vq,  atFlo^- 
rence,  in  1548,  and  his  poetry,  the  same  size,  in  154^. 
These  editions,  as  well  as  his  translation  of  the  Golden  Asa 
of  Apuleius,  are  scarce,  but  a  complete  edition  of  bis 
whole  works  was  published  at  Florence,  4  vols.  Bvo,  in 
17j65-€G,  in  which  are  some  comedies,  and  other  pro^^f 
ducttons.'  V 

FIKMICUS  MATERNUS   (Julius),    was   an  ancient' 
Christian  writer,  and  author  of  a  piece  entitled  *^  De  £r¥ 

»  Wood'f  F*8ti,  vol.  L.  «  Rces's  Cy«lopu  Crom  El^.— pict.  lik^U 

"^  Moreri*«-Tiraboichi«'-^Dict.  Uist.  '..  ■■  i 

»14^  F  I  R  Bl  I  C  U  S. 

rare  Profanarum  Religioomn  ;*'  which  he  addressed  to  the 
empemrs  Canstantius  and  Constaofl,  the*  sooi  of  Conaljan* 
tine.  It  is  supposed  to  have  been  written  after  the  death 
of  Constantine,  the  eldest  son  of  Cohstantine  the  Great^ 
which  happened  in  the  year  340,  and  before  that  of  Con* 
atans,  who  was  slain  by  Magnentiua  in  the  year  350  :  he^ 
ing  addressed  to  Constantius  and  Constans,  there  is  rea* 
aon  to  believe  that  Constantino  their  eldest  brother  wats 
dead,  and  it  is  evident  that  Constans  was  then  aiive.  It  is 
retparkable,  that  no  ancient  writers  have  mad^  any  nieti'o 
tioo  of  Firmicus ;  so  that  we  do  not  know  what  he  was,  of 
what. country 9  or  of  what  profession.  Some  moderns  coa«> 
jecture  that  be  was  by  birth  a  Sicilian,  and  in- the  former 
part  /of  his  life  an  heathen.  His  treatise  ^'  Of  the  Errors 
of  the  Prophane  Religions/*  discovers  great  parts,  great 
learning)  and  gre^t  zeal  for  Christianity,  and  has  been 
often  printed,  sometimes  separately,  sometimes'  with  other 
fathers.  Among  the  separate  editions  are  one  printed  at 
Strasbourg,  in  1562,  another  at  Heidelberg,  1599,  and  a 
third  at  Paris,  1610,  all  in  8vo ;  afterwards  it  was  joined 
with  Minucius  Felix,  and  printed  at  Amsterdam,  1 645^  at 
l^eyden,  165^,  and  again  at  Leyden,  at  the  end  of  the 
same  father,  by  James  Gronovius,  in  1709,  8vo.  It  is 
likewise  to  be  found  in  the  *^  Bibliotfaeca  Patrum ;"  and 
at  the  end  of  Cyprian,  printed  at  Paris  in  1666« 

There  are  '^  Eight  Books  of  AstroiKuny,  or  Mathema* 
tics,''  which  bear  the  name  of  this  author,  and  which  have 
been  several  times  printed,  first  at  Venice  in  1497,  f«il. 
and  afterwards  at  Basil  in  1551,  at  the  end  of  the  astro^r. 
tiomical  pieces  of  Ptolemy  and. some  Arabians;  but  there 
is  nothing  in  this  work  that  relates  to  the  real  science  of 
astronomy,  the  author  amusing  himself  altogether  with 
astrological  calculations,  after  the  manner  of  the  Babylo-^ 
nians  and  Egyptians ;  on  which  account  Baronius  was  of 
opinion,  that  it  could  not  be  written  by  so  pious  a  man 
and  so  good  a  Christian  as  this  Firmicus,  who  no  doubt 
would  have  thought  it  very  sinful  to  have  dealt  in  such 
profane  and  impious  speculations.  Cave,  however,  sup- 
posed that  he  might  have  written  these  books  in  his  uocon-t 
verted  state ;  for,  though  Baronius  will  have  them  to  be 
written  about  the  year  355,  yet  Labb^us,  as  he  tells  usji 
affirms  them  to  be  between  334  and  337.  There  is  not 
evidence  enough,  however,  to  determine  the  question.* 

•  * 

1  Dupin.««-CaTe.-«-Moren.i-Fabric.  Bibl.  lAt.<n«-aDd  BibU  Lat,  Med. 

F  I  R  M  I  L  I  A  N.  Sl» 

't  'FIRMILIAN  (St.).  a  celebrated  bidiop  of  Cssareaia 
dippadocia,  in  the  third  centary,  was  one  of  the  friends 
ef  Origdn,  who  took  St  Cyprian's  part  against  pope  Ste<» 
phen;  maintaining  the  necessity  of  re-baptizing  those  who 
had  been  baptized  by  heretics ;  and  wrote  a  long  letter  on 
^is  subject  in  the  year  256,  to  St.  Cyprian,  by  whom  it 
was  translated  into  Latin,  and  may  be  seen  in  his  workss. 
8t.  Fhrmilian  presided  at  the  first  council  of  Antioch  held 
in  the  year  264,  against  Paul  of  Samosata,  who  promised 
a  change  of  doctrine ;  but,  continuing  to  propagate:  his 
«rrors,  was  condemned  at  the  second  council  of  Antioch, 
in  the  year  269«  St.  Firmiiian  died  at  Tarsus,  as  he  was 
going  to  this  council.^  '  ' 

FIRMIN  (Giles),  a  nonconformist  divine  and  physician, 
was  bom  in  1617,  in  Suffolk,  and  educated  at  Cambridge, 
where  he  studied  physic,  and  afterwards  practised  it  with 
great   success   in    New    England,   to  which  he   fled,   as 
he  .said,    to   enjoy  liberty   of   conscience.     When  that, 
however,  was  restored  about  tbe  latter  end  of  the  cirvll 
wars,  he  returned  to  England,  was  ordained,  and  became 
minister  at  Shalford,  in  Essex,  where  he  continued  till  he 
was  ejected,  in  1662,  by  the  act  of  tiniformity.     Heafter* 
wards  resumed  the  practice  of  phy^c,  but  never  neglected 
to  preach  when  he  had  an  opportunity,  in  which  he  ap« 
pears  to  have  been  protected  by  his  excellent  and.  cha« 
ritable  character  as  a  physician.     He  died  in  1697,  at  the 
age  of  eighty.     He  was  author  of  several  works,  the  most 
known  of  which  is  his  **  Real  Christian."     The  others  are 
of  the  controversial  kind,  with  the  Quakers,  Antinomians, 
and  Anabaptists,  or  concerning  church  governuienti     He 
had  far  more  moderation  as  well  as  loyalty  than  many  of 
his  brethren,  and  even  is  said  to  have  joined  with  a  few 
like  himself,    during  the  usurpation,  in  praying  for  the 
exiled  royal  family. ' 

FIRMIN  (Thomas),  a  person  memorable  for  public  be- 
nefactions and  charities,  was  born  at  Ipswich  in  Suffolk,  in 
^June  1633.  His  parents,  who  were  puritans,  and  very 
reputable  and. substantial  people,  at  a  proper  age  put  out 
their  son  to  an  apprenticeship  in  London.  His  master  was 
an  Arminian,  a  hearer  of  Mr.  John  Goodwin ;  to  whose 
sermons  yonng  Firmin  resorting,  <^  exchanged,"  as  We  are 
told,  ^'  the  harsh  opinions  of  Calvin,  in  which  be  had  been 


}  Cave.— Moreri.r— Lardper^s  Works.  •  Calamy^ 

X19  F  I  R  M  I  N. 


edacated,  for  those  more  reasonable  ones  of  A  rmifriusHhd 
tiie  remonstraDts."  But  here  be  did  not  stop  i  being  wbati 
is  palled  a  free  inquirer  into  religions  matters,  be  was  af-i 
iervrards  carried  by  tbis  spirit  and  temper  to  espouse  some 
opinions  totally  at  variance  with  the  orthodox  faith :  he 
became  persuaded,  for  instance,  that  ^^  the  unity  of  God  isi 
an  unity  of  person  as  well  as  of  nature ;  and  that  the  Holy 
Spirit  is  indeed  a  person,  but  not  God.'*  He  adopted  tbescf 
principles  first  from  the  noted  Biddle,  who  was  imprisoned 
for  his  opinions  in  1645,  and  Firmin  was  so  zealous  in  hit 
cause,  that  when  he  was  only  an  apprentice,  be  delivered  » 
petition  for  his  release  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  who  gave  bioi 
tbis  laconic  answer :  **  You  curl-pated  boy,  doyou  tbtnk  FU 
show  any  favour  to  a  man  that  de»ies  his  Savioer,  au({ 
disturbs  the  government  ?'*  i 

^  As  soon  as  he  was  made  free^  he  began  to  trade  for  bim^ 
self  in  the  linen  manufacture,  with  a  stock  not  exceeding 
iOOi^  which,  however,  he  improved  so  far,  as  to  marry,  in 
1660,  a  citizen's  daughter  with  500/.  to  her  portion.     Tfai^ 
wife  did  not  live  many  years,  but  after  bringing  him  two 
children,  died,  M/hile  be  was  managing  some  affairs  of  trade 
at  Cambridge  :  and,  according  to  the  assertion  of  his  bio«r 
grapher,  he  dreamed  at  the  same  time  at  Cambridge,  thai 
his  wife  was  breathing  her  last.     Afterwards  he  settled  in 
Lombard*street,  and  became  so  celebrated  for  bis  public* 
apiritedness  and  benevolence,  that  he  was  noticed  by  all 
persons  of  consequence,  and  especially  by  the  clergy.     He 
became  open  intimate  terms  with  Whichcot,  Wilkins,  TiU 
lotson,  &c. ;  so  particularly  with  the  last,  that  when  obliged 
to  be  out  of  town,  at  Canterbury  perhaps,  where  be  was  * 
dean,  he  left  to  Mr.  Firmin  the  provision  of  preachers  fbf 
his  Tuesday*!^  lecture  at  St.  Laurence's  church  near  Guild* 
ball.     Mr.  Firmin  was  afterwards  so  publicly  known,  aa  t<i 
fail  under  the  cognizance  of  majesty  itself.     Queen  MarjP 
having  heard  of  bis  Usefulness  in  all  public  designs,  those 
of  charity  especially,  and  that  he  was  heterodox  in  the 
articles  of  the  trinity,  the  divinity  of  our  Saviour,  and  the 
satisfaction,  spoke  to  Tillotson  to  set  him  right  io  those 
weighty  and  necessary  points ;  who  answered,  that  he  had 
often  endeavoured  it;  but  that  Mr.  Firmin  had  now  so 
long  imbibed  the  Socinian  doctrine,  as  to  be  beyond  tho 
veaeh  of  his  arguments.     His  grace,  however,  for  he  was 
then  archbishop,  published  his  sermons,  formerly  preached, 
at  St.  Laurence's,  concerning  those  qu^stioos^  and  ieat 

T  IR  M  I  Nr  ait 

Mr.;  Firmin  one  of  the  first  copies  from  the  press,  who,  tiot 
convinced,  caused  a  respectful  answer  to  be  drawn  up  and 
pubiished  with  this  title,  ^^  Considerations  on  the  expli* 
cations  and  defences  of  the  jdoctriae  of  the  Trinity/*  him^ 
self  giving  a  copy  to  his  grace :  to  which  the  arcbbisbop^ 
after  he  had  read  it^  only  answered,  '<  My  lord  of  Sariim,*^ 
meamag  Dr.  Burnet,  ^  shall  humble  your  writers ;"  istitt 
retaining,  however,  his  uanai  kindness  for  Mr.  Firmin. 

In  1 664,  be  married  a  second  wife,  who  brought  hioi 
several  children :  nevertheless,  his  benevolent  i^rit  did 
not  slacken,  but  he  went  about  doing  good  as  usual,  and  tbe 
plague  in  I66S,  and  the  fire  in  1666,  fuirnished  him  with  a 
Tariety  of  objects.  He  went  on  with  his  trade  in  Lorn* 
baxd-<street,  till  1676:  at  which  time  his  biographer  sup* 
poses  him  to  have  been  worth  9O00L  though  he  had  dis<» 
fK)sed  of  incredible  sums  in  charities.  This  year  he  erects 
ftd  his  warehouse  in  Little^ Britain,  for  the  employment  of 
the  poor  in  the  linen  manufacture ;  of  which  Tillotson  hsu 
spoken  most  honourably,  in  his  funeral  sermon  on  Mr* 
GougC)  in  1681,  giving  the  merit  of  the  thought  to  Mr. 
•Gouge^  but  that  aS  the  adoption  and  great  exteniuon  of  it 
to  Mr.  Firmin»  The  method  was  this  :  he  bought  flax  and 
iiemp  for  them  to  spin ;  when  spun  he  paid  thein  for  their 
wori^  and  caused  it  tp  be  wrought  into  cloth,  whicli  he 
sold  as  he  aould,  himself  bearing  the  whole  loss. 

In  16e0and  1681,  came  over  the  French  protestants, 
who  furnished  new  work  for  Mr.  Firmin^s  a^eal  and  charity : 
and,  in  1682^  he  set  up  a  linen  manufacture  for  them  aft 
Ipswich*  During  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life,  hei  was 
ane  of  the  governors  of  Christ's  hospital  in  Lc^idon ;  to. 
which  he  procured  many  considerable  donations.  About 
the  revolution,  when  great  numbers  of  Irish  nobility,  clergy, 
•gentry,  and  others,  fled  into  England  from  the  peniecutioh 
and  proscription  of  king  James,  brie^  and  other  means, 
pereseton  foot  for  their  relief,  in  all  which  Mr.  Fifmin 
iras  so  active,  that  he  received  a  letter  of  thanks  for  bis 
diligence  and  kindness,  signed  by  the  archbi^op  of  Tuam^ 
tad  seven  bishops.  In  April  1693,  he  became  a  governor 
of  St.  TbomasV  hospital  in  Southwark,  nor  was  there  hardly 
any- public  trust  or  charity,  in  which  he  either  was  not  ih 
one  shape  or  other  concerned.  He  died  Dec.  20,  1697,  in 
the  sigcty»sixth  year  of  bis  age,  and  was  buried,  according 
to  his  desire,  ia  tbe  cloisters  of  Cbrist^s  hospital,    la 


Art  StSCHEft. 

Am  wall  near  his  grave  is  placed  an  inscription^  in  whieflli^ 
benevolence  is  recorded  with  a  just  encomium.  V  * 

FISCHER  (John  Christian),  an  eminent  performer 
4ind  composer  for  the  hautbois^  was  bom  at  Fribourg,  and 
educated  at  a  common  reading  school  at  a  village  in  Bohet 
mia,  where  all  the  children  learn  music,  reading,  and  writ^ 
ing,  as  a  matter  of  course.  He  first  learned  a  Utile  on 
the  violin,  but  changed  it  soon  for  the  hautbois,  and  became 
:early  in  life  so  excdJent  a  performer  on  that  instrument,  as 
to  be  appointed  one  of  the  king  of  Poland^s  celebrated  band 
:«t  Dresden^  On  the  dissolution  of  this,  band  he  w^nt  to 
Berlin,  Where  he  had  the  honour,  during  a  month,  to  ac* 
43ompany  Frederick  the  late  king  of  Prussia  alone,  four 
hours  every  day.  From  Berlin  he  went  to  Manheim,  and 
Jtfaence  to  Paris,  where  be  was  heai^d  with  admiration,  and 
3s.  spon  as  he  bad  acquired  some  money  he  came  over  to 
Sngland,  and  here,  as  soon  as  he  had  been  once  heard  in 
:public,  which  was  at  a  benefit,  no  other  concert,  publie  or 
.private,  was  thought  complete  without  bis  performacfee'; 
.and  being  engaged  to  play  a  concerto  every  night  at  Vaux* 
Jball,  be  drew  thither  all  the  lovers  of  music,  but  particU- 
darly  professors.  When  the.  queen's  band  wasformed,  Fis- 
'cber  was  appointed  one  of  her  majesty's  chamber  musicians; 
«nd  whei;!  Bach  and  Abel,  uniting,  *  established  a  weekly 
subscription  concert  at  Hanover^square,  where,  for  a  long 
^time,  no  music  was  heard  but  that  of  these  excellent  mas- 
ters, Fischer  was  allowed  to  compose  for  himself,  and  in  u 
«tyle  so  new  and  fanciful,  that  in  point  of  invention,  as.weH 
fls  tone,  taste,  expression,  and  neatness  of  execution,  hia 
^piece  was  always  regarded  as  one  of  the  highest  treats  of 
the  night,  and  beard  with  proportionate  rapture. 

In  all  musical  performances  at  the  universities,  and  at 
the  periodical  meetings  at  the  provincial  towns,  Fisefaer'a 
concertos  were  eagerly  expected,  and  heard  with  raptore. 
His  tone  was  not  only  uncommonly  sweet,  but  so  powerful^ 
that  Giardini,  who  never  could  praise  a  German  but  through 
the  medium  of  abu$e>  used  to  say  that  he  had  such  an  im^ 
fiudAice  of  tone  as  no  other  instrument  eouid^  contend 
with,  and  4iis  execution  was  quite*  as  iniich  as  the  lustra* 
ment  would  bear  to  produce  an  agreeable  effect.  His  tast6 
and  cbiaro^souro  were  exquisite,  and  be  bad  bis  reed  pet* 
fectly  binder  his  command.  /  As  to  his  composition,  he  wa^ 

*  Lifo  by  Cornish,  1780,  -Igmo.wBttraet'g  Own  Tim^s.— Birch's  TillotsoB. 

JPIS€HER.  •  *S%9 

.alivkys  so  originalj  interesting,  and  pleasing,  tfant  he  may 
De  pronounced  one  of  the  few  intuitive  musicians  who  bad 
.powers  which  he  knew  not  how  he  acquired,  and  talents  at 
;Wbicb  study  alone  can  never  arrive.  His  taste  and  ear 
were  exceeding  delicate  and  refined  ;  and  he  seemed  to 
possess  a  happy  and  peculiar  faculty  of  tempering  a  con^ 
,tinued  tone  to  diff(U'ent  bases,  according  to  <  their  several 
relations :  upon  the  whole,  his  performance  was  so  capital, 
.that  a  hearer  must  have  been  extremely  fastidious  not  to  re- 
ceive from,  it  a  great*  degree  of  pleasure.  I    ' 

Fischer  left  England  in  1786,  and<  in  the  beginning  of 
the  next  year  had  not  been  beard  of.  His  majesty  inquired 
several  times,  with  sotne  solicitude,  whether  he  bad  writ^ 
.tea  to  any  of  his  friends  in  England,  and  was  answered  ib 
jtbe  negati?e  ;  one  of  them  understood,  by  report,  that  he 
was  at  Strasburg.  He  returned, .  however,  at  the  end  of 
4787,  and  continued  in  England  during  the  rest  of  his  life. 
About  1777  he  had  married  a  daughter  of  , the.  admirable 
painter,  Gainsborough,  an  enthusiastic  lover  of  good  muttC 
and  performance,  and  of  none  so  much  as.  Fischer's  ;  in- 
deed he  enchanted  the  whole  family  with  bis  strains,  which 
were  beyond  measure  captivating,  and  he  stood  so  well  fft 
his  instrument,  that  his. figure  had  all  the  grace  of  a  Tibiam 
^t  the  altar  of  Apollo.  .  But  this  marriage  was  not  auspio 
cions;  Fischer,  with  a  good  person,  and  superior  genius  fioar 
his.  art,  was.  extremely  deficient  in  colloquial  eloquence;^ 
^nd  in  all  those. undefinable  charms  iof  conversation,  which 
/engage  the  attention  and  endear  the  speaker.  He  had 
^)ot  a  grain  of  sense  but. what  he  breathed  through  his 
reed;  he  never  spoke.more  than  three  words  at  a  time,  and 
those  were  negatives  or  affirmatives.  Yet,  though  he  had 
ffiw  charms  for  a  friend  or  companion,  he  delighted  the 
l^blic  at  large  in  a  higher  degree -than  is  allowed  to  any 
but  gifted  mortal?.  This  admirable  musician  was  seized 
^itb  an  apoplectic  fit  April  2i»,  1800,  during  the  perform* 
n^nce.  of  a  solo  ait  the  queen's  house,  at  his  OM^eslj's  co&w 
peifL.  Prince  William  of;  Gloucester,  observing  bis  aitiia^ 
^00,  supported  him  out  of  the  apartment,  whence  he  wm 
conveyed  to.his  residence  in.  Compton-street,  Soho,  where 
be  expired  about  an  hour,  afterwards. }  ■' 

FISCHER  (John  Andrbw),  a  physician  of  Erfurt,  the 
fon  of  a  celebrated  apothecary,  was  born  4>n  the  iS&th  of 

>  Bta'fitCyc1op»dia,  bjr  J>r«  Burner. 

(SOD  f  I  S  C  H  E  S. 

November^  1 667,  and  graduated  lu  the  university  of  firfml^ 
ia  April  1691.  He  was  appointed  professor  extraordinary 
in  tbe  fiaicul^  of  Erfurt  in  1695^  and  professor  ti  logic  in 
ibe  Evangelical  college  in  16S9;  hat  be  relinquished  both 
these  appoitutments  in  1716,  io  order  t(>  assume  the  duties 
•f  tbe  profepaorsbip  of  pathology  and  of  tbe  practice  ot 
medicine^  to  which  fake  had  heeh  noasdnated  three  years 
.before.  fUteher  acquired  eooaiderable  cepuUUion  at  Erfurt, 
«iid  in  tbe  /courts,  in  the  ricitiity  of  that  city,  and  had  beeft 
ten  years  physician  to  the  court  of  Mentz,  when  be 
ilied  on  tbe  ISdi  of  February,  17^9.  He  has  left  several 
/essays  in  tbe  foem  of  inaugural  theses ;  which  were  pub*^ 
lished  betwieen  the  year  1718  and  that  of  his  death ;  bat 
iie  waft  aW  suthor  of  some  more  important  works:  vis* 
]•  ^  Consilia  Medica,  cpm  in  usum  practicum  et  forefvsemy 
IMTO-soopocuraadi  et  renanciandi  adornata  sunt.''  Three 
Toluiaes  of  this  work  were  pubiisbed  successively  at  Krahc^ 
forty  in  1704,  1706,  and  1712.  2.  ^Hlias  in  nuce,  seu 
Medicina  Synoptica,''  Erfurt,  1716.  3.  <^  Responsa  Prac** 
tica,''  Leipsic,  1719.' 

.  FISH  (Simon),  a  man  who  deserves  some  notice  on  ac«- 
sount  of  his  zeal  for  the  reformation,  was  born  in  Kent^ 
end,  after  an  education  at  Oxford,  went  about  1^25  td 
GrayVInn,  to  study  the  law.  A  play  was  then  written 
fay  one  Roo,  or  Roe,  in  which  cardinal  Wolsey  was  severely 
reflected  on ;  and  Fish  undertook  to  act  the  part  in  which 
he  was  ridicnied,  after  every  body  else  had  refused  to  ven« 
ture  upon  it  The  caixlifial  issued  his  orders  against  him 
the  smne  night,  but  he  escaped,  and  went  into  Germany, 
v^re  he  found  out,  and  associated  himself  with,  William 
Tyndale.  The  year  following  be  wrote  a  little  piece, 
cdled,  ^  The  Supplication  of  Beggars  ;*^  a  satire  upon 
bishops,  al:HK>ts,  priors,  monks,  friars,  and  indeed  tbe  popish 
clergy  in  generaL  About  1527  or  1528,  after  it  bad  been 
printed,  a  copy  was  sent  to  Anne  Boleyne,  and  i>y  her 
giv^en  to  tbe  king,  who  was  not  displeased  with  it,  and 
Woisey  being  now  disgraced,  Fish  was  recalled  bom«, 
and  graciously  countenanced  by  the  king  for  what  he  liad 
done.  Sir  Thomas  More,  who,  when  chancellor  of  the 
Duchy  of  Lancaster,  had  answered  Fish's  pamphlet,  in 
anotber,  entitled  ^^  The  Supplication  of  Souls  in  Purga<« 
lory/'  being  advanced  to  the^  rank  of  chance^Hor  in  tbe 

FISH.  821 

foom  of  Wolsey,  the  king  ordered  sir  Tiiotnas  not  to  med^ 
die  with  Fish,  and  sent  a  message  to  this  purpose,  with  biib 
signet,  by  the  hands  of  Fish.  On  his  delivering  the  mes-^ 
fiage,  sir  Thomas  told  him,  all  this  was  sufficient  for  him* 
self,  but  not  for  his  wife,  against  whom  it  was  complained 
that  she  had  refused  to  let  the  friars  say  their  gospels  in 
Latin  at  her  house.  The  chancellor  appears  to  have'made 
80me  attempt  to  prosecute  the  wife,  but  how  far  he  suc-^ 
ceeded  is  not  known.  Fish  himself  died  about  half  a  year" 
after  this  of  the  plague,  about  1531,  and  was  buried  in  the 
church  of  St.  Dunstan  in  the  West.  In  one  of  the  lives  of 
sir  Thomas  More,  it  is  reported  that  he  turned  papist  be- 
fore his  death,  but;  this  circumstance  is  not  mentioned  by 
Fox,  The  "  Supplication"  was  one  of  the  publications 
afterwards  prohibited  by  Cuthbert  Tonstall,  when  bishop 
of  London.  Tanner  ascribes  to  Fish  two  works  called 
'*  The  Boke  of  merchants  rightly  necessary  to  all  folkes, 
newly  made  by  the  lord  Pantapole ;"  and  "  The  Spiritual 
Nosegay."  He  also  published  about  1530,  **The  Summ 
of  the  Scrrpturesj"  translated  from  the  Dutch.  His  widow 
married  James  Bainbam,  afterwards  one  of  the  martyrs.  ^ 

FISHACRE,  or  FIZACRE  (Richard),  a  learned  scholar 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  was,  if  not  of  the  city  of  Exeter^ 
at  least  a  Devonshire  man,  and  a  Dominican  friar.  He 
studied  at  Oxford,  first  in  the  college  of  the  great  hall  of 
the  university,  but  afterwards  taking  the  cowl,  he  removed 
to  the  Dominican  convent,  and  was  the  first  of  the  order 
that  was  honoured  with  the  theological  doctorate.  His 
learning  is  reported  to  have  been  general  and  extensive^ 
and  he  made  so  great  a  proficiency  in  every  branch,  that 
be  was  esteemed  one  of  the  most  learned.  Aristotle  was 
his  principal  favourite^  whom  be  read  and  admired,  and 
carried  about  with  him.  But  from  these  philosophical 
execcises  he  passed  on  to  the  study  of  divinity,  and  became 
as  eminent  in  this  as  before  he  had  been  in  arts,  which  so 
endeared  him  to  Robert  Bacon  (see  his  article),  that  th# 
two  friends  were  scarce  ever  asunder*  And  for  this  reason 
Lcjaad  thinks  he  studied  at  Paris  along  with  Bacon,  and 
there  considerably  improved  his  knowledge ;  but  this  may 
be  doubted.  Leland  observes,  that  writers  generally  men* 
tion  the  two.  Dominican  friends  together,  both  in  respect 
of  their  friendship  and  learning ;  and  indeed  the  two  Mat* 

1  Fox't  Acts  and  Mod.— Ath.  Ox.  new  edit,  by  Bliit. 

vouxiv.  y 

82£  F  I  S  H  A  C  K  R  E. 

thews,  Paris  and  Westminster,  have  joined  them,  and> 
therefore,  it  is  probable  that  Fishacre,  as  well  as  Bacon, 
enjoyed  the  friendship  of  bishop  Grosseteste.  They  both 
died  in  one  year,  1248,  and  were  interred  among  the  Do* 
jninicans  at  Oxford,  Bale  is  severe  on  the  memory  of 
Fishacre  for  no  reason  that  can  be  discovered ;  but  Leiand 
speaks  very  highly  of  him  in  point  of  personal  worth  as  well 
as  learning.  Both  Leiand  and  Bale  have  given  a  list  of  his 
works,  consisting  of  theological  questions,  postils,  and  com- 
mentaries, some  of  which  may  yet  be  found  in  the  public 
libraries.  ^ 

FISHER  (Edward),  supposed  by  Wood  to  be  the  son 
of  sir  Edward  Fisher;  of  Mickleton  in  Gloucestershire,  kut» 
was  probably  born  in  that  county,  and  educated  at  Oxford, 
where  he  became  a  gentleman  commoner  of  Brasen-nose 
college  in  August  1627,  took  one  degree  in  arts,  and  soon 
after  left  college,  being  called  home,  as  Wood  thinks,  by 
his  relations,  who  were  then  in  decayed  circumstances. 
At  home,  however,  he  improved  that  learning  which  be 
had  acquired  at  the  university  so  much,  that  he  became  a 
noted  person  among  the  learned  for  his  extensive  acquaint* 
ance  with  ecclesiastical  history,  and  the  writings  of  the 
Fathers,  and  for  his  skill  in  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  lan- 
guages. Sharing  in  the  misfortunes  of  his  family,  and 
being  involved  in  debt,  he  retired  to  Caermarthen  in 
Wales,  where  he  taught  school,  but  afterwards  was  obliged 
to  go  to  Ireland,  where  he  died,  but  at  what  time  is  not 
mentioned.  He  published,  1 .  ^'  An  Appeal  to  thy  Con- 
science,^' Oxford,  1644,  4to.  2*  ^*  A  Christian  cayeat  to 
the  Old  and  New  Sabbatarians,  or,  a  Vindication  of  our 
old  Gospel  Festival,"  &c.  London,  1650,  4to.  This  tiract, 
of  which  there  were  four  editions,  was  answered  by  one 
Giles  Collier,  and  by  Dr.  Collings.  3.  ^^  An  Answer  to 
Sixteen  Queries,  touching  the  rise  and  observation  of 
Christmas,  propounded  by  Mr.  John  Hemming  of  Uttoxe* 
ter,  in  Staffordshire;"  printed  with  the  <<  Christian  Ca^* 
veat)"  in  1655.  But  the  most  noted  of  his  writings  waft 
entitled  "  The  Marrow  of  Modern  Divinity,"  1646,  8vo. 
This  treatise  is  memorable  for  having  occasioned  a  contro- 
versy of  much  warmth,  in  the  church  of  Scotland,  about 
eighty  years  after  its  publication.  In  1720  it  was  reprinted 
in  Scotland  by  the  rev.  James  Hogg,  and  excited  the  at- 

1  Pegge's  Life  of  Grotsettste.— Wood's  Hut.«— Prince's  Wort]iie9«r— Leiand.— 
Bale. — ^Tanner. 

FISHER.  323 

tention  of  the  general  assembly,  or  supreme  ecclesiastical 
court  of  Scotland,  by  which  many  passageis  in  it  were  con- 
demned, and  the  clergy  were  ordered  to  warn  their  people 
against  reading  it ;  but  it  was  on  the  other  hand  defended 
by  Boston,  and  the  Erskines,  who  soon  after  seceded  from 
the  church  (see  Erskine),  upon  account  of  what  they  con« 
sidered  as  her  departure  from  her  primitive  doctrines* 
Fisher's  sentiments  are  highly  Calvinistical.  ^ 
"^  FISHER  (John),  bishop  of  Rochester,  and  a  great  be- 
nefactor to  learning,  was  born  at  Beverley,  in  Yorkshire, 
1459.  His  father,  a  merchant,  left  him  an  orphan  very 
young;  but,  by  the  care  of  bis  mother,  he  was  taught 
classical  learning  at  Beverley,  and  afterwards  admitted  in 
Cambridge,  of  Michael-house^  since  incorporated  into 
Trinity-college.  He  took  the  degrees  in  arts  in  1488,  and 
1491 ;  and,  being  elected  fellow  of  his  house,  was  a  proctor 
of  the  university,  in  1495.  The  same  year,  he  was  elected 
master  of  Michael-house ;  and  having  for  some  time  ap- 
plied himself  to  divinity,  he  took  holy  orders,  and  became 
eminent.  The  fame  of  his  learning  and  virtues  reaching 
the  ears  of  Margaret  countess  of  Richmond,  mother  of 
Henry  VII.  she  chose  him  her  chaplain  and  confessor ;  ia 
which  high  station  he  behaved  hiniself  with  so  much  wis- 
dom and  goodness,  that  she  committed  herself  entirely  to 
his  government  and  direction.  It  was  by  his  counsel,  that 
she  undertook  those  magnificent  foundations  of  St.  John's 
and  Christ's  colleges  at  Cambridge;  established  the  di- 
vinity professorships  in  both  universities ;  and  did  many 
other  acts  of  generosity  for  the  propagation  of  learning  and 

In  1501,  he  took  the  degree  of  D.D.  and  the  same  year 
was  chosen  chancellor  of  the  university ;  during  the  exer- 
cise of  which  office  he  encouraged  learning  and  good  man- 
ners, and  is  said  by  some  to  have  had  prince  Henry  under 
his  tuition  in  that  university.  In  1 502  he  was  appointed 
by  charter  the  lady  Margaret's  first  divinity* professor  in 
Cambridge;  and  in  1504,  made  bishop  of  Rochester,  at 
the  recommendation  of  Fox,  bishop  of  Winchester,  and 
never  would  exchange  this  bishopric,  though  then  t